Georgia: Political System
Georgia is a democratic republic. At the head of the state is a president who
is directly elected by the people every 5 years. The parliament is a unicameral
system with 235 seats (150 list places and 85 direct seats).
In the course of the so-called Rose Revolution in November 2003, opposition
demonstrators under his leadership stormed the meeting room of the Georgian
parliament, which had been established as a result of electoral fraud, and
ousted President Shevardnadze. Mikhail Saakashvili (born 1967) was elected
President on January 4th and sworn in on January 25th. Due to early elections on
January 5, 2008, he was re-confirmed in office with around 53.4% of the votes
and sworn in on January 20.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
The national anthem of Georgia (Dideba zetsit kurtheuls,
"Praise be to the heavenly giver of benefits") was written by
Kote Potskhverashvili. In 1991 it became the country's official anthem.
||In the English translation
|Dideba zetsit kurtheuls
Dideba kvehnad samotkhes,
Dideba dzmobas, ertobas.
Dideba chvensa samshoblos,
Dideba chveni sitsotskhlis
Vasha trphobasa, sikvaruls
Vasha shvebasa, siharuls,
Salami chesh maritebis,
|Praise be to the heavenly giver of benefits,
Praise be to the bearer of blessings,Praise be to Paradise on earth,
the radiant Georgians,
Praise be brotherhood and unity,
Praise be to freedom,
Praise be to the eternal, lively Georgian people!
Praise be to our
Praise be the great and brilliant goal of our life;
Hail, oh joy and love,
Hail helpfulness and happiness, Hail
the truth, this light of twilight!
The national flag of Georgia, also known as the five-cross flag, was
introduced by parliamentary resolution on January 26, 2004. In the center there
is a standing right-angled cross on a silver background and four smaller crosses
in the four corners. It is the Jerusalem cross, the crosses of which symbolize
the five wounds of Christ. The silver background symbolizes innocence, chastity,
purity and wisdom. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the red of the crosses symbolizes courage, bravery, justice
Georgia: People Known
Elgudscha Dawitis dse Amaschukeli (1928 - 2002)
sculptor and painter. The statue "Kartlis Deda" from 1963 and the equestrian
statue of the founder of Tbilisi King Wachtang I. Gorgassali from 1967 come
from Elgudscha Dawitis dse Amaschukeli, who was born in
Tbilisi. He died on Elgudscha on March 10, 2002 and had his final resting place
on the Didube Pantheon cemetery found in Tbilisi. You can find more information
about the two works at Goruma under Sights.
Important Georgian composers of the 20th century are:
Sachari Paliaschwili (1871-1933)
He combined European classical music with Georgian folk music.
Otar Taktakishvili (1924-1987)
Sulchan Zinzadse (1925-1991)
Giya Kancheli (born 1935)
The composer Giya Kancheli was born on August 10, 1935 in Tbilisi
Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (1833-1887)
He was best known as a chemist, medic and composer.
Politicians and rulers
David IV David the Builder (1073 to 1125)
David was one of the most important kings of Georgia. For example, he built up a
standing army and liberated Georgia from the Seljuk Turks between 1110 and
1122. He also moved the country's capital from Kutaisi to Tbilisi. David is
considered the most important statesman in the Middle Ages in the Caucasus
Dimitri II. (Demetre II.), The self-sacrifice (1260 -1289)
Dimitri was King of Georgia from 1270 to 1289.
After the death of his father, David VII Ulu, he was still a minor, so that his
uncle Sadun Mankaberdeli ran the business of government until 1278. During his
reign, the country regained its strength - despite the occupation by the
Mongols. During this time, for example, the Metekhi Church in Tbilisi was
built. Due to an intrigue, Dimitri was accused of treason by the Mongols. In
order to use the threatened damage to the country, Dimitri voluntarily went to
the camp of the Mongol ruler Il-Khan's Arghun, where he was cruelly tortured and
later beheaded. Because of his sacrifice, he was nicknamed the self-sacrifice.
The Russian dictator Josef Stalin was born in Georgia in 1879 and died in 1953
Eduard Amwrossijewitsch Shevardnadze (born 1928)
Shevardnadze was Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1990 and the
second President of Georgia from 1995 to 2003. He died on July 7, 2014 in
Writer and poet
Prominent Georgian writers of the 19th century were:
- Ilia Chavchavadze (1837-1907) ("The Hermit")
- Akaki Tsereteli (1840-1915) ("Suliko", "The Tutor")
- Alexander Kazbegi (1848-1893)
20th century authors were:
- Grigol Robakidze (1882-1962) ("The Snake Shirt", "The
- Konstantin Gamsachurdia (1893-1975) ("The right hand of
the great master", "David the builder").
Important contemporary authors are:
- Aka Mortschiladze (born 1966) ("The Journey to
Karabakh", "Dogs of Paliashvili Street")
- Boris Akunin (born 1956), a Russian detective writer
who became the leading genre writer in Russia in the 1990s.
International prizes won:
Tengis Abuladse (1924-1994)
Magdana's donkey - Cannes 1956, Remorse - Cannes 1987
Otar Iosseliani (born 1934)
The grape harvest - Cannes 1966, Briganten - Venice 1997
Nana Jordschadze (born 1948)
1001 recipes of a cook in love - Karlovy Vary 1997, 27 Missing Kisses - Brussels
Dito Tsintsadze (born 1957)
fear of gunfire - San Sebastian 2003
Nana Ioseliani (born 1962)
She was one of the world's best chess players.
Saint Nino (around 325-361)
Saint Nino (also Nina) is considered to be the person who played a major role in
converting Georgia to Christianity. The "Georgian Orthodox Apostle Church" puts
her on an equal footing with the biblical apostles and calls her the
"Illuminator of Georgia".
She died in Bodbe in the Georgian region of "Kakheti", where she was also
buried. A church was built over her grave by King Mirian III, King from 268-345,
and an Orthodox monastery was later founded. Today it is the seat of the women's
order "Monastery of St. George"