Georgia [dʒɔ: ʹdʒə], abbreviated GA, state of southeastern United
States; 152,488 km2, 10.5 million inhabitants (2018).Georgia is
located on the Atlantic Ocean between Florida and South Carolina. The capital is
Atlanta, which is the southeastern United States leading economic and cultural
Georgia. State Map.
The southern half of Georgia belongs to the coastal plain and has a flat to
wavy topography. From the sea surface, the land surface rises to about 150 m
above sea level. at the fall line. Here the Appalachian highlands, whose lowest
part belongs to the Piedmont Plateau, rises to 450 m above sea level. The
northeastern area is occupied by the Blue Ridge Mountains mountain range with
several peaks reaching over 1,350 m above sea level. The tallest, Brasstown
Bald, reaches 1,458 m above sea level.
Georgia. Tallulla Harbor in the Southern Blue Ridge
Most rivers flow south-east into the Atlantic, such as Savannah, the border
with South Carolina, the rest of the Gulf of Mexico.
The climate in Georgia is of a humid, temperate type. The average temperature
in the highlands for January is 4 °C and for August 26 °C while the coastal
plain has 6 °C and 28 °C respectively. The rainfall is around 1 250 mm per
year. Different types of sandy soils occur in the northeast – southwest
belts. The plant world varies in a similar way. The forest, which previously
covered more than half of the area, has been heavily exploited for pulp
production and agricultural purposes. However, large areas have now regained
tree, shrub and grass vegetation.
Over the past few decades, Georgia has had a fairly strong population
increase. Although the number of inhabitants increased even before the 1960s,
the state had a constant net migration, especially of African Americans. Their
share of the population is now 28 percent, but in 1910 it was 45
percent. Migration to the cities, as in the other southern states, occurred
later than in the rest of the country. After Atlanta, the largest cities are
Augusta and Columbus, all three developed within the Piedmont Plateau slope to
the plain, as well as Savannah on the Atlantic coast.
The business sector has undergone significant restructuring over the past
fifty years. Earlier, Georgia was a distinct agricultural state, where cotton
cultivation was completely dominant. Nowadays, the manufacturing industry is the
most economically important industry, although a large part of the industry is
based on products from agriculture and forestry.
The Piedmont Plateau is the most important agricultural area. Cotton is still
produced in Georgia but has largely been replaced by peanut crops (nearly half
of US production comes from Georgia), tobacco, soybeans, maize and
vegetables. The production of peaches and pecans is also significant. Based on
value, animal production is more important than arable farming. This is partly
done on an industrial scale, especially regarding the breeding of chicken and
broiler, where Georgia after Arkansas has the largest production in the United
States. The breeding of cattle and pigs is also significant.
The forest-based industry plays a big role. However, the industry's most
important industry is the textile and clothing industry. Then follows the food
industry and the chemical industry. Georgia also has a large production of
aircraft, cars and caravans. The electrical and electronic industries also play
a big role. Georgia has the largest kaolin mining in the United States, but
otherwise the mining industry is of a lesser extent.
Military and federal operations are an important economic factor. Tourism is
also of great importance. Atlanta is a major hub for roads and railways and has
one of America's largest international airports. The most important port city is
Savannah. Higher education institutions include the Georgia Institute of
Technology in Atlanta and the University of Georgia, which is headquartered in
Athens, about 100 km east of Atlanta.
Tourism and gastronomy
The tourist flow to Georgia is extensive, and the tourism industry plays a
major economic role. The range of visitor destinations of various kinds is wide
and varied. The scenery is beautiful and varied from the mountain areas in the
northwest (Blue Ridge Mountains) to the sandy beaches on the Atlantic coast (Sea
Islands with Jekyll Island, once a very mundane holiday island and now a
state-owned recreation area).
Among the state's nature conservation areas are the animal-rich swamps
Okefenokee Swamp in the southeast.
Georgia. Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia.
The opportunities for hunting and fishing attract many visitors to
Georgia. The state also has numerous historical monuments, especially from the
days of the Civil War. Almost all of Atlanta was then destroyed, while Savannah
remained undamaged, and the city's older, colonial parts were later restored.
Atlanta is the premier tourist city and has a variety of attractions,
eg. downtown Atlanta (underground), various museums, the Stone Mountain Park (25
km east of the city), Six Flags of Georgia (15 km west of the city) and major
sporting events. The city's role as the seat of the 1996 Summer Olympics further
increased its attractiveness.
As in most states in the American South, the food and ritual around the meal
of the claim plays a big role for the people of Georgia. The state is known for
its peaches that are included in many dishes, not just desserts, as well as for
Parts of Native American food culture remain in the kitchen in Georgia. Grits (a
distortion of English grouts, of the English angel's stew) is
a porridge made in Georgia by hominy, ground corn grains where the
small kernel is removed by soaking the corn with lye, a custom directly
transferred from the Indians' kitchen. Grits are served for breakfast or as an
accessory to meat dishes, then seasoned with garlic and cheese. Pan fried
summer squash is another dish with Native American roots, yellow braised
zucchini flavored with fat, today from bacon to give a smoked flavor. Country
Captain, another of the state's national dishes, not only reflects the
large industry of broilers but also has the historical roots; It is said that
the curry and garlic scented dish was composed in the port city of Savannah
during the spice trade. Otherwise, you are happy to eat calves, for example
stewed with mushrooms and peas. The dessert is given - pecan pie, pie
with the nutritionally important pecan nuts for the Indians.
As early as 1733, it was declared that all settlers had to grow wine and
mulberries, and in the 19th century Georgia was one of the nation's largest
wine-growing states. When the ban on wine production came into effect in 1907,
the entire production collapsed, and only in 1983 did four vineyards resurface
in Georgia's northern part.
The first Europeans to arrive in the area were Spaniards, but later came
Englishmen as well. These founded in 1733 a colony, led by philanthropist JE
Oglethorpe and which served as a sanctuary for freed prisoners and religious
minorities. The colony was taken over by the British crown in 1752. Upon
liberation from the United Kingdom, Georgia was one of the original 13 states of
the new Union. During the 1820s and 1930s, the Native Americans were forced to
move west and transform their areas into cotton crops. Cotton became important
during the 19th century and thus also slavery. During the Civil War (1861–65),
Georgia stood on the south side and was severely ravaged by General Sherman's
army in the final stages. After the war, the economy was in ruins, and many
cotton plantations were turned into poor small farms.
Throughout the 20th century, racial issues were fiery in Georgia, but after
the 1960s reforms, open segregation has disappeared. Politically, the state has
long been dominated by segregationist Southern Democrats, but since the 1980s,
they have increasingly voted for Republicans, and Georgia can now be considered
a typical bipartisan state.
Georgia has been named after the British King Georg II.