Thought about man’s right, LED lamps are real little miracles: need same light output up to 90% less energy than incandescent bulbs, have a life span of up to 20 years, and are so flat, are glued as LED band at just on furniture and co..
But what are LEDs really and how you make the partly tiny light-emitting diodes? We want to answer that.
Basics-Construction And Function Principle Of LED Semiconductors
Light-emitting diodes (LED) are crystalline semiconductor compounds with a negative (n) and a positive (p) loaded junction. The light is created by the recombination of charge carrier pairs in the semiconductor or anders said by the aspiration of the charge carriers, to offset their energy difference. How exactly this works, for extensively explained in this blog post: “the LED at Listofledlights.com: where it comes from, how it works and what uses it to us”. Here and now it is about the production;).
Raw Material: The Mono Crystal Silicon As Substrate
Raw material is for LED manufacturing the semi-metal Silicon, which for this purpose must be in pure form as a mono – or single crystal. A “single crystal” must be won first. To do so it melts a polycrystalline silicon rod under uniform rotation slowly at one end. Then the molten zone with a so-called “vaccination Rist all” contact is associated. The dial crystal grows on this Silicon Impfling, where he takes over its Mono-crystalline structure.
The zone melting procedure has the further effect that impurities or foreign matter to the majority of “are freed”. After cooling, they freeze at the end of the Crystal staff, where they can be removed later. To achieve the desired electrical properties of Mono Crystal, doping substances can be added also the melt such as boron or phosphorus .
Crystals Become The Semiconductor Chip
From the very pure, single-crystalline silicon rods, thin slices are cut in the manufacturing process, the so-called “wafers”. These wafers are targeted via diffusion or ion implantation of foreign materials in confined areas endowed, to achieve the required line properties of the semiconductor.
After you positive negative (pn) transitions are made, the contacts are made. In semiconductor wafer, the wafer is cut. Pro LED requires a tile that is glued on the reflector pan and at the top of a gold wire connected to the anode. Finally, it sheds the diode with epoxy resin to protect them from external influences. The epoxy resin seal serves as a lens and optimized light output ratio and beam pattern.
In this video from OSRAM you can take a look at LED manufacturing works: