Hawaii [Swedish pronunciation havaʹji; English pronunciation həwa: ʹi] ,
abbreviated HI, since 1959 US 50th state; 16,760 km2, 1.4
million inhabitants (2018).Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about the
northern tropic, and besides the actual Hawaiian Islands (of which the seven
largest are inhabited) many smaller islands in a nearly 2,500 km long desert
stretching in a north-west-southeast direction. The state capital is Honolulu on
the island of Oahu. There are suggestions to Hawaii to count the Midway Islands
farthest to the northwest.
Hawaii. State Map.
Terrain shapes and bedrock
The Hawaiian Islands and the underwater mountains that continue to the
northwest are all volcanoes that rise from the sea floor, 4,000–5,000 m uh The
chain of volcanoes is a clear example of volcanism caused by a so-called hot
spot, over which a seabed moves, in this case from the southeast to the
northwest. Volcanism today is active only on the largest and youngest island,
Hawaii, farthest to the southeast, where volcanoes Mauna Loa (4,169m asl) and
Kilauea (1,243m ash) often erupt. These two volcanoes are located in a national
park that was listed on UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1987.
Hawaii. The crater Puu Oo in the active shield
Southeast of Hawaii, a new island is being built up by volcanic eruptions on
the seabed. The island, which has not yet reached the sea surface, has been
named Loihi. The easy-flowing basalt lava forms shield volcanoes and has given
the younger islands their judgment form with clearly prominent craters. The
older islands in the northwest are often surrounded by coral reefs and are
heavily eroded. They are characterized by sharp-edged shapes as well as high
cliff slopes with hollowed out caves and deep ravines. The loose soil cover on
the islands consists of weathering soil and in the valleys alluvial soil with
sand and ash, usually strongly red colored by oxidized iron.
The climate is markedly oceanic and temperate due to the constant northeast
passage. The average temperature at sea level is 22 °C in January and 26 °C in
July, while the mountains can have frost and snow in winter. The rainfall varies
greatly. Mount Waialeale on Kauai has the highest rainfall on earth, 11,684 mm
per year, over a 32-year period, while Puako in Hawaii gets 240 mm per year and
Honolulu on Oahu gets 600 mm per year.
Flora and fauna
The larger islands were originally covered by lush rainforest-like
vegetation. Nowadays, especially the coastal areas are cultivated or have
received secondary vegetation with a very large element of non-native
species. The number of original veneerogam species amounts to about 2,000, of
which about 95 percent are endemic.
As a result of the highly isolated location of the desert chain, the higher
wildlife is species poor, while the insect fauna due to species formation on the
site is rich. The species originates from a few colonizers, who underwent rapid
evolution in Hawaii, where many vacant niches existed. The only native land
mammal is gray bats. Today there are four species of amphibians, one freshwater
turtle species, twelve species of lizards and one snake, but all are introduced
with human help.
When the first Polynesians arrived more than 1,000 years ago, there were at
least 88 native endemic bird species, among them seven species of geese (several
unable to fly), seven species of rallies, five species of honey eaters and at
least 42 species of Hawaiian finches. Of these, 39 species had been exterminated
as a result of introduced rats, feral pigs and hunting even when the first
Europeans arrived in the 18th century. Since then a further at least 14 species
have been eradicated, and several are on the verge of extinction. The same has
happened with a wide range of invertebrate species due to the introduced
On the smaller islands in the northwest are the endemic and highly endangered
Hawaiian monk seals (Moʹnachus schauinslaʹndi) as well as
large colonies of seabirds. The island of Laysan houses one million saturns,
further among others. fairytale, magnificent frigate bird and laysanal
batatross. Coral reefs are found around several of the islands, and humpback
whales flood in the waters.
Population and ethnography
Hawaii's original population consisted of Polynesians who immigrated from
central Polynesia until about 1100. When Captain Cook arrived in the islands in
1778, they had a population of just over 300,000. breeding of chickens and
pigs. Despite self-sufficiency economics and relatively simple technology, the
social structure was markedly hierarchical. Each island was a chief deity, whose
ruler (moi) basically owned all land and was considered an incarnate
deity, holding an extreme degree of sacred power (kapu; see
further taboo). The noble layer also had kapu, which separated them from the
"bourgeoisie". The lowest strata of society were the slaves, who, by virtue of
their negative capu, were considered unclean.
In line with the increasing European colonization, the indigenous population
(drastically from diseases such as syphilis and smallpox) was drastically
reduced to about 70,000 in the mid-1800s and only about 14,000 hundreds years
later. The commercial exploitation of the islands by sugar and (later) pineapple
plantations required a large supply of labor, and between 1852 and World War II
tens of thousands of Chinese, Portuguese, Japanese and Filipinos were
imported. This immigration history is reflected in today's very mixed
An important contribution to the documentation of Hawaiian culture and
history was made in the mid-19th century by the Swedish Abraham Fornander
(1812–87), who in 1878–85 published “An Account of the Polynesian Race” (1-3).
Hawaii's population has more than doubled since 1950. In 1980-90, the
relative increase was 50 percent higher than the US average. Thereafter, the
rate of growth has decreased and during the 00s, the population increase was
lower than in the US as a whole. The strong growth in 1950–2000 was due to both
large-scale migration and strong natural growth. The breed mix is large and
mixed marriage very common. Most of the population now lives on the island of
Oahu, which is included in the Honolulus metropolitan area. The largest island,
named Hawaii (main city of Hilo) and named for the archipelago, comprises 10,500
km2, but has just over 10 percent of the population.
Hawaii's population is largely English-speaking. Hawaiian, the original
language, is now almost dead, but lives in geographical names and street
names. Japanese and Chinese are spoken by some older immigrants. The Filipino
languages are starting to spread as a result of immigration from the
Philippines in recent years.
Tourism is Hawaii's main industry. Tourist destinations such as the capital
Honolulu, the beaches (such as Waikiki Beach) and the distinctive nature (such
as the main island of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, which was listed on
UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1987) attract more than 7 million tourists to
Hawaii each year. Tourism is estimated to provide employment (directly and
indirectly) to more than half the population.
Also of great economic importance to Hawaii are the federal defense
facilities (such as Pearl Harbor on Oahu). Agriculture is, after tourism, the
most important industry. Highly mechanized plantation agriculture mainly
produces sugar cane and pineapple. Furthermore, vegetables and macadamia nuts
are grown. The products mainly go to the US market, partly after processing in
the industry (sugar refineries, canning factories, etc.). Apart from some
production for the domestic market (for example oil refineries, steel, cement
and aluminum production), the other industry is of limited importance.
Hawaii, primarily Honolulu, is an important traffic hub for Pacific and air
traffic. Passenger traffic between the islands is by air. In the field of
education, the University of Hawaii with the East – West Center can be
Tourism and gastronomy
Tourism has become the lifeblood of Hawaii. The peculiar nature, ancient
Polynesian culture, a pleasant climate and fine beaches attract around seven
million visitors annually, most from the rest of the United States and Japan.
There are many tourist destinations. The nature lover seeks out to Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park with the active volcano Kilauea, from which since 1983
almost constantly flowing liquid lava. The huge volcanoes Mauna Loa and Mauna
Kea are also major attractions. Another popular volcano is Haleakala on Maui.
Magnificent scenery with partly very lush vegetation and rich bird life is
also found on the northern island of Kauai, which also has a number of places of
cultural and historical interest. Studies of ancient Polynesian culture can be
done in, for example, Honolulu, where the Bishop's Museum with its famous
collections is located. Also located in the capital is Iolani Palace, which is
the only royal palace in the United States.
The historically interested can also visit Pearl Harbor and Arizona Memorial
with the lowered battleship "Arizona".
Outside Honolulu is the famous Waikiki Beach, which is surrounded by numerous
hotels and various tourist facilities. All the islands, however, have an
excellent climate and nice beaches, but the opportunities for shopping and
The richness of raw materials from the sea (lobster, octopus, crab, tuna,
shark, barley mackerel) and the crops (pineapple, papaya, guava, lychee,
avocado, macadamia nuts) characterize the supply of food, which is characterized
by a slight spice. The traditional dishes include luau, pork roasted
whole in a pit in the ground lined with banana leaves, lomi lomi,
salmon salmon, tomatoes and onions, as well as dishes with poi,
starchy, mashed taro roots with mild flavor. Fresh pineapple is served with a
preference for pork. Chicken stew with tao leaves is another common dish. Bread
is often baked with bananas in the dough.
According to what can now be shown, the desert chain was inhabited even
before 400 AD. (compare Bellows Beach). Isolated from other island groups, the
inhabitants, which brought pigs, dogs, and houseplants (possibly also chickens),
developed a highly organized farming community based on fishing villages with
small earthlings. Chieftains served as spiritual heads and administrators. They
set up smart networks of walls, terraces, canals and ponds for erosion control,
irrigation, salt extraction and fishing. Large stone temples were also erected
(compare Halawa Valley). Goods and messages were conveyed through the waterway
and through cluttered paths between different ahupua'a (districts).
In proportion to its size, Hawaii had a remarkable influence on international
popular music during the 20th century. Genres such as blues, country, western
swing, jazz and drummer have all been temporarily or more profoundly influenced
by Hawaiian features.
Characteristic of the traditional music culture in Hawaii are various
variants of hula (dance) and mele (recitative song), with the
support of the pahu drum. Similar functional and ceremonial music has
been found all over Polynesia.
The European immigrants who arrived in Hawaii in the 19th century also
followed their culture, which largely broke the traditional islands. The
Protestant anthem gained a strong foothold as did brass music. Mexican cowboys
brought the guitar and Portuguese brought with them the predecessor of the ukulele, Braguinha.
Towards the end of the 19th century, attempts were made to re-create older
traditions through musical mixed forms where, for example, hula dance was
accompanied by guitar and ukulele. Typically, songs were also called hapa
haole, where Hawaiian words were mixed into an otherwise English text. New
indigenous innovative playing techniques such as slack key (open guitar
tuning) and steel guitar, also called hawaiian guitar (landscape
guitar played with chord guitar), as well as the special falsetto song, ka
leo ki'eki'e (possibly developed from the mexican jodgling), provided the
music a characteristic that we today consider Hawaiian.
The composer, as well as the former Queen of Hawaii, Lili'uokalani
(1838-1917), wrote the emblematic song "Aloha ʻOe" (1878), where the
relationship with salvation song is noticeable.
Since the US annexed Hawaii, a lively cultural exchange began, resulting in
the popularization of Hawaiian styles; Hawaiian musicians began touring and a
record market and tourism industry took off. At the World Exhibition in San
Francisco in 1915, the (in the eyes of the West) exotic music gained
international exposure. Soon its fame developed into a complete "craze", not
only in the United States (where Hawaiian-style slaughter topped record sales in
1916) but also in large parts of Europe and Asia. Sweden was visited in 1920 by
the Hawaiian singer and ukulele player Segis Luvaun (1882-1937) who sang the
butcher "Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula" at the Fenix Palace and made recordings with
Important names in the popularization of Hawaiian music were the composer and
musician John Kameaaloha Almeida (1897–1985), the falset-singing quartet Kalama
Quartet, steel guitarists Bennie Nawahi (1899–1985) and Sol Ho’opi’i (1902–53),
who both brought together Hawaiian features with jazz, as well as steel
guitarist Lani McIntyre (1904–51), who through his collaboration with Jimmie
Rodgers became of great importance for the development of country.
During the golden era of Hawaiian music around 1930-60, Hawaiian orchestras
were formed around the world and the exotic style features of the music were
used in schlager. Popularity was intensified through the US soldiers who crossed
Hawaii during World War II. In Sweden, steel guitarist Yngve Stoor
became synonymous with the genre.
With the rock and pop of the 1960s, young Hawaiians lost interest in the
over-exposed and standardized Hawaiian music. But in the 1970s, a new awareness
of one's own culture was raised. A front name in this renaissance was slack key
guitarist Gabby Pahinui (1921-80), whose acoustic style gained many
followers. Common to the Hawaiian Renaissance artists was the avoidance of steel
Today, Hawaiian music has influences from rock, hip hop, reggae (so-called Jawaiian)
and many other modern styles. Recent artists with international reputation
include the ukulele player and singer Israel Kamakawiwoʻole (1959–97).
The first Europeans came to the islands in 1778 with James Cook, who named
them Sandwich Islands. At this time, the islands consisted of several
kingdoms. In 1796 a kingdom was established under Kamehameha I, which united the
archipelago during its dynasty. During the 19th century, new immigrant groups,
including from China and Japan and also American missionaries. The Americans
soon became a political force, and tensions between them and the indigenous
kings increased. In 1893, Queen Lilioukalani was deposed, and a republic was
established with an American president. In 1898, Hawaii was annexed by the
United States and gained 1900 status as a territory.
During the 20th century, Hawaii gained a greater strategic importance, and
the United States placed bases there, among other things. a large naval base at
Pearl Harbor. US participation in World War II began since Pearl Harbor was
bombed on December 7, 1941. Hawaii long sought to gain the state of the United
States, which was realized in 1959, when Hawaii became the 50th state of the
United States. Hawaii was Americanized during the 20th century in many areas,
including politically with the Republicans as the dominant party. From the early
1960s, the Democrats have taken over the leading position in politics.