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China

China: Political System

After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, foreign observers prophesied a similar fate to the People's Republic of China and its communist party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). However, the political reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping and the resulting enormous economic growth raised hopes of the democratization of China in the West, but did not, it seems, lead to any weakening of the Chinese Communist Party in terms of power.

China: Political System

The state of China is a socialist people's republic based on a constitution drawn up in 1982 and last amended in 2004. The highest state organ of the People's Republic of China is the National People's Congress (NPC), its permanent organ is the Standing Committee. The legislative power of the state is exercised by the NPC, which is elected every five years. This meets once at the beginning of each year; these meetings are convened by the Standing Committee. In contrast to the Supreme Soviet of the former USSR, the National People's Congress has only one chamber. At the NPC meeting, which usually lasts two weeks, decisions previously made by the Standing Committee and the government or the Chinese Communist Party are ratified.

The election of the National People's Congress and the people's congresses at the lower levels is carried out as follows: the lowest level of the people's congresses are directly elected by the population. These elected lowest levels directly elect the members of the higher level up to the National People's Congress with its currently approx. 3,000 members. New elections take place every five years. The People's Congresses of the PRC have a total of around three million members, with the number of members decreasing hierarchically from level to level. The lowest level (provincial) people's congresses have approximately 20,000 members. According to the constitution of the PRC, the local people's congresses are controlled by the unit that elected them. So at the lowest level, the local people's congresses are directly controlled by the people. The main tasks of the local people's congresses are the elections of the respective people's government and the standing committees, the election of the presidents of the people's courts and the general public prosecutors from the district level. Nevertheless, the standing committees of the people's congresses have the right to repeal inappropriate decisions of the people's government and also of the people's congresses at the lower level. The local people's congresses also have the right to recall.

The crucial articles of the constitution of the PRC are articles 62ff. and Article 58ff. Article 58 consolidates the legislative power of the NPC and its Standing Committee. In Article 62ff. The tasks of the National People's Congress are regulated: the amendment of the Constitution, election of the President, confirmation of the Prime Minister and the Ministers of the State Council, the members of the Central Military Commission and its chairmen, the President of the Supreme People's Court and the Attorney General of the Supreme People's Prosecutor's Office. Article 62 enables the NPC to recall the President, Prime Minister, the members of the Central Military Commission, the President of the Supreme People's Court and the Public Prosecutor General and also to revoke inappropriate decisions,

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Zhonghu Rnmn Gnghgu

(People's Republic of China)

Short form: Zhongguo

Administrative structure

The PR of China is divided administratively as follows:

Provinces (sheng) Population in millions (rounded up or down) Capital of the province
Anhui 60 Hefei
Fujian 35 Fuzhou
Gansu 26 Lanzhou
Guangdong/Canton 86 Guangzhou
Guizhou 35 Guiyang
Hainan/isla 8 Haikou
Hebei 68 Shijiazhuang
Heilongjiang 37 Harbin
Henan 93 Zhengzhou
Hubei 60 Wuhan
Hunan 64 Changsha
Jiangsu 74 Nanjing
Jiangxi 41 Nanchang
Jilin 27 Changchun
Liaoning 42 Shenyang
Qinghai 5 Xining
Shaanxi 36 Xi 'an
Shandong 91 Jinan
Shanxi 33 Taiynan
Sichuan 84 Cheng you
Yunnan 43 Kunming
Zhejiang 47 Hangzhou
Autonomous regions  
Guangxi Zhuangzu 45 Nanning
Nei Monggol/Inner Mongolia 24 Hohhot
Ningxia Huizu 6 Yinchuan
Xinjiang Uygur 20 Urumqi
Xizang/Tibet 3 Lhasa
Government immediate cities  
Beijing 14 Beijing (Peking)
Shanghai 17 Shanghai
Tianjin 10 Tianjin
Chongqing 30 Chongqing
Special administrative regions  
Hong Kong 7 Hong Kong
Macau 0.5 Macau

National anthem

The national anthem of the PR China is called "The March of the Volunteers" and was written during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) by the well-known poet Tian Han (1898-1968).

The music is from Nie Er. He chose the musical form of a march. In its original function, the song was the theme song of the film "Sons and Daughters in the Time of the Storm" from 1935. The film tells the story of nameless heroes and heroines of the second Sino-Japanese War. The march was one of many songs that were secretly sung among the people as a sign of anti-Japanese resistance. The march was used as a preliminary anthem one month before the founding of the People's Republic of China on September 27, 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, it was not the march that was used as a preliminary anthem, but the song "The East is Red" as the official national anthem. In 1978, the original march was reinstated by the National People's Congress with different lyrics.

It is noticeable that the 1982 texts do not mention either the Chinese Communist Party or Mao Zedong. This change in the texts was a symbol of the personality cult that had existed around the person of Mao Zedong until then. Although "The March of the Volunteers" was very popular among nationalists during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), the song was banned in Taiwan until the 1990s.

In Hanyu Pinyin in Latin letters In the English translation
Qilai! Buyuan zuo nuli de renmen,

Ba women de xierou zhucheng women xin de changcheng.

Zhonghua Minzu dao liao zui weixian de shihou,

Meigeren beipo zhe fachu zuihou de housheng.

Qilai! Qilai! Qilai!

Women wanzhong yixin,

Mao zhe diren de paohuo, Qianjin!

Mao zhe diren de paohuo, Qianjin!

Qianjin! Qianjin! Jin!

Stands up!

No longer slaves!

The great wall rebuilt

from our flesh and blood.

China's people in great distress.

The last cry of the suppressed:

Stand up! Rise!

With a thousand bodies, one heart

In spite of the enemy cannons:

Forward! Forward! Ahead!

National flag

The flag of China has officially existed since October 1st, 1949. As you can see, it is red, rectangular and has five stars - one large one surrounded by four small ones. The big star symbolizes communism. It can be found in each of the old country flags of the former communist republics. The four little stars indicate the four strata of the Chinese people. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the flag has now become a symbol of communism and the communist revolution.

- The big star symbolizes the leadership of the communist party, the smaller stars stand for:

- workers

- peasants

- petty bourgeoisie

- the bourgeoisie, these are entrepreneurs who started the war against Japan in the 30s and 40s

on the side of the communists.

China flag and coat of arms

China: Important People

Structure of the CCP

The most important bodies and functions of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) with around 80 million members are:

General Secretary of the Communist Party of China

He is the party's chief representative and chairman of the "Standing Committee" and the Politburo

Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China (7 members)

The Standing Committee is the innermost center of power between the party and the state

Chinese Communist Party Politburo (about 20 members)

Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (around 200 members)

Chinese Communist Party Congress (approx.2,000 delegates)

Important note

Under the following link you will find a very extensive description of the rulers of China - i.e. the emperors, khans and regents - arranged according to dynasties at Goruma.

It should also be noted that the first part of the name is the "surname" and not, as in German, the first name.

Bo Xila (born 1949)

Bo Xila was from bis party leader in the megacity of Chongqing and a member of the political bureau of the CPC. However, he lost his position in March 2012 and was charged with abuse of power and bribery in October. His wife was previously convicted of the murder of a British businessman.

Bo was seen as a left-wing reformer - with a popular character that was rather unusual for leading party cadres. He felt connected to the time of Mao-Zedong and particularly fought against the market economy orientation of the country's party leadership.

Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997)

Deng Xiaop was initially one of Mao Zedong's most important supporters, but twice fell out of favor with Mao - in 1968 and 1978. Nevertheless, after Mao's death in 1979, he made the leap to the top of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), where he remained until 1997. Through his policy of economic liberalization, he laid the foundation for the current prosperity of the country and many of its residents. However, he never left any doubts about the political primacy of the CPC. He is numbered in the CCP's so-called "Second Generation Leadership".

Hu Jintao (born 1942)

Hu Jintao was General Secretary of the Communist Party and President of the People's Republic until the 18th Congress of the Communist Party of China and, as Chairman of the "Central Military Commission", Commander-in-Chief of the People's Liberation Army. At the party congress, he was replaced by Xin Jinping.

Jiang Zemin (born 1926)

Jiang was General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002 and President of the People's Republic from March 27, 1993 to March 15, 2003, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Chinese People's Liberation Army from 1990 to 2004.

Yu Zhengsheng (born 1945)

Yu is one of the so-called "princes" of the party, that is, one of the people who are already designated for high offices because of their origins. As party leader of Shanghai, he administered the 2010 EXPO in the city. He was appointed or elected to the seven-member "Standing Committee" of the Politburo at the 2012 CCP Congress. Li Keqiang (b. 1955) He was appointed to the "Standing Committee" of the Political Bureau of the Party's Central Committee at the 17th CCP (Communist Party of China) Congress in 2007, and at the 18th Congress in 2012 Prime Minister of the country.

Liang Wengen (born 1956)

Liang Wengen is one of the richest Chinese. At the 18th Congress in 2012, he became a member of the CCP Central Committee. In Germany he became particularly well known through the takeover of the Swabian company for concrete pumps - Putzmeister - at the end of January 2012.

Liu Yunshan (born 1947)

Liu is considered to be the most conservative member of the seven-member "Standing Committee" of the CCP's Politburo. He was and is the head of the party's propaganda department and was in this role for all censorship measures in China - including on the Internet.

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (Mao Tsetung) was born on December 26, 1893 as the son of wealthy farmers in Shao-Shan, Hunan Province. He graduated from elementary school and was brought up in accordance with the Chinese cultural tradition. He spent a long time in Chang-Sha, the capital of Hunan Province, where he followed the rapid political changes after the fall of the emperor and enlisted in the army after training as a teacher. After serving in the Republican Army, he went to Beijing in 1918 and worked there as an assistant librarian in the university library. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he did not study abroad for some time, nor did he learn a foreign language. His interests led him to the political radicals, who later gave him a leading position in the Communist Party. In 1919 Mao returned to Hunan and started teaching as an elementary school teacher. His political commitment - organizing radical groups and publishing political writings - culminated in 1921 when he co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and initially made him the leader of the regional branch in Hunan.

In 1923 he became a member of the Central Committee and the Political Bureau of the CCP. In 1922, it merged with the ruling party Kuo-ming-tang (Goumingdang). In his leading party position, Mao organized revolutionary peasant movements in the countryside in the following years. In contrast to the officially represented party line, which saw the urban proletariat as the engine of the revolution, Mao regarded the rural proletariat as the real bearers of the revolution. After the break between the Kuo-ming-tang and the CCP in 1927, Mao, together with Zhu De and the beginnings of a Chinese Red Army demanded by Stalin, based on the Soviet model, created a Chinese Soviet republic in Jiangxi Province. The Kuo-ming-tang government reacted to the communist rule in Jiangxi with the so-called extermination campaigns. Mao was forced to move north with his troops and party cadres. The result was the "Long March" (1934-35) from Jiangxi to Yannan, Shaanxi Province, on which he finally won the political leadership of the CCP. After the Red Army had successfully conquered all of China, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China in Beijing on October 1, 1949. He himself became the head of the new state: as chairman of the Central People's Government and the Revolutionary Military Commission. In 1954, through the adoption of the new constitution, he became president and, according to his interpretation of Marxism-Leninism, initiated a radical transformation of Chinese society. The de-Stalinization that began in the USSR after Stalin's death (1953) and with his successor Khrushchev from 1956, led to a long-term break in Soviet-Chinese relations. The subject of dispute between the Chinese and the Soviet party and state leadership was particularly the different views on the development of the world revolution, the principle of peaceful coexistence and the level of development of Chinese society. Until his death in 1976, Mao Zedong was considered the highest authority in communist China. Accordingly, in 1969 he also approved the greater opening of China to the outside world, especially the slow opening of foreign policy towards the USA and the non-communist states of Europe. the principle of peaceful coexistence and the level of development of Chinese society. Until his death in 1976, Mao Zedong was considered the highest authority in communist China. Accordingly, in 1969 he also approved the greater opening of China to the outside world, especially the slow opening of foreign policy towards the USA and the non-communist states of Europe. the principle of peaceful coexistence and the level of development of Chinese society. Until his death in 1976, Mao Zedong was considered the highest authority in communist China. Accordingly, in 1969 he also approved the greater opening of China to the outside world, especially the slow opening of foreign policy towards the USA and the non-communist states of Europe.

Sun Tsu (6th century BC)

Sun Tsu lived in the 6th century BC. in the kingdom of King Hel of Wu. He served the ruler as a high general. One of his sayings was: "One leads by example, not by coercion" or "Treat prisoners well and care for them" In today's China, the leading heads increasingly refer to him as an example.

Wang Qisham (born 1948)

chief economist and since 2007 member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. He was also mayor of Beijing from 2003 to 2007. At the 18th CCP Congress. he moved up to the seven-member "Standing Committee" of the Politburo.

Yi Gang (born 1958)

Yi Gang is Director of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange and Vice-Governor of the People's Bank of China. The Foreign Exchange Office is an authority that is responsible for submitting rules and regulations for China's activities in the foreign exchange market. It is also responsible for managing the currency reserves of the Chinese People's Bank.

Xi Jinping (b. 1953)

He was born in 1953 as the son of a former revolutionary leader in the Red Army and later director of the "Central Propaganda Office of the CPC". However, his father fell out of favor with Mao in 1962 and was banished for 16 years. At the age of 15, Xi Jinping was also exiled in Liangjiane Village in Shaanxi Province. He lived there in a cave and sometimes tended pigs. After 10 unsuccessful applications, he was admitted to the CCP in 1974.

In 1978 he and his father were rehabilitated. In 2007, he became the chief of the Shanhai Party. But after just 7 months, he became Vice President in Beijing and responsible for the 2008 Olympic Games.

At the party congress - the CP now has 80 million members - which began on November 8, 2012, he was elected party leader "and chairman of the military council". He is also a member of the seven-member "Standing Committee" of the party's political office. He succeeded Hu Jintao in these offices. It is also planned that he will be elected President by the Volkskogress in March 2013.

Zhang Dejiang (born 1947)

Zhanghad made a name for himself in the fight against former top politician Bo Xilai. He had studied economics in North Korea and is one of the conservative forces in the Chinese Communist Party. He was elected to the seven-member "Standing Committee" of the Politburo at the CCP's 18th Congress in 2012.

Zhang Gaoli (born 1946)

As party leader in Tianjin, he was a member of the CCP Political Bureau. At the 18th party congress of the Communist Party in 2012, he was also promoted to the seven-member "Standing Committee" of the Politburo.

Zhou Yongkang (born 1942)

Zjou was a member of the then nine-member Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CCP) and secretary of the Central Committee's Political and Legal Commission from October 2007 to November 2012, and thus also head of the security apparatus. He was considered a mentor to Bo Xila.

Doctors and natural scientists

Doctors and healers

Hua Tuo

The miracle doctor Hua Tuo was a doctor of ancient China. He gained notoriety through the healing of the Three Kingdoms Hero. Hua Tuo used an anesthetic made from plant extracts, making him the first Chinese doctor to perform operations using anesthetics. The beginnings of acupuncture for anesthesia in surgical interventions and the gymnastics "Wu Qin Xi" ("game of the five animals") are said to go back to him. The "Five Animals" are already considered to be work on the "Three Treasures": Jing, Qi and Shen (in German mostly: essence, life energy and spirit) - gymnastics exercises that are still practiced today and which include Wu Shu, the art of fighting and physical exercise.

Natural scientist

Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD)

The Chinese pharmacologist Li Shizhen wrote the most comprehensive pharmaceutical work of the Ming Dynasty in the 16th century. His medical and pharmaceutical work, the "Materia Medica" (Bencao Gangmu) from 1578, contains descriptions of various herbal and animal remedies in 1892 and over 100 illustrations.

Zhang Heng

The astronomer of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Heng, came from what is now the central Chinese province of Henan and was an official at the imperial court. In his astronomical theories, which were very progressive for the time, he describes the sky as an egg and the earth as an egg yolk and thus the sky larger than the earth. Heaven and earth correspond to Yang and Yin, they both interact and everything in the world arose from them. In 132 AD, Heng invented the world's first seismograph, some 1,600 years before the development of the seismograph in the western world. After long observations and careful analysis, he not only improved the globe at that time and described the principle of the lunar eclipse, but was also famous for his achievements in the field of literature and painting.

Architects and builders

The architect Lian Sicheng(1901-1972) was a student at the Qinghua School in Beijing from 1915 to 1923. As an architecture graduate at the Pennsylvania University of the USA (1927) he received an honorary doctorate from Princeton University in the USA in 1948. Liang Sicheng has been researching ancient Chinese architecture since the early 1930s and has written numerous works and monographs on it. He was also significantly involved in the urban planning of Beijing, in the design of the Chinese national coat of arms, in the design of the monument to the folk heroes in Beijing and in the planning of the memorial hall for the monk Jianzhen in the city of Yangzhou. The Chinese style elements in the architectural design were characteristic of his work. Liang Sicheng's work is highly regarded among domestic and foreign colleagues,

The architect Wu Liangyong, born in 1922 and pioneer of architecture and urban planning in the People's Republic of China, was Vice-Chairman of the International Architecture Society UIA and Chairman of the World Study Society for Settlements of Humanity WSE. He promoted the specialist training in architecture and urban planning with Chinese characteristics and was awarded various prizes for his creation of new courtyards in Juer-Gasse in Beijing, including the World Habitat Prize of the UN in 1992, the Golden Prize for the best designs of the Asian architecture society and the award for the best design of the Chinese Architecture Society. Since 1993 Wu Liangyong has been working in the research area "Environment and Human Habitats" and in 1996 received a prize for criticism and education of architecture from the international architects' society. His work on "Research on the Protection and Development of the Architectural Environment in Urbanization in Developed Areas" is considered a world leader.

The architect Zhang Kaiji, born in Shanghai in 1912, is one of the most important architects in the People's Republic of China. Zhang Kaiji's professional career began in 1935: he was chief architect of the Beijing Institute for Design and Research in Architecture, architecture advisor to the Beijing city government and vice-chairman of the Chinese Association of Architects. Awarded the honorary title of "Master Architect" in 1990 by the Chinese Ministry of Construction, Zhang Kaiji received the first Chinese Liang Sicheng Architecture Prize in 2000. The most famous buildings he has shaped are the grandstands at Tian'anmen Gate, the Revolution Museum, the historical one Museum, Diaoyutai State Inn and Beijing Planetarium.

The architect Yang Tingbao(1901-1982) was like Lian Sicheng (1901-1972) was a student at the Qinghua School in Beijing and at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1924 he won a design competition among architecture students in the USA and was awarded the first Emerson Prize and another first prize in a competition organized by the Municipal Art Society. After completing his studies, Yang worked in the PR China and designed, among other things, the main train station in Shenyang (then Fengtian) on the Beijing-Shenyang route, the Bank of Communications building in Beijing, the central hospital in Nanjing and the expansion of the library at Qinghua University, the Music Tribune in the Zhongshan Mausoleum in Nanjing, the Northeast University in Shenyang and the Peace Hotel in Beijing. Yang was involved in the planning of more than 100 structures.

Visual artist

The artist Wang Duo (1592-1652), known for his calligraphy, was born in Mengjin, Henan Province. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, he gained fame because his calligraphies were the first to convey emotions.

Chinese and Mongolian emperors

Dynasties before the 1st emperor

Xia Dynasty

The Xia Dynasty is considered to be the first documented dynasty in Chinese history. Their 13 kings probably ruled between approx. 2200 BC. Until approx. 1800 BC BC

Shang Dynasty

The Shang Dynasty ruled China with 30 kings between the 16th century BC. Until about the 11th century BC. This dynasty is the first of which there are contemporary written documents.

Zhou Dynasty

The Zhou Dynasty divides science into a western dynasty - with the capital Zongzhou/Hao, which lasted from about 1122 to 770 BC. And in an eastern dynasty with the capital Chengzhou near Luoyang, which existed from 770 to 256 BC. Chr.) Existed.

Warring States Period

The period between 475 BC BC and 221 BC BC is referred to as the Warring States Period (Zhngu Shdi).

After the fall of the Zhou dynasty in 770 BC Their princes declared themselves kings, so that there were 16 of these kings at the beginning. By the middle of the period there were only seven left. After years of armed conflict, the ruler of the Qin dynasty subjugated these kingdoms and unified them in 221 BC. BC China. This year is considered to be the beginning of the age of the Chinese imperial dynasties in historiography.

Note

For a detailed presentation of the rulers Kaier, Khans or rulers of China and Mongolia - in tabular form - we begin with the Qin dynasty, from which the "1st Emperor" of China also comes

Qin Dynasty Emperor

Qin Shihuangdi Ying Zheng (259 - 210 BC)

Zheng was the founder of the Qin Dynasty and is considered the first "real" emperor of China through the unification of a number of kingdoms.

At the age of nine (236 BC), Prince Ying Zheng climbed the Thon of Qin State and led from 236 to 221 BC. Successful war against the six states of Han, Wei, Chu, Yan, Zhao and Qi. With his triumphant advance he ended the Warring States Period and created the first unified, centralized, despotic, multi-ethnic state in Chinese history.

In 221 BC Prince Ying Zheng became China's first emperor Shihuangdi. He replaced the previous feudal system with an administrative system of prefectures and districts, headed by the emperor. The clergy of the six former states were relocated to the Guanzhong and Bashu regions and private gun ownership was banned to avoid separatist activities. As emperor, Ying Zheng also introduced a uniform legal and currency system, private property and the Xiaozhuan script as a uniform seal script in the six united countries. He standardized the traffic system and had expressways built between the capital Xianyang and the regions of Yanqi and Wuchu as well as between Xianyang via Yunyang to Jiuyuan in the west of what is now Inner Mongolia. The Lingqu Lingqu Canal between the Xianjiang River and the Lijiang River and the Great Wall of China to defend against the Huns in the north of the empire also date from that time. But under his tyranny there were also book burnings and executions of Confucian scholars because they criticized his government. Although Emperor Shihuangdi held his empire together with an iron hand and he was bristling with all dangers, he did not succeed in finding the so-called immortality medicine.

The first emperor of China died in July 210 BC. Chr.

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Zhaoxiang - 255-250 BC Chr.
Xiaowen Ying Zhu 250 BC Chr.
Zhuangxiang Ying Zichu 249-247 BC Chr.
Qin Shihuangdi Ying Zhen 246-210 BC Chr.

Note

The ruler's name was given to rulers, emperors or khans after their death (posthumously) as a form of honor. This custom goes back to the Zhou dynasty. Such honors are also given in Japan, Korea and Vietnam.

In China and Vietnam such posthumous titles were also awarded to honor non-noble people - such as statesmen, politicians or intellectuals.

Han Dynasty Emperor

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Gāozǔ Li Bāng 206-195 BC Chr.
Hui Li Yng 195-188 BC Chr.
Qiansho Qiansho 188-184 BC Chr.
Housho Li Hng 184-180
Whom Li Hng 180-157 BC Chr.
Jing Liu Qǐ 157-141 BC Chr.
Li Ch 141-87 BC Chr.
Zhāo Li Flng 87-74 BC Chr.
Chāng Y Wng Li H 74 BC Chr.
Xuan Li Xn 74-49 BC Chr.
Yuan Li Sh 49-33 BC Chr.
Chng Li Áo 33-7 BC Chr.
Āi Liu Xin 7-1 v. Chr.
Ping Li Kn 1 v. BC - 6 AD
R Zi Li Yīng 6-9 AD

The Xin Dynasty

The Xin dynasty was an interregnum and lasted only from 9 to 23 AD and had only one emperor, Wng Mǎng. After the end of the Xin dynasty, the mobile dynasty split into a western and an eastern one.

The Western Han Dynasty

After the end of the Xin dynasty, Emperor Gng Shǐ (birth name: Li Xun) continued and ended the western Han dynasty from 23 to 25 AD. The Han Dynasty lived on in the Eastern Han Dynasty.

Ruler of the Eastern Han Dynasty

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Guāngwǔ Li Xi AD 25-57
Ming Li Zhuāng 57-75 AD
Zhāng Li D 75-88 AD
H Li Zho 88-106 AD
Shang Li Lng 106 ad
On Li H 106-125 A.D.
Sho Li Y 125 AD
Shn Li Bo 125-144 AD.
Chong Li Bǐng 144-145
Zhi Li Zuǎn 145-146
Hun Li Zhǐ AD 146-168
Ling Li Hng A.D. 168-189
Sho Li Bin 189 AD
Xin Liu Xi 189-220 AD

Three Kingdoms Era

The period from the abdication of the last emperor Xin from the Han dynasty to the reunification of the empire in 280 by Emperor Jin Wud is referred to as the "Three Kingdoms" period. After the abdication, the empire was divided into the following three domains: Wei in the north, Wu in the south and Shu Han in the west - each with a king at the head,

Jin Dynasty Emperor

General information

The Jin Dynasty is divided into a western and an eastern part. The emperors of both dynasties ruled China from AD 265 to 420, ruling from Luoyang across China from 280 to 304. But after that, parts of the empire became independent, which led to the end of the Western Jin Dynasty in 316. The Eastern Jin Dynasty was founded in 317 by the Emperor Yuan von Jin, the Eastern Jin Dynasty with its seat of government in Jiankang.

In 420 the Eastern Jin Dynasty was finally ended by Liu Yu, who founded the earlier Song Dynasty.

Western Jin Dynasty

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Sīmǎ Yn 265-290 AD
Sīmǎ Yn Sīmǎ Zhōng A.D. 290-306
Hui Sīmǎ Ch C 306-313
Min Sīmǎ Y A.D. 313-316

Eastern Jin Dynasty

Emperor name Birth Name Reign
Zhōngzōng Sīmǎ Ru A.D. 317-322
Ming Sīmǎ Sha A.D. 322-325
Chng Sīmǎ Yǎn A.D. 325-342
Kang Sīmǎ Yu C 342-344
M Sīmǎ Dān C 344-361
Āi Sīmǎ Pī AD 361-365
Fi Sīmǎ Y A.D. 365-371
Jiǎnwn Sīmǎ Y A.D. 371-372
Xiowǔ Sīmǎ Ya A.D. 372-396
On Sīmǎ Dzōng 396-418 AD
Gong Sīmǎ Dwn A.D. 418-420

Sixteen Kingdoms Era

The "Sixteen Empires" period denotes a period in Chinese history that began in 304 with the establishment of the Han-Zhao Kingdom and ended in 439 with the annihilation of the Northern Liang Empire by the Northern Wei Dynasty. The sixteen domains listed existed partly simultaneously or were detached during the period of their existence and fought against each other:

Han-Zhao

Cheng-han

Later Zhao

Former Liang

Former Yan

Previous Qin

Later Qin

Later Yan

Western Qin

Later Liang

Southern Liang

Southern Yan

Western Liang

Northern Liang

Xia

Northern Yan

Period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties

This era in the history of China began with the end of the Jin Dynasty and lasted until the beginning of the Sui Dynasty, so it encompassed the period from AD 420 to 581.

Southern Dynasties

Liu-Song (420 - 479) with 9 rulers

Southern Qi from 479 to 502 with 7 rulers

Liang from 502 to 557 with 6 rulers

Chen from 557 to 589 with 5 rulers

Northern Dynasties

Northern Wei from 386 to 534 with 14 rulers

Eastern Wei from 534 to 550 with 1 ruler

Western Wei from 535 to 557 with 3 rulers

Northern Qi from 550 to 577 with 6 rulers

Northern Zhou from 557 to 581 with 5 rulers

Emperor of the Sui Dynasty

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Whom Sīmǎ Yn 581-604 AD
Yang Yang Guang A.D. 605-617
gong Yang You 617-618 A.D.

Tang Dynasty Emperor

The Tang Dynasty lasted from 618 to 907 and was interrupted from 690 to 705 by Emperor Wǔhu (maiden name: Wǔ Ztiān) from the Zhou dynasty.

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Gāozǔ Lǐ Yuān A.D 618-626
Tizōng Tizōng A.D. 626-649
Gāozōng Lǐ Zh A.D. 650-683
Zhōngzōng Lǐ Xiǎn 684 and from 705–710 AD
Ruzōng Li Dan 684-690 and from 710-712 AD
Shod Lǐ Chngmo 710 AD
Xunzōng Lǐ Lngjī C 712-756
Szōng Szōng C 756–762
Dizong Dizong A.D. 762-779
Dzōng Lǐ Ku A.D. 779–805
Shnzōng Shnzōng 800 AD
Xinzōng Lǐ Chn A.D. 806–820
Mzōng Lǐ Hng C 821–824
Jngzōng Lǐ Zhn C 824–826
Wenzōng L Áng A.D. 826-840
Wǔzōng Lǐ Yn 840-846 AD.
Xuānzōng Lǐ Chn 846-859 AD.
Yzōng Lǐ Cuǐ C 859–873
Xīzōng Lǐ Xuān 873-888 AD.
Zhāozōng Lǐ Y A.D. 888–904
Aīd Lǐ Zh C 904–907

Five dynasties and ten empires

The period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Empires ranged from 907 to 960. During this relatively short period of time there was political upheaval in the country in China, five dynasties succeeded one another, and more than a dozen independent states emerged, but only found ten of them Entry into the scientific mention.

Song Dynasty ruler

The Song Dynasty was divided into the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties and lasted from 960 to 1279. The northern part lasted from 960 to 1127 AD. and the southern from 1127 to 1279.

Northern Song Dynasty

Rulers name Birth Name Reign
Zhao Kuangyin C 960–976
Zhao Kuangyi A.D. 976-997
Zhao Heng A.D. 997-1022
Zhao Zhen C 1022-1063
Zhao Shu C 1063-1067
Zhao Xu C 1067-1085
Zhao Xu A.D. 1085-1100
Zhao Ji C 1100-1125
Zhao Huan C 1126-1127

Southern Song Dynasty

Emperor name Birth Name Reign
Zhao Gou C 1127-1162
Zhao Shen C 1162-1189
Zhao Dun C 1189-1194
Zhao Kuo C 1194-1224
Zhao Yun C 1224-1264
Zhao Qi A.D. 1264-1274
Zhao Xian C 1274-1276
Zhao Shi C 1276-1278
Zhao Bing C 1278-1279

Mongol rulers before the conquest of China

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan born Borjigin Temdschin is certainly the most famous Mongol ruler in Europe. He ruled from 1206 until his death in 1227. The exact year of his birth is not known - in fact between 1156 and 1162.

He united the previously divided Mongolian tribes of what is now central and northern Mongolia. He was victorious in numerous battles and extended his rule from the China Sea in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. His cavalry armies even reached today's Ukraine. When he died, his domain comprised around 19 million km² - and was therefore more than twice the size of today's China with an area of 9,597,995 km². But he was unusually successful not only as a warlord but also as administrator of the empire. His own script was developed under him, and he also issued written and binding laws in the empire. After his death, however, the empire was divided among his sons.

Khan name Birth Name Reign
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temdschin A.D. 1206-1227
Tolui Khan Borjigin Tolui 1228 AD
Ugedai Khan Borjigin Ögedei A.D. 1229-1241
regent Töregene Khâtûn A.D. 1241-1246
Gujuk Khan Borjigin Gy A.D. 1246-1248
regent Oghul Ghaymish A.D. 1248-1251
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke C 1251-1258

Ruler of the Yuan Dynasty

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai C 1260-1294
Timur Khan Borjigin Temur C 1294-1307
Klq Khan Borjigin Qayshan C 1308-1311
Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibha C 1311-1320
Suddhipala Borjigin Suddhipala C 1321-1323
Yesun Timur Khan Borjigin Yesn-Temr C 1323-1328
Arigaba Borjigin Arigaba 1328 AD
Jijaghatu Toq-Temur Borjigin Toqa Timur C 1328-1332
Irinchibal Borjigin Borjigin Irinchibal 1332 AD
Ukhaatu Khan Borjigin Toghan Timur 1333-1370 AD
Biligtu Khan Ayushiridara C 1370-1378
Usakhal Khan Tögs Temr C 1378-1387

Ruler of the Ming Dynasty

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Hongwu Zhu Yuanzhang 1368-1398 AD.
Jianwen Zhu Yunwen 1398-1402 AD
Yongle Zhu Di 1402-1424 AD
Honxi Zhu Gaochi 1424-1425 AD
Xuande Zhu Zhanji 1425-1435 AD
Zhengton Zhu Qizhen 1435-1449; 1457-1464
Jingtai Zhu Qiyu 1449-1457 AD.
Chenghua Zhu Jianshen 1464-1487 AD.
Hongzhi Zhu Youtang C 1487-1505
Zhengde Zhu Houzhao C 1505-1521
Jiajing Zhu Houcong 1521-1566 AD
Longqin Zhu Zaihou C.1566-1572
Wanli Zhu Yijun C.1572-1620
Taichang Zhu Changluo 1620 AD
Tianqi Zhu Youjiao C 1620-1627
Chongzhen Zhu Youjian AD 1627-1644

Ruler of the Southern Ming Dynasty

Ruler name Birth Name Reign
Hongguang Zhu Yousong 1644-1645 AD
Regent: Prince Lu Zhu Changfang 1645 AD
Longwu Zhu Yujian AD 1645-1646
Shaowu Zhu Yuyue 1646 AD
Zhu Yihai Zhu Yihai C 1646-1653
Yongli Zhu Youlang C 1653-1662

Ruler of the Qing Dynasty

Preliminary remark

The last emperor Pǔ Y (1906-1967) was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the Chinese Revolution (1911) on February 12, 1912, but was allowed to stay in the former imperial residence. It is interesting that Yun Shkǎi - the first President of the Republic of China - proclaimed himself Emperor of China in 1915. But he only ruled until 1916

He expelled in 1924 and placed himself under the protection of Japan. In 1932 the Japanese installed him as regent and in 1934 as emperor of their satellite state Manchukuo. Towards the end of the war in 1945 he was captured by the Soviets, extradited to the People's Republic of China in 1950 and "reeducated" until he was amnestied in 1959. He then worked first as a gardener and later at a history institute in Beijing. He became known to a wide audience outside of China through the film adaptation of his life story in the 1987 film "The Last Emperor" by Bernardo Bertolucci.

Emperor name Birth Name Reign
Gāod Nurhaci C 1616-1626
Wnd Hung Tij C 1626-1643
Zhāngd Fln C 1643-1661
Rnd Xuny C 1661-1722
Xind Ynzhēn A.D. 1722-1735
Chnd Hngl C 1735-1796
Rud Yngyǎn A.D. 1796-1820
Chngd Minnng A.D. 1820-1850
Xiǎnd Yzhǔ C 1850-1861
Yidi Zǎichn C 1861-1874
Jǐngd Zǎitin C 1874-1908
not existent Pǔ Y C 1908-1912

Musician

One of the few Chinese singers who are active on the international opera stage is the baritoneist Liao Changyong. Until 1995 he studied with the music teacher Zhou Xiaoyan and the tenor Luo Wie at the Shanghai Conservatory. This was followed by numerous prizes in singing competitions (including the French singing competition in Toulouse, first prize at the Domingo Opera Competition of the World, first prize at the Queen Sonja Singing Competition in Norway) and several worldwide concerts (the USA, France, Japan, Australia, Great Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany and Russia). Liao Changyong surprised the international music world and often toured the world with the tenor Placido Domingo as his favorite student. As a successful opera singer, Liao Changyong wants to pass on his knowledge and experience on the international stages. He currently teaches as Professor of the Shanghai Conservatory and Dean of the Vocal Music Department.

One of the most successful women in the Chinese music world is the conductor Zheng Xiaoying. She is the first female Chinese conductor and a permanent board member of the Chinese Music Association. Her current work as art inspector and chief conductor of the first government-supported professional symphony orchestra, the "Xiamen Philharmonic", is significant. Her career began early: in 1947/48 she studied at the Jinling Women's University in the biology and music department and went to the liberation zone to work in a cultural ensemble. In 1952 and 1955, respectively, she continued her studies in composition and choral conducting at the Central Music Academy. In 1960 she traveled to the Soviet Union for further training, where she deepened her knowledge of opera and choral conducting at the Moscow Tchaikovsky Music Academy. In 1962 she was recognized as one of the best conductors in the country and has conducted numerous Chinese and foreign operas since 1978. In the 1990s she was honored by the Chinese Ministry of Culture for her work as chief conductor of the Chinese Central Opera, dean of the conducting department of the Chinese Central Conservatory. In 1985 she received the French Order of Merit for Literature and Art and in 1997 her biography was recorded at the International Biography Center in Cambridge. Zheng Xiaoying is also successful as a lecturer; her students often emerge as winners in international competitions. No other Chinese conductor is engaged in international opera houses as often as Zheng Xiaoying. In the 1990s she was honored by the Chinese Ministry of Culture for her work as chief conductor of the Chinese Central Opera, dean of the conducting department of the Chinese Central Conservatory. In 1985 she received the French Order of Merit for Literature and Art and in 1997 her biography was recorded at the International Biography Center in Cambridge. Zheng Xiaoying is also successful as a lecturer; her students often emerge as winners in international competitions. No other Chinese conductor is engaged in international opera houses as often as Zheng Xiaoying. In the 1990s she was honored by the Chinese Ministry of Culture for her work as chief conductor of the Chinese Central Opera, dean of the conducting department of the Chinese Central Conservatory. In 1985 she received the French Order of Merit for Literature and Art and in 1997 her biography was recorded at the International Biography Center in Cambridge. Zheng Xiaoying is also successful as a lecturer; her students often emerge as winners in international competitions. No other Chinese conductor is engaged in international opera houses as often as Zheng Xiaoying. In 1985 she received the French Order of Merit for Literature and Art and in 1997 her biography was recorded at the International Biography Center in Cambridge. Zheng Xiaoying is also successful as a lecturer; her students often emerge as winners in international competitions. No other Chinese conductor is engaged in international opera houses as often as Zheng Xiaoying. In 1985 she received the French Order of Merit for Literature and Art and in 1997 her biography was recorded at the International Biography Center in Cambridge. Zheng Xiaoying is also successful as a lecturer; her students often emerge as winners in international competitions. No other Chinese conductor is engaged in international opera houses as often as Zheng Xiaoying.

Nobel Prize Winner

The Nobel Prize

The award goes back to the Swedish chemist, inventor and industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833–1896). The Nobel Prize is considered to be the highest honor given to scientists, writers and peacemakers (individuals, politicians or organizations).

Alfred Nobel had stipulated in his will that a foundation should be set up with his assets, the interest profits of which should be given in the form of a prize to the people who had rendered the greatest benefit to mankind in the past year.

The money should be divided equally for special achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine as well as literature and for peace efforts.

The Nobel Foundation was established - following Nobel's request - on June 29, 1900 and in 1901 the first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901.

The winners will be announced in October, while the official award ceremony will take place on December 10 - the anniversary of Nobel's death - with the exception of the Nobel Peace Prize in Stockholm.

The Nobel Peace Prize is presented in Oslo.

In 1866 Alfred Nobel developed the explosive "dynamite". There is evidence that his conscience, because of the use of explosives as a weapon of war, had led him to write his will to establish the Nobel Foundation.

However, there is no reliable evidence for this interpretation.

Note

The Nobel Prize winners who were citizens of China at the time of the award are listed here.

Winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

There is currently no Chinese scientist who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Nobel Peace Prize winner

Name of the award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Liu Xiaobo

(1955-2017)

2010 For his long and non-violent struggle for basic human rights in China,

he was sentenced to 11 years in prison in 2009 for undermining the authority of the state.

He was released early because of liver cancer at the end of June 2017 and died on July 13, 2017

Winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature

Name of the award winner Date of award Reason for the award
Mo Yan

(born 1955)

2012 Because he combines fairy tales, history and the present with hallucinatory realism

Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Name of the award winner Date of award Reason for the award
Youyou Tu

(born 1930)

2015 She received half of the award for her advances in malaria therapy.

The other half went to Satoshi Omura from Japan and William Cecil Campbell from Irela

Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics

Name of the award winner Date of award Reason for the award
Chen Ning Yang

(born 1922)

1957 Together with his compatriot Tsung-Dao Lee

for their fundamental research on the laws of parity,

which led to important discoveries about elementary particles

Tsung-Dao Lee

(born 1926)

1957 Together with his compatriot Chen Ning Yang

for their fundamental research on the laws of parity,

which led to important discoveries about elementary particles

Winner of the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics

Note

The Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics does not go back directly to Alfred Nobel's will, but was donated by the Swedish Reichsbank in 1968 on the basis of the Nobel Prizes on the occasion of its 300th anniversary. The prize was awarded for the first time in 1969 to the Norwegian Ragnar AK Frisch (1895–1973) and the Dutchman Jan Tinbergen (1903–1994).

There is currently no Chinese scientist who has been awarded the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.

China: actors, directors

The director Chen Kaige, born in Beijing in 1952, is one of the internationally known greats from Asia, at the latest after his global success "Farewell, my concubine". The interest in film seems to have been instilled in him in the cradle, even his parents worked for the Beijing Film Studio (BFS). His father, Chen Huai Kai, was a well-known director, and his mother, Liu Yan Chi, was a screenwriter and editor in the studio's development department. Strongly shaped by severe restrictions and the impressions and experiences of the Cultural Revolution, Chen Kaige applied to the Beijing Film Academy to become a director. There he met Zhang Yimou and Tian Zhuangzhuang with whom he would later become famous as China's "fifth generation" directors. For his first film, Chen Kaige was awarded the Silver Leopard at the Locarno Film Festival in 1984, when his fellow student Zhang Yimou directed the camera. After completing the film "The Great Parade" (1986), "King of the Children" and an appearance as an actor in Bernardo Bertolucci's "The Last Emperor", Chen Kaige accepted a teaching position at New York University. During his three-year stay in New York, Chen directed the "Duran Duran" video "Do You Believe In Shame" (1989). This was followed by his films "The Master's Prophecy" (1991), "Farewell, My Concubine" (1993) and "Seductive Moon" (1995). With "Farewell, My Concubine" (1993) he celebrated his greatest successes so far. After 1996, Chen Kaige's last film "The Emperor and His Assassin" followed, in which he was director, screenwriter, producer and actor in one person. It is the most expensive, independently produced work in Chinese film history.

Writer and poet

Writer and poet

Su Shi

The writer Su Shi (1037-1101 AD) was the son of a well-known writer and came from Meishan in Sichuan Province. In the feudal society of his time, Su Shi was regarded as a character with a strong personality and a highly talented writer, so that his work lasted for more than 800 years. Su Shi's work, Poems in the literary form of Ci poems, describes society and life in the broadest sense. His prose works such as the landscape and travel reports found nationwide recognition, so that today he is considered one of the most famous of the eight great writers in the Tang and Song dynasties.

Du Fu (712-770 AD)

Du Fu was one of the two most important poets ("Li and Du") of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) and was descended from the well-known poet Du Shenyan. From a young age he wrote about the gap between the nobles or civil servants and the poor. Concern for his country and his people was always expressed in his poems. Later, during wartime, this concern for the people became a pity for the needy and a revulsion for war. The poet died at the age of 59, leaving 1400 poems depicting the rise and fall of the Tang Dynasty over 20 years. Fu not only used the most diverse styles of classical lyric poetry, but also innovative forms, thus showing new perspectives in the development of Chinese poetry.

Ai Weiwei (1957 in Beijing)

Ai Weiwei is a system-critical publisher, sculptor, filmmaker and architectural artist. Ai Weiwei was arrested by Chinese rulers on April 3, 2011 at Beijing Airport. It was later stated that he was being investigated for economic crimes.

Liao Yiwu, also: Lao We (born 1958)

Liao Yiwu is a poet, writer, poet and musician. Erl became known internationally through his book "Fräulein Hallo und der Bauernkaiser". Because of his criticism of the leadership of the country, his works in China are on the index. In Germany he received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 2012 and the Geschwister-Scholl Prize a year earlier.

Mo Yan

On October 11, 2012, the Nobel Prize Committee in Stockholm announced that the Chinese author Mo Yan would receive the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature.

He received the award because he "combined fairy tales, history and the present with hallucinatory realism"

Mo Yan was born on February 17, 1955 in the Chinese province of Shandong as the son of farmers.

He achieved his breakthrough as a writer in 1987 with the publication of the cycle "Die rote Sorghumhirse" - known in German-speaking countries as "Das Rote Kornfeld"

Nobel Peace Prize Laureate

Liu Xiaobo (born 1955)

The former literature professor Liu Xiaobo received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010. Xiaobo took part in the demonstrations on Tiananmen Square in 1989, and together with others he wrote Charter 08, which aims to democratize the country with freedom of the press and compliance with human rights was demanded. As a result, he was arrested in 2008 and sentenced to 11 years in prison in December 2009. According to the court, his offense was "an undermining of state authority". He is currently believed to be sitting in a cell with serious criminals in a camp on the border with Siberia.

The situation of the award is strongly reminiscent of the awarding of the prize to the writer and pacifist Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938), who was in a concentration camp from February 28, 1933 to November 7, 1936. He was awarded the prize on November 23, 1936 retrospectively for 1935. In 1935 no one was awarded the prize.

Other personalities

The first Chinese astronaut was Yang Liwei. Born in Liaoning Province in 1965, Liaoning Colonel left the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) in 1987 and went down in space travel history as the first Chinese in space. On October 15, 2003, it circled the earth a total of 14 times in a capsule and then returned safely to earth after 21 hours.

Colonel Fei Junlongis the second Chinese astronaut to fly into space as part of the Shenzou program. Chinese space travel is still very young, as it was only two years ago that China became the third nation in space after the USA and Russia with the first manned space flight. Born in 1965 in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, Fei Junlong was one of the five finalists for the Shenzhou-V mission in 1988 after graduating from the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). But it was not until October 12, 2005 that he flew into space for 5 days as commander of the "Long March" missile on the Shenzhou VI mission with flight engineer Nie Haisheng. The focus of the flight was on tests of the life support systems of the 9.2 meter long spaceship and other experiments. The mission was successful, so that both landed back on earth on October 17th, 2005.

Lt. Col. Nie Haisheng is the third Chinese astronaut to fly into space as part of the Shenzou program. Born in 1964 in Yangdang, Hubei Province, he graduated from the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) in 1987 like the other astronauts before him. On October 12, 2005 he was appointed flight engineer of the Shenzhou VI.

John Rabe (1882-1950)

Born in Hamburg, Rabe came to China in 1908, where he was Managing Director of Siemens in China from 1931. He resided in the then capital Nanking. After the city was occupied by the Japanese on December 12, 1937, he campaigned for the establishment of a 2 by 2 km protection zone to protect the Chinese population from the atrocities and massacres of the Japanese. He also saved many Chinese from the bombing of the Japanese by stretching a large swastika flag. He returned to Berlin during the war and, despite his membership in the NSDAP, came into conflict with the Nazi regime.

Rabe died forgotten and impoverished on January 5, 1950 in Berlin. His remains are in the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Cemetery in Berlin-Charlottenburg in Frstenbrunner Weg - near the DRK Hospital Westend.

Rabe's life was filmed in Shanghai under the direction of Oscar-winner Florian Gallenberger with Ulrich Turkur in the role of Rabe. The film premiered at the Berlinale 2009.

Athlete

Bai Xue (born 1989)

Xue won the marathon at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics in Berlin in 2:25:15 h and became world champion.

Theologians and philosophers

Han Feizi

The philosopher and scholar Han Feizi lived during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC). Through his doctrine of legalism, he laid the theoretical basis for the creation of the first unified, centralized, multi-ethnic state in Chinese history. The foundations of legalism consist of 55 sections based on the pivotal point of its teaching: the law (fa), the method of political action (shu), and power (shi). The essential knowledge of the teaching is that man is inherently bad, but can be prevented by inevitable and infallible penal laws from committing bad deeds. Han Fenzi was an advocate for the rule of law. He believes that reward and punishment are key to maintaining power, and laws should apply to everyone without exception.

Confucius

The most influential thinker of all time was probably Confucius (551 to 479 BC), who came from the ancient noble family of the Kung, which still exists today. Even the young Confucius taught his 3,000 pupils history, poetry and the forms of propriety. At the age of 50, Confucius, known for his steadfast morals, accepted the post of Minister of Justice. Tradition has it that as a civil servant, he was very successful in implementing the moral principles of just government he had previously learned. His mere presence is said to have incited criminals and citizens to righteousness, and under his wisdom his home state of Lu grew. The envious prince of the neighboring state is said to have used a ruse to separate the prince of Lu and his wise officials Confucius. Since the Prince of Lu turned away from the principles of Confucianism, Confucius left his homeland for 13 years. After his return, in the last years of his life he devoted himself to collecting and editing the traditional writings and wrote a chronicle of his home country. To this day, his views shape the life and culture of many Asian countries.

Mengzi (Menzius)

The most important successor to Confucius was Mengzi (Menzius) or Meng Ke. He reformed and renewed the principles of Confucianism so that they eventually became the state religion of China under the Han Dynasty. Today there are 11 books under his name, 4 of which were written by his students under his supervision. Mengzi believed in government power given to rulers by heaven (Tian). This power should be exercised in the interests of both ruler and subject. He granted his subjects the end of an unjust rule. Unlike other Chinese philosophers, he thought humans were naturally good beings. However, this property must be cultivated and is dependent on material security. He recognized four virtues in the ethnic principles (humanity (ren), justice (yi), courtesy (li) and wisdom (zhi)), with humanity and justice being the most important. The feudal order and the unity of the state would exist if every member of society behaved compassionately and fairly. Like Confucius, Mengzi offered his advice to various rulers. The then large states Liang, Qi, Song, Peng and Lu focused on building their economies and their armed forces by means of violence, so that they were not interested in Mengzi's pacifist advice. Mengzi withdrew from public life, disappointed that his reform efforts had failed.

Lao Zi

The founder of Daoism, Lao Zi, whose real name was Li Er, is said to have been an older contemporary of Confucius (551-479 BC). With his book "Tao De Jing", Lao Zi laid the basis for many Chinese-philosophical theories. The term "Tao" can be translated as "way", "method", "technique" or "rule of life" or as "ultimate truth" in the sense of the "Tao De Jing". Tao is like an indefinite positive path that one has to walk to understand it. Lao Zi also believed that things in the world are not isolated but are interdependent and interconnected so that happiness and unhappiness can mutually condition and reverse each other. A utopia of Laos was also that an ideal state should not go to war. The citizens deserve a life with good clothes and comfortable housing, there should be no contact with neighboring countries and a modest lifestyle does not require the use of writing. In his philosophy, Lao Zi longed for a peaceful life during the ongoing wars of the Warring States Period. The thinker Lao Zi occupies an important place in the history of Chinese philosophy, as his political ideas have had a great influence on subsequent thinkers.

Zhuang Zi

The philosopher Zhuang Zi (c. 369-286 BC) lived in the Principality of Song during the Warring States Period. Zhuang Zi, who was the second most important representative of Taoism after Lao Zi, advocated a nature-loving life and despised fame and fortune. In his teaching he advocated the thesis that man cannot rebel against his fate, but should strive to preserve the unconditional freedom of his mind. Zhuang's ideas are written down in the three-part book "Zhuang Zi", with only the first part coming from the master himself and the second and the third probably from his students. Zhuang Zi's considerations were based on the Taoism of Lao Zi, who saw the Tao as the natural order of things, of nature and the universe beyond human perception. Important principles of Taoism are the principle of Yin and Yang (principle of polarity or the harmonious unity of Poles) and the principle of Wu Wei (principle of "not intervening", "not forcing" and "not acting") "or living in harmony with nature and the universal order). The main goal of Taoism is to achieve the harmony of the universe through the "free flow" of things. According to the teaching of Zhuang Zi, a wise ruler should not try to direct his people, he should rule according to the principle of Wu Weis - with "inaction". The Wei and Jin dynasties were guided in their politics by the book "Zhuang Zi".

China: plants

Trees

Forests such as pine forests in China are mainly found in the northeast of the country, while the north and northwest are dominated by a steppe-like landscape. Tropical and subtropical vegetation can be found in the south and southeast of China. Oak trees grow in Shandong Province, while tropical rainforests prevail in Yunnan and Guangdong.

Many of the trees were originally only native to China. These include the primeval sequoia tree, the Chinese cypress, the Cathaya tree, the golden larch and the Taiwan pine, the pigeon tree and the Fujian cypress. There are a total of 300 types of bamboo in China alone , but the population is falling sharply. This is a big problem, especially for the giant panda, as the bamboo is its only source of food.

Crops

In addition to its religious significance in Buddhism , the lotus flower that grows in large ponds and flooded fields also has a useful one, because its seeds taste like peas, contain a lot of protein and are sold in markets. Tung oil trees, cedars, rubber and cocoa trees are of great economic importance. The rubber tree, which belongs to the mulberry family, is widespread. Its home is Asiabut today it occurs everywhere. In Central Europe it is often used as a houseplant. The tree has large, dark green and thick leaves and can grow up to 30 m tall in nature. It has a dense, spreading crown and strong roots that run on the surface of the earth, as well as numerous aerial roots.

The oil of the tung oil tree is obtained from its dried and ground seeds. It is used exclusively in the industry for the manufacture of lacquer and linoleum, or it is also processed into soap and lubricating oil. The most commonly drunk drink in the Far East, tea, is made from the dried leaves of the tea bush. The valuable plant grows at heights of up to 2000 m in the tropical regions of China.

Another crop grows in Tibet , safflower. This serves as a supplier for safflower oil, which is used both as edible oil and as oil for industry.

Medicinal plants

The ginkgo tree is called a living fossil because it is the only living member of its kind and the oldest tree species. It grows up to 30 m tall and has characteristic bilobed and fan-shaped leaves. Its fruits are similar to mirabelle plums and are also edible when roasted. The active ingredients in the leaves serve, among other things, to increase memory performance, the ability to learn, they promote blood circulation and have a positive effect on balance disorders. Rare side effects are gastrointestinal complaints, headaches and allergic skin reactions. The ginkgo tree is often planted at the roadside in cities because it is very resistant to environmental influences.

One of the most famous herbal remedies in China is without question ginseng. The plant is between 50 and 80 cm tall, has whitish-yellow flowers and then shiny red fruits. The root, which is up to 15 cm long and 2 cm thick, is interesting and is used to strengthen the immune system and to increase physical and mental performance. A distinction is made between red and white ginseng. The dosage form and dose depends on the origin of the ginseng. In general, the medicine should not be given for more than three months.

The notoginseng is a close relative of ginseng, but has much more concentrated active ingredients in the dried root. It is used in many different areas of the healing arts, for example as a pain reliever, to combat swelling and to stop bleeding. But it is also said to have already developed its effect in angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, skin diseases and migraines. The poisonous peony was previously used as an antispasmodic and against epilepsy. However, this effect has not been proven. It can allegedly also be used for skin and mucous membrane inflammation, fissures, gout, rheumatism and diseases of the respiratory tract. However, the effectiveness has not been proven in these areas of application either. In homeopathy, it is used for hemorrhoids.

Poisonous plants

The peony from the buttercup family is between 50 and 100 cm tall and flowers from June to May. The large red flowers with a diameter of 12 cm and petals with a length of 5 - 8 cm are striking. Most types of peony are common in Europe, Asia, and North America. It prefers light and rocky mountain slopes to grow. Due to the alkaloid paenonin, this plant is poisonous and causes gastrointestinal complaints and vomiting and colic in excessive doses. In the correct dosage, it can also be used as a medicinal plant.

The wolfberry belongs to the nightshade family and grows as a shrub up to 3 m high with lavender flowers and red berries. The latter have a very weak poisonous effect, but after consumption, especially in children, they can still cause scratching in the mouth and throat and lead to vomiting and diarrhea. In the past, the plant was also used in medicine, but this is no longer the case today. Another name for wolfberry is devil's twine.

The seeds of the tung oil tree lead to cramps and vomiting when eaten .

Introduced plants

The peony originates from southern Europe and the southern Alps.

Other plants

In the desert regions of China only small shrubs and other steppe-typical plants grow. Lower creeping and climbing plants thrive in the highlands at heights of up to 5000 m. The lotus flower is of great importance to Buddhism as it stands for birth, life, fertility, justice and nirvana. The peony, even if it is poisonous, is considered a favorite flower. The cause could be the large red or white flowers, which can reach a diameter of around 12 cm, with a plant size of 50-100 cm.

China: animals

Mammals

In the coniferous and deciduous forests of the north, moose and reindeer live alongside Amur leopards and Siberian tigers. At 1.40-2.80 m in length and 80-110 cm in height, the latter is the largest and at the same time the most endangered species of big cats. In addition to wild boars, it also eats deer and other larger mammals. In addition to a few individuals in China, there are also individual animals in North Korea. The big cat, also known as the Amur tiger, is most widespread in the Amur-Ussuri region in eastern Siberia.

Most animal species, however, will be found in the tropical rainforests. These include shrews, Tibetan cats, leopards, muntjacs and monkeys. Black muntjacs are the rarest deer in China and are approximately 100 cm long and 55 cm high. The elongated and curved canines in the upper jaw are characteristic.

The Przewalski horse lives in the province of Xinjiang and is named after its discoverer, Colonel Nikolai Michailowitch Przewalski. It is the only real wild horse still alive, which is probably one of the ancestors of our horses today. It differs from today's domestic horses in terms of both external and internal build. The Przewalski horse has a stocky build with a thick neck and short legs and one more thoracic vertebra.

Quite different types of mammals live in the steppes of China. There are smaller mammals such as hares, weasels, foxes and lynxes, but also large mammals such as black bears, deer, ibexes, wolves and camels.

The yak, which is probably the most important livestock, lives in Tibet. He is not only a draft and slaughter animal, but also serves as a supplier of milk and wool. The dried manure is used as fuel.

The Kiang donkey and the Orongo antelope live in the Himalayan region. Others living in the mountains animals are typical Chinese species such as the bamboo - cats - and the Asiatic, the clouded leopard, the serow, the takin (a Gnuziege) and the snub-nosed. Seraus are about 90 cm high, gray-black mountain goats with a thick mane, which live in the mountains at heights of up to 2700 m.

Snow leopards, sables, musk oxen and the giant panda are very rare. The latter is threatened with extinction. The reason for this is mainly the dwindling of its habitat - and when the bamboo is cut down, its only source of food also dries up.

Hanuman monkeys These animals belong to the genus of the Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus) within the family of the vervet monkeys (Cercopithecidae). They are cultural followers and are considered sacred in India. They got their name after Hanuman - an Indian god in monkey form.

The animals reach a length of between 40 to 80 cm, with a tail up to 110 cm long. Your weight is a little under 25 kg. The fur of the animals is colored gray on the upper side, while the underside is whitish or orange-yellow.

Her hairless face is black or purple and impresses with its pronounced bulges above the eyes.

Their diet consists of plants and insects. The females give birth to a young every two years.

In some cities they have become almost a nuisance, but are still being fed by the people.

Blue

sheep Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), despite their name, do not belong to the sheep class, but rather to the goat-like ones. Together with the dwarf blue sheep they form the genus (blue sheep = pseudois).

The animals are between 120 to 170 cm long and a shoulder height of 75 to 90 cm - with a 10 to 20 cm long tail. Their weight varies between 40 to 80 kg, with the males being heavier than the females.

The horns of the males reach a length of over 80 cm, while those of the females are only 20 cm long. The animals live in the Himalayan region as well as in a number of mountain ranges of Tibet, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia.

Their habitat is predominantly at altitudes between 3,000 and 6,000 m. Their diet consists of grasses, herbs, mosses and other parts of plants.

After a gestation period of around 160 days, the females usually give birth to only one young - rarely two.

Life expectancy in freedom is 12 to 15 years. One of the most dangerous enemies is the snow leopard, which lives in the same habitat as the blue sheep.

The animals are classified as not endangered by the IUCN.

Pfeifhase

Pfeifhase do not look much like the well-known field hares, in the past they were even regarded as rodents. There are around 30 species of the pigeon hares (Ochotona) genus.

The animal is on average 20 cm long - with a spread of 15 to about 25 cm. Their weight can reach approx. 200 g. In addition to Asia, the animals are also found in America.

The animals get their name from the high-pitched whistling tones with which they warn each other in case of danger.

The food of the animals, which can be found at altitudes up to almost 6,000 m, consists of grasses, herbs or plant stems. The female gives birth to up to 12 cubs two to three times a year.

Reptiles/amphibians

Alligators

The rare and endangered Chinese alligator lives in Changjiang. It used to be widespread in China , but the development of settlements has made its living space smaller and smaller. Today it can only be found in isolated places in Anhui Province, where it lives on swamps, rivers and on patches of reed. The black alligators can get very old, and special farms have now been set up to ensure their population. The Chinese alligator hibernates between November and February, which should also be respected.

Chinese giant salamander, bandage monitor

Another rarity is the Chinese giant salamander, which belongs to the amphibian group, and the white monitor monitor in the northeast of the country. The Chinese giant salamander is an amphibian and is only found in China and Japan today. Giant salamanders are permanent larvae as they carry larval traits such as the absence of eyelids and larval teeth throughout their life. The giant salamander native to China is extraordinarily tall with 1.60 m, it has a flat and broad head with small lateral eyes and a broad and flattened body. These nocturnal animals can be found on fast flowing rivers and streams, where they hide under crevices and in caves. In addition to fish and frogs, the diet of these extraordinary animals also includes earthworms, crustaceans and crustaceans.

Venomous snakes

The following venomous snakes are found in China:

  • Chinese pit viper
  • Chinese cobra
  • King Cobra
  • Taiwan cobra
  • Tiger snake
  • White-lipped pit viper

Birds

Most bird species, as well as most mammalian species, live in the tropical rainforests. It is said that China has the largest number of bird species in the world. Most of them belong to the pheasant-like and chicken birds. Hunting pheasants are well known and very common in the steppes , but partridges, rough-legged fowl, as well as king, stone and francolin chickens are also common.

There are also hazel grouse, little bustard and great bustard. The latter belong to the order of the crane birds and are very shy and sensitive to disturbance birds. In Europe (Hungary) they are mainly found in national parks.

You rarely get to see them, not least because of the inconspicuous coloring outside of the courtship. Both males and females have brown-black patterned plumage and a light gray head and neck. The main difference between the two is in size. The males weigh 8-16 kg, while the females weigh just 3 - 5 kg. However, during courtship the male changes significantly. Its underside is colored white, and this is turned upside down, so that it finally turns into a white pile of feathers. The food of the great bustard includes buds, shoots, leaves, seeds, but also mice, lizards, grasshoppers and other small animals. Despite its relatively wide distribution, the Great Bustard is on the red list.

Bamboo chickens and dwarf quails are often kept as cage birds. But there are also numerous water birds such as great egrets, mandarin ducks and swans in China. The ear pheasant is one of the rarer species.

The 1-2 m tall red-crested crane is a symbol of longevity. The bright red crest on its head is striking in its white plumage. Almost all crane species are protected in China.

The sun bird lives in 1500 - 3000 m high mountain forests. It is also known as the Chinese nightingale, which is wrong because it actually belongs to the timalia. This name most likely has its origin in the beautiful and soft song that is so typical of the sun bird. The color of the plumage varies, but the most common is an olive-green upper side, a dark tail, and a yellowish-olive underside. The eyes have a yellowish or white surround that leads to the beak. The little bird is native to China, and over time it has also been introduced to Hawaii, Maui, Moahu and Kauai.

Insects, spiders

Silk moth,

Perhaps the best-known insect in China is the silk moth, or rather, the silk moth caterpillar. Their ability to spin a cocoon from a silk thread is used to make silk. Today there are breeds of the silk moth not only in China but also in Japan, India and Southern Europe. By crossing different species one is able to produce different colors. The only food for the silkworm is the leaves of the mulberry tree.

Underwater world

There are two species of dolphins in China, the extremely rare China river dolphin and the white fin dolphin.

The Chinese sturgeon and the white sturgeon are threatened with extinction.

 

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