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Chad

Chad: Political System

Chad is a presidential republic. The bicameral parliament consists of the National Assembly with 155 deputies elected every four years and the Senate, whose members are elected every six years, but a third of the seats are elected every two years. The head of state is the president, who is directly elected for five years. A one-time re-election is possible.

Chad: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

République du Tchad

Djumhuriyat Tchad

Republic of Chad

National anthem

La Tchadienne has been the official national anthem of Chad since 1960. The text comes from Louis Gidrol and his group of students; the music was composed by Paul Villard.

It's in French In the English translation
Peuple Tchadien, debout et à l'ouvrage!

Tu as conquis la terre et ton droit;

Ta liberté naîtra de ton courage.

Lève les yeux, l'avenir est à Toi.

O mon Pays, que Dieu te prenne en garde,

Que tes voisins admirent tes enfants.

Joyeux, pacifique, avance en chantant,

Fidèle à tes anciens te regardent.

Peuple Tchadien, debout et à l'ouvrage!

Tu as conquis la terre et ton droit;

Ta liberté naîtra de ton courage.

Lève les yeux, l'avenir est à Toi.

People of Chad, up and down to work!

You have conquered the earth and your rights;

Your freedom awakens your courage.

Lift your eyes, the future is yours.

O my country, that God looks after you,

That your neighbors admire your children.

Joyful, peaceful, forward in singing,

loyal to your ancestors who consider you.

People of Chad, up and down to work!

You have conquered the earth and your rights;

Your freedom grows from your courage.

Lift up your eyes, the future is yours.

National flag

The national flag (country flag) of Chad was officially introduced after its independence on November 6, 1959.

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:

- Blue symbolizes the sky, hope and the southern part of the country

- Yellow part stands for the deserts in the north of the country and the sun.

- Red symbolizes progress, unity and the willingness to sacrifice their blood for the country

Chad flag and coat of arms

Chad: Known people

Youssouf Saleh Abbas (born 1952)

The Chadian politician from Abéché served as head of government of Chad from 2008 to 2010. He had received this post from his former rival Idriss Déby. Youssouf Saleh Abbas did not know public opinion. However, he enjoyed a good reputation in political circles.

Misdongard Betoligar (born 1985) In

1985 Misdongard Betoligar was born in N'Djamena, a soccer player who is currently playing for the Serbian FK Metalac Gornji Milanovac. Betoligar is also a player for the Chad national football team.

Idriss Déby (born 1952)

The current President of Chad, born in the Chadian Fada, began his career as a commander in the civil war and later as a security advisor to the dictator Hissène Habré. The president, re-elected several times, sent troops to the DKC Congo and the Central African Republic and in 2005 put down a rebel uprising in his own country. In 2011 he sent guards to support Muammar al-Gaddafi in Libya.

Hissène Habré (born 1942)

Habré was President of Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990. Human rights violations and the use of violence against different ethnic groups increased under his government. He is said to be responsible for around 40,000 politically motivated murders.

Félix Malloum (1932-2009)

The former President of Chad (1975-1979), who was born in Sarh in 1932, initially promised an end to the civil war when he was inaugurated, but was only able to end it in 1978 (or 1979) through foreign intervention. Relations with Libya improved under him. Malloum, whose control over large parts of Chad dwindled and was pushed back to a small area, gave up his office in 1979 to Goukouni Oueddei.

Emmanuel Nadingar (born 1951)

The Chadian politician from Bebidja has been working for his country's government since 2001. The former defense minister and energy minister is now prime minister of Chad.

Goukouni Oueddei (born 1944)

Before Oueddei was deposed by Hissène Habré in 1982, he was head of state of Chad from 1979. After his dismissal, Oueddei was able to rule northern Chad with the help of Libya, before falling out of favor with the Libyan head of state in 1986.

Chad: animals

Mammals

Chad can be divided into the following three landscapes from north to south:

- the Sahara

- the Sahel zone

- the Sudan savannah

In the low-precipitation Sahara almost nothing grows and animals are only sporadic.

There is a somewhat greater biodiversity to the south in the Sahel zone, even if it is quite dry here. Mainly grasses and thorn bushes grow here, in between there are isolated standing trees, especially acacias.

In the Sudan savannah in the south of the country, forests grow that cover more than 10% of the country's area, unfortunately they are getting smaller and smaller due to deforestation. There is a special flora and fauna in the Tibesti Mountains. Most animal species are found in the rather humid tropical savannah.

Very different animal species live in the different landscapes of Chad. Few animals are adapted to life in the desert, such as the desert fox - the fennec. The endangered Mendes antelopes and Dama gazelles can only be found in a small region. Dorcas gazelles are more common. Mane jumpers live in the Tibesti Mountains. In addition to cape turtles and spurred turtles, steppe monitors also live in the Sahel, while the Nile monitors are found on the rivers in the southwest of the country. In the southern savannah you can find African wild dogs, buffalos, elephants, cheetahs, giraffes, greater kudu as well as leopards, lions and warthogs. The giant eland live in the border area with the Central African Republic.

Animals in and around Lake Chad

The large number of algae are the food for many fish species in Lake Chad. The approximately 135 species of fish include the up to 2 m long Nile perch, the approximately 1 m long bone-winged fish and the poisonous puffer fish. Numerous species of birds live on the lake and in the wetlands near the shore, and migratory birds rest and winter here.

Reptiles

Note

The reptiles with a link are shown in detail at Goruma

African house snake

The African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus) - also known as the brown house snake - is a non-poisonous snake with an average length of 95 cm

African spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis)

Boaedon perisilvestris

Central-African Lined House Snake (Boaedon paralineatus)

Christy's water cobra (Naja christyi)

This cobra is also known as the Congolese water cobra. The snake reaches an average length of about 1.50 m (with the tail) - rarely more. They can be found in or near bodies of water, in bushy or wooded lowland areas along lakes, rivers and streams.

Rock python (Python sebae)

Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica)

Yellow House Snake (Yellow House Snake)

Striped house snake (Boaedon lineatus)

The striped house snake (Boaedon lineatus) is a non-poisonous snake with a length of m

long striped house snake (Boaedon longilineatus)

Nubian spitting cobra (Naja nubiae)

Red spitting cobra (Naja pallida)

Black and white cobra (Naja melanoleuca)

Uraeus snake (well, well)

Chad: plants

Chad can be divided into the following three landscapes from north to south:

- the Sahara

- the Sahel zone

- the Sudan savannah

In the low-precipitation Sahara almost nothing grows and animals are only sporadic.

There is a somewhat greater biodiversity towards the south in the Sahel zone, even if it is quite dry here. Mainly grasses and thorn bushes grow here, in between there are isolated standing trees, especially acacias.

In the Sudan savannah in the south of the country, forests grow that cover more than 10% percent of the country's area, unfortunately they are getting smaller and smaller due to deforestation.

 

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