Hungary: political system
Hungary has been a parliamentary republic since 1989. The constitution of
1949, which was adapted to the new political circumstances in 1990,
applies. There has been a multi-party system in Hungary since 1989. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Hungary politics, and acronyms as well.
The head of state is the president, who is elected by the Council of Ministers
for a period of five years. Re-election is only possible one more time. The
Hungarian unicameral parliament is elected for four years and consists of 386
members. 176 MPs are elected in individual constituencies, 152 in district
lists, 58 receive their parliamentary seat from the state list.
The ministers are appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime
The prime minister, as a key executive instrument, is elected by parliament.
In the elections on April 11, 2010, the Socialists (MSZP) ruling until then only
received 19.3% of the vote. The Association of Young Democrats (FIDESZ) achieved
a sensational result with 52.8% and the right-wing radical JOBBIG party
(Movement for a Better Hungary) with 16.7%. The left-wing ecological party
"Politics can be different" (LMP) received 7.4% of the vote. The turnout was
The official name of the country is:
(Republic of Hungary)
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Hungary was written by Ferenc Kölcsey for
the competition in 1823 and set to music in 1844 by Ferenc Erkel (1810-1893),
the founder of the Hungarian national opera. It became the country's official
anthem in 1903.
top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Hungary.
In Hungarian language
|Himnusz: Isten áldd meg a magyart (God save
Isten, áldd meg a magyart
Jó kedvvel, bõséggel,
Nyújts feléje védõ kart,
Ha küzd ellenséggel;
Balsors akit régen tép,
Hozz reá víg esztendõt,
Megbũnhõdte már e nép
A múltat s jövendõt!
Kárpát szent bércére,
? Ltalad nyert szép hazát
S merre zúgnak habjai
? Rpád hõs magzatjai
Értünk Kunság mezein
Ért kalászt lengettél,
Zászlónk gyakran plántálád
Vad török sáncára,
S nyögte Mátyás bús hadát
Bécsnek büszke vára.
Hajh, de bũneink miatt
Gyúlt harag kebledben,
S elsújtád villámidat
Most rabló mongol nyilát
Majd töröktõl rabigát
Hányszor zengett ajkain
Ozman vad népének
Vert hadunk csonthalmain
Hányszor támadt tenfiad
Szép hazám, kebledre,
S lettél magzatod miatt
Bújt az üldözött, s felé
Kard nyúlt barlangjában,
Szerte nézett s nem lelé
Honját e hazában,
Bércre hág és völgybe száll,
Bú s kétség mellette,
S lángtenger fölette.
Vár állott, most kõhalom,
Kedv s öröm röpkedtek,
Zajlik már helyettek.
S ah, szabadság nem virul
A holtnak vérébõl,
Kínzó rabság Könnye hull
? Rvák hõ szemébõl!
Szánd meg Isten a magyart
Kit vészek hányának,
Nyújts feléje védõ kart
Bal sors akit régen tép,
Hozz rá víg esztendõt,
Megbũnhõdte már e nép
A múltat s jövendõt!
In the German Nachdichtung (1968 by Annemarie Bostroem)
|Give the people of the Hungarians, God,
happiness, luck and blessings,
protect them in times of war from
the enemy's blows.
To him who endured long disgrace, give
For it has paid hard enough
guilt for all time.You once led it by your hand
to the Carpathians,
That a beautiful fatherland had
Where the river Tisza, the course of the Danube
rolled its waves,
? Rpád's sons grew up,
a people was brought up.Ripe ears billowed proudly
on the lowland fields,
nectar, drops of pure gold
floss from Tokaj's wine presses.
Let our flags glow
on the Turks 'towers
storm the proud castle of Vienna Mátyas' army.But in anger you were
over our sins,
And you struck with lightning
If the Mongols still let
us hunt us with arrows, We also had to endure
the Turkish slave
yoke.Oh, how often the song of triumph rushed to us
from the wild hosts of
who were defeated.
Country, how often has even your son
fought you no less,
sausage to the grave of the children
through your own children.
The persecuted man, however, found
neither hiding place nor peace.
His own fatherland
only avoided him.
He wandered through mountains and valleys,
torn by fear and pain,
a sea of flames above him,
blood stream at his feet.
Many a castle sank into ruins,
Where once luck seemed,
death rattle, mourning sound Now fills
Oh, and no freedom sprouts
from the blood of the dead,
Only the tears of bondage flow
to the ground with grief.
Send us your mercy, God,
help the Hungarians all,
save them from a storm
on the sea of torments. To
us, who have long been hit by misfortune, give
For we have paid
debt hard enough for all time.
Writer and poet
- Ödön von Horváth(1901 - 1938)
born: December 9th, 1901 in Rijeka, Croatia, died: June 1st, 1938 in Paris
Writer, poet, playwright: folk plays and comedies in which, with an
analytical mind, the mendacious and clichéd in the lives of ordinary people
are presented becomes. In 1938 he emigrated to Paris via Budapest and
Prague. Works: 'Der Ewige Spießer' (1930), 'Stories from the Vienna Woods'
(1931), 'Faith, Love, Hope' (1936), 'Figaro lets divorce' (1937), 'A child
of our time' (1938).
- George Tabori(
born 1914) born: May 24th, 1914 in Budapest
Writer, director, filmmaker: emigrated to England in 1936, to the USA in
1947, theater director in Vienna since 1978. Mühlheim Dramatist Prize 1983
and 1990, Georg Büchner Prize 1992.
Main works: Die Kannibalen '(1968),' Sigmunds Freude '(1975),' Jubiläum
'(1983),' Mein Kampf '(1987),' Wismann und Rotgesicht ' (1990).
- Imre Kertész(born 1929)
Nobel laureate Kertész was born on November 9, 1929 in Budapest.
He survived both Auschwitz, where he was deported in 1944, and Buchenwald
and became one of Europe's leading authors. His topic is or was primarily
dealing with the Holocaust. In 2002 he received the Nobel Prize for
Literature for this. Important works by him are: "Novel of a Fateless One",
"Kaddish for a Unborn Child" or "Fiasco". He has lived with his second wife
in his adopted home Berlin since 2000. On November 15, 2012, the Imre
Kertész archive was inaugurated at the Academy of Arts in Berlin.
- János Székely(1901 - 1958)
born 1901 in Budapest, died 1958 in Berlin
, at the age of 18 fled from the Horthy regime to Berlin, where he worked as
a successful screenwriter for UFA greats such as Brigitte Helm, Willy
Fritsch, Marlene Dietrich, Emil Jannings. In 1934 he followed an invitation
from Ernst Lubitsch to Hollywood; In 1938 he emigrated for good. Persecuted
again during the McCarthy era, he spent several years with his wife and
daughter in Mexico before, already seriously ill, accepted an offer from
DEFA to Berlin in 1957, where he died.
His only great novel "Kisértés (Temptation)", which first appeared in the
USA in 1946 ("Temptation") is currently experiencing a great renaissance and
has been successfully reissued
- Ignác Semmelweis (1818 - 1865)
born: July 1st, 1818 in Buda, died: August 13th, 1865 in Vienna
Gynecologist: founder of antiseptic prophylaxis (preventive hygiene),
discovered the infection as the cause of puerperal fever, from which a third
of all women after the Childbirth died. After following his instruction to
wash hands (with chlorinated lime) before an exam or surgery, deaths dropped
dramatically. However, his findings were hardly appreciated by experts
during his lifetime. He died in 1865 in a psychiatric clinic in Vienna, to
which he had been admitted because of his dementia. The dementia was the
result of a previous syphilis infection, which he had not contracted as a
result of his work as a doctor.
- Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893 - 1986)
born: 16. 07th 1893 in Budapest, died: 22nd October 1986 in Woods Hole
Nobel Prize for Medicine (1937) for "the discoveries in the field of
biological combustion processes, especially in relation to vitamin C and
fumaric acid catalysis". 1930 he produces from paprika Vitamin C. From 1928
to 1945 professor in Szeged, from 1947 in the United States where he headed
several world-famous research institutes. He was primarily concerned with
cancer research, but also made important discoveries in the areas of
cellular respiration, biogenetics and bioelectronics.
Architects and builders
- Marcel (Lajkó) Breuer (1902-1989)
born: May 21, 1902 in Pécs, died: 1. July 1981 in New YorkArchitect and
Only student at the Bauhaus from 1920, he took over the wood workshop in
1925 and was the innovator of furniture design (first tubular steel
chair). In 1928 Breuer went to Berlin, 1935 to London, 1937 at the
invitation of Walter Gropius to Harvard; they worked together there. Breuer
was also his partner in Cambridge, Massachusetts (1937-41). In 1941 he
founded his own office. In 1952 he was commissioned to build the UNESCO
building in Paris.
Breuer is considered to be a protagonist of a not strictly rationalistic
direction of the international style.
- Jószef Hildbuilder of St. Stephen's Basilica in Budapest. It was started
in 1851 and ended in 1905 after several changes to plans. In 1868, shortly
after his death, the huge dome collapsed due to construction defects.
- Miklós Yblbuilder of the Castle Garden Bazaar and the Opera House in
Budapest. The latter in a Renaissance-like form of historicism.
- Lászlo Moholy-Nagy(1895 - 1946)
born: July 20th, 1895 in Bácsborsód, died: November 24th, 1946 in Chicago
painter, graphic artist, photographer: 1923-28 professor and co-founder of
the Bauhaus in Weimar, after the Bauhaus was ostracized, he emigrated to
1934 Chicago, representative of constructivist modernism.
- Victor Vasarely(
1919-1997) born: April 9th, 1919 in Pécs, died: March 15th, 1997 in Paris
Painter, graphic artist: after studying medicine, he studied painting and
modern art from 1927-1929. Went to Paris in 1930, where he worked as an
artist. Vasarely is a representative of the so-called Op art, which deals
with phenomena of perception and dynamic lighting effects. Grid-like figures
create the impression of spatiality through the colored and linear design,
the interaction of colored surfaces creates 'flicker effects'.
- Robert Capa(1913 - 1954)
born: November 22nd, 1913 (Budapest as Endre Ernó Friedmann, died: May 25th,
Photographer: emigrates to Paris in 1933. From 1939 he works as a photo
correspondent for "Life" the wars in Europe, Israel and Indochina He was
killed by a land mine.
- Imre Varga(born 1923)
Varga is considered one of the most important Hungarian sculptors, painters,
designers and graphic artists. A museum with his works was built in his
honor in Budapest while he was still alive.
An important work of art in Germany are the two statues of Konrad Adenauer
and Charles de Gaulle, which have been in the garden of the Adenauerhaus in
Rhöndorf am Rhein since 2001.
- Zoltán Kodály (1882 - 1967)
born: December 16, 1882 in Kecskemét, died: March 6, 1967 in
Budapest.Composer: An important representative of moderate modernism, which
turns to traditional Hungarian folk music. Close collaboration with his
friend Bela Bartok. His music pedagogical work influenced and promoted the
musical development of Hungary significantly. From 1907-1940 at the Music
Academy in Budapest, from 1946-1949 President of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, from 1961 editor-in-chief of the scientific journal "Studia
musicologica". Works: 'Psalmus hungaricus' (1923), 'Háry János' (1928),
'Missa brevis' (1944).
- Franz (Ferenc) Lehár (1870 - 1948)
born: April 30th, 1870 in Komárom, died: October 24th, 1948 in Bad Ischl
Operetta composer, military bandmaster: together with Emmerich Kálmán
founder of the reformed Viennese operetta: 'The Merry Widow' (1905), ' The
Tsarevich '(1927),' The Land of Smiles' (1929).
- Franz (Ferenc) List (1811 - 1886)
born: October 22, 1811 in Raiding, died: July 31, 1886 in Bayreuth
composer, piano virtuoso: symphonic poems, church music, oratorios. Richard
- Béla Bartók (1881-1945)
born: March 25th, 1881 in Nagyszentmiklós, died: September 26th, 1945 in New
YorkComposer, pianist: Considered a leading exponent of modernism, he
incorporated elements of Hungarian folk music that he explored in his
compositions. Works: "Music for string instruments, percussion and
- Ernst von Dohnányi (1877 - 1960)
born: 07/27/1877 in Preßburg (Bratislava), died: 02/09/1960 in New
YorkPianist, conductor, composer: head of the Budapest Conservatory,
conductor of the Philharmonic Society in Budapest, chief conductor of the
Hungarian Radio (from 1931). Opera "The Tower of Voivod" (1922).
- Emmerich Kálmán (1882 - 1953)
born: October 24th, 1882 in Siófok as Imre Kálmán, died: October 30th, 1953
in ParisComposer, music critic: one of the most important operetta composers
of his time, created the folkloric type of Hungarian operetta: 'Die
Csárdásfürstin' (1915), 'Countess Mariza' (1924), 'Die Zirkusprinzessin'
(1926). Kálmán lived in Vienna from 1908 and emigrated to New York in 1938.
- Sir Georg (György) Solti (1912 - 1997)
born: October 21, 1912 in Budapest, died: September 5, 1997 in Antibes
Conductor: General Music Director in Frankfurt am Main, Opera conductor in
London 1961-1971, Chief Conductor of the 'Chicago Symphony Orchestra' 1969-
1991 and the 'Paris Opéra' 1973-1979, chief conductor of the 'London
Philharmonic Orchestra' 1979-1983, artistic director of the Salzburg Easter
- Edward Teller (1909 - 2003)
Theoretical physicist, atomic physicist, he developed the atomic bomb
together with Bohr, Fermi and Oppenheimer as part of the Manhattan Project
in the USA under the direction of General Leslie Richard Groves
(1896-1970). He was later also involved in the development of the hydrogen
bomb, which was detonated for the first time worldwide for test purposes in
November 1952 near Bikini Atoll.
Teller studied chemical engineering at the Technical University in Karlsruhe
because of the restrictions on access for Jews in Hungary at the time. From
there, however, due to his increasing interest in the new field of quantum
theory, he switched to studying physics at the University of Munich in
1928. He obtained his doctorate in 1930 with Werner Heisenberg at the
University of Leipzig. Because of the increasing persecution of Jews in
Germany, he emigrated to the USA in 1935.
This highly talented physicist unfortunately played a role that was not very
strong in character during the anti-communist chases under Senator Mac
Carthy in the 1954s, when he was the only well-known scientist to testify
against his physicist colleague Oppenheimer and declare him a security risk
for the USA.
- Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865 - 1929)
born: April 1st, 1865, died: September 23rd, 1929
Chemist: Richard Adolf Zsigmondy received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in
1925 for elucidating the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions and for
the methods used, which are fundamental for modern Are colloid chemistry.
- Dennis Gábor (1900 - 1979)
born: June 5th, 1900 in Budapest, died: February 8th, 1979 in London
Physicist: inventor of holography (1948). The invention of the laser in the
1960s finally made possible the practical use of holography for medical
diagnostics and electronic data processing. 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Politicians and rulers
- ? Rpád (approx. 845 - 907)
son of Prince ? Lmos and Grand Duke of the united Hungarian tribes
(886-907), was able to assert himself as a leading figure after the
Hungarian conquest and became the founder of the ? Rpád dynasty. After the
defeat against the Pechenegs (893), he was elected by the princes of the
seven sub-tribes as the successor to his father lmos in the office of army
- Vajik (Stefan I. 969 - 1038)
born: 969 near Gran, died: August 15, 1038
ruler from the ? Rpáden family, who completed the Christianization of the
Magyars and ended the migration of peoples in Europe by consolidating the
territory of Hungary. Was named King Stefan I of Hungary in 1000 and
canonized in 1083 for his services to Christianity.
- Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894)
born: September 19, 1802 in Monok, died: March 20, 1894 in Turin
As editor-in-chief of the newspaper "Pesti Hirlap", he becomes the spokesman
for all nationalist Hungarians who break away from the peak of the
nationalist revolutions in 1848 Demand Austria. He organized the honved army
of the rebels and had the parliament, which had fled to Debrecen, proclaim
himself imperial administrator. After the defeat by the Austrians, he fled
to England and the USA, where he was celebrated as a national hero in
exile. After his death, the corpse was transferred to Budepest by Emperor
Franz Josef I. and celebrated triumphantly.
- Imre Nagy (1896 - 1958)
born: June 7, 1896 in Kaposva, died: hanged on June 16, 1958 in the
courtyard of the central prison in Budapest.
Prime Minister who propagated the idea of "national and human socialism"
in the context of de-Stalinization. After his removal from office in 1955,
he became the leading figure of the 1956 revolution and promoted the
democratization of the country. After the proclamation of withdrawal from
the Warsaw Pact, the uprising was brutally suppressed by the Russian
army. After being convicted of "counter-revolutionary behavior", he was
executed on June 16, 1958.
- Michael Curtiz (1888 - 1962)
born: December 24th, 1888 as Mihály Kertész in Budapest, died: April 11th,
one of the most successful and Hollywood's; made more than 100 films there
from 1926, including numerous classics such as: 'Unter Piratenflagge'
(1935), 'Robin Hood, the King of the Vagabonds' (1938), 'Favorite of a
Queen' (1939), 'Lord of the Wild West' (1939), 'The Lord of the Seven Seas'
(1940), 'Yankee Doodle Dandy' (1942), 'As long as a heart beats' (1945) and
of course 'Casablanca' (1942), for which he received the Oscar (film and
- Géza von Cziffra (1900 - 1989)
born: December 19, 1900 in Arad, died: April 28, 1989 in Dießen am Ammersee
Director, film journalist: known for his revue, dance and operetta films
(The White Dream, 1943; love for notes, 1945; Believe in me, 1947; Lambert
feels threatened, 1949)
- Peter Lorre (1904 - 1964)
born: 26.06.1904 in Rozsahegy (Rosenberg) as Ladislav Loewenstein, died:
23.03.1964 in Hollywood
outstanding actor in famous films like: "Casablanca" (USA 1942), "M" (D
1931), "The track of the falcon" (USA1941), "Arsenic and lace cap" (USA
- Zsa Zsa Gabor (born 1918)
born: February 6th, 1918 in Budapest as Sari Gabor, a
scandal- ridden actress: "Moulin Rouge" (USA 1952).
- Marika Rökk (1913 - 2004)
born: November 3rd, 1913 in Cairo as the daughter of a Hungarian architect,
died: May 16th, 2004 in Baden near Vienna,
actress, dancer, singer.
Successful star of the Ufa era from 1934. Was able to continue her career
even after World War II. Until 1987 she also played on stage in musicals and
Films (selection): The begging student (1936), Gasparone (1937), One night
in May (1938), It was a glittering ball night (1939), Hello Janine (1939),
Kora Terry (1940), women are better diplomats (1941), The woman of my dreams
(1943), The Csardasfürstin (1951)
- István Szabó (1938)
born: February 18, 1938 in BudapestDirector, screenwriter: Successful with
'Mephisto' (H 1981), among others; 'Colonel Redl (D/A/H 1985)
- Joseph Pulitzer (1847 - 1911)
born: April 10, 1847 in Makó, died: October 29, 1911 in Charleston.
founder of the Pulitzer Prize, which has been awarded annually since 1917
for special literary a. journalistic merit is awarded.
- András Balczó(born 1938)
The most successful pentathlon of all time. He was Olympic champion twice
and once on his own. He has also won ten world championships, five of them
in quick succession as a lone fighter.
- Aladár Gerevich(1910-1991)
The most successful fencer in Hungary. Earned seven Olympic gold medals,
plus one silver and two bronze medals. Even at the age of fifty, he won gold
at the 1960 Olympics in Rome.
- István Kovács(born 1970)
The first professional boxing world champion in Hungary, he is world
champion and Olympic champion in amateur boxing. Although he was world
champion, he could only win the bronze medal at the 1992 Olympics in
Barcelona. In Atlanta he won the gold medal.
- László Papp "Papp Laci"(1925 - 2003)
The most successful Hungarian in boxing history, then coach and until 1992
head of the boxing team. During his 20-year active boxer career both in
amateur and professional fields, he had fought more than 340 fights and
during this career three times the Olympic gold medal (London - 1948,
Helsinki - 1952 and Melbourne 1956) and twice the amateur European title and
also the European title won at the professional boxers.
- Ferenc Puskás(1927 in Budapest - 2006)
Hungarian football player. Puskas was one of the best football players of
the 1950s and was the captain of the Hungarian national team from 1950 to
1954. However, he was unable to prevent the 1954 World Cup defeat of the
Hungarian against the German national team in Bern with 2: 3.
After the crackdown on the Hungarian uprising in 1956, he emigrated to Spain
and played for Real Madrid from 1958, taking on Spanish
nationality. Therefore, he was able to play for the national team of Spain
at the 1962 World Cup. At the age of 39, he ended his career as a player and
became a football coach. In this capacity, he led the club "Panathinaikos
Athens" in 1971 to the final of the European Cup and was also the Greek
champion several times.
However, he returned to Hungary and became the coach of the Hungarian
national team in 1993, but fell so ill in 2000 that he could hardly leave
Theologians and philosophers
- Georg (György) Lukács (1885 - 1971)
born: April 13, 1885 in Budapest, died: June 4, 1971 there,
philosopher and literary critic, the
most important innovator of Marxist theory and philosophy in the first half
of the 20th century. Member of the Communist Party since 1918, from whose
Stalinist manifestations he later distanced himself. In 1946 he became a
member of the Hungarian parliament and one of the intellectual leaders of
the Budapest uprising of 1956. After his arrest (Minister of Education under
Imre Nagy) he was ostracized. His works were only published in the western
world, where they had a significant influence on the intellectual left.
Foxes and martens can be seen more often in the northern Hungarian low
In contrast, wolves, bears, lynxes and wild cats have become very rare.
Golden jackals, steppe iltis and raccoon dogs are also very rare.
Roe deer, wild boar and deer live in the forests.
Golden jackals are a type of dog that is closely related to the wolf. Not
counting the tail, they reach a length of 80 cm and a size of 50 cm. Most of the
time they have a golden yellow coat color, but this can change depending on the
region. In addition to carrion, golden jackals also feed on rodents, hares and
grasshoppers. Vegetable food is also part of the menu. In addition to Hungary,
it is also found in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Italy. Its main
distribution area is in North and East Africa.
You can even see mouflons in the Mátra and Bükk Mountains. The latter are
also known as European wild sheep. They reach a size of 65 to 90 cm and live on
average 8 to 10 years. Typical are the gray to yellowish colored saddle spots on
the brown fur and the horns of the males, which grow throughout life and can
reach a length of 0.45 m. The horns of the females are much shorter or
nonexistent. The mouflons have a well-developed sense of hearing and smell, but
the sense of sight is best developed. Their diet includes grasses, herbs and
woody plants, but also mushrooms and fruits.
There are still otters in Hungary, but these are threatened with extinction, as
their habitat (untouched river meadows) are becoming increasingly rare.
Hamsters, steppe birch mice, ear mice and ground squirrels live in the open
area. The latter are diurnal rodents and live on the ground in steppe areas or
grasslands. Their diet mainly includes seeds, roots, tubers, and
onions. Insects, bird eggs, small frogs and lizards are rarely on the
menu. Numerous bats live in caves and attics, such as the water bat and the
Mediterranean horseshoe bat. The latter has a head body length of about 5 cm and
a wingspan of 30 cm. Their distinguishing feature is a membranous nasal
attachment that surrounds the nostrils and extends to the forehead. Like all
bats, it sees with its ears and uses the echo alignment to orient itself by
emitting ultrasonic signals through its nose. She spends most of the night in
Many different species of lizards live in Hungary. These include the sand
lizard, the Pannonian forest lizard, the most common wall lizard and the green
lizard. With a body length of around 50 cm, the emerald lizard is one of the
four largest lizards in the world, even if 2/3 of them are on the tail. Their
diet consists of insects, spiders, worms and snails. A special feature that it
has in common with some other lizard species is that it can actively detach its
tail from its body in a dangerous situation. This wriggles for around 20 minutes
and thus distracts the robber from the fleeing lizard.
The European pond turtle lives in the south of Hungary. It has a shell length of
less than 25 cm, rarely 30 cm. Her belly armor has a transverse joint, which
enables her to fold this armor in front and behind in case of danger and thus
protect herself from predators. Their habitat is limited to standing or flowing
water with dense bank vegetation. Their diet consists mainly of animal food such
as tadpoles, small frogs, newts, water snails, crabs, dead or dying fish. In
addition to Hungary, it is also represented in Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, the
Iberian Peninsula, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Sicily, Israel, Romania, Turkey,
northern Iran, Cyprus and northern Lebanon.
But despite this widespread distribution, the European pond turtle is in
In addition to various types of snakes, there is also the slow worm. However,
this is not a snake, as one might assume at first glance, but belongs to the
lizards, and there to the sneak family.
The tail can also be thrown off in case of danger and distracts the enemy from
the actual prey by independent movements. However, the slow worm only grows back
a short piece, not the entire tail. Overall, it reaches a length of up to 50 cm,
which can vary greatly due to the growing tail stub.
The color is sand-gray to brown-black. The slow worm lives inconspicuously in
cool stream valleys, forest clearings, hedges, meadows, embankments and the edge
of the vineyards. The slow worm is widespread throughout Europe, and is also
found in North Africa. The amphibians found in Hungary include water newts,
red-bellied toads, common and green toads, tree and agile frogs, as well as
small water frogs and pond frogs.
Of the 30 occurring in Europe non-toxic snakes are found in
Hungary Äskulapnatter, the Caspian arrow snake, the grass snake and the dice
The meadow viper and the adder live from the venomous snakes
Some of the few great egrets can be seen in the reeds of the Kleiner
Plattensee and Neusiedler See. Other species of heron in the wetlands are the
purple, little and black egrets. Cormorants, stilts and avocets are more common
in the lowlands. Wild ducks and geese are just as common. Cranes, bitterns,
pheasants and Turkish pigeons. There are storks all over the country.
Great bustards are much less common and are now threatened with extinction in
Hungary. They belong to the order of the crane birds and are very shy and
sensitive to disturbance birds. In Hungary they are mainly found in national
parks. You rarely get to see them, not least because of the inconspicuous
coloring outside of the courtship. Both males and females have brown-black
patterned plumage and a light gray head and neck. The main difference between
the two is in size. The males weigh 8-16 kg, while the females weigh just 3 - 5
kg. However, during courtship the male changes significantly. Its underside is
colored white, and this is turned upside down, so that it finally turns into a
white pile of feathers. The food of the great bustard includes buds, shoots,
leaves, seeds, but also mice, lizards, grasshoppers and other small
animals. Despite its relatively wide distribution, the Great Bustard is on the
Sucker falcons, eagles and owls are also at risk. Birds of prey, such as the
sea, lesser and imperial eagles, can be seen in eastern Hungary. The black kite,
various types of woodpecker, the white stork and the triel are also common
here. The latter is a plover-like bird that is found throughout Europe, except
in the north, as well as in North Africa and South Asia.
Rare birds such as the honey buzzard and the corn corn can be seen in the Õrség
Numerous songbirds, crows and pigeons also live here.
In the low mountain ranges, deciduous forests grow with predominantly linden
trees. Pine and yew trees are only found here in places. In the higher
elevations of the low mountain ranges and in regions of western Hungary with
high levels of precipitation there are beech forests, in the lower regions oak
and ash. The Zerr oak is particularly common. In the hill countries of
Transdanubia, other tree species of the Mediterranean area are represented in
addition to sweet chestnuts. Green alder thrive in the Günser Bergland and the
Ödenburg Mountains. In the lowlands, in addition to oaks and ash trees, elms and
some types of poplar grow on the sandy and salt soils. Hornbeams and ash trees
grow in the limestone and dolomite areas. The sessile oak is typical of the
The black locust, also known as false acacia, is a widespread
tree in Hungary. It is often planted on roads because it is very
resilient. However, it is also poisonous.
There are numerous grain fields in Hungary. Sunflowers, rapeseed, maize,
potatoes and sugar beets are also crops. There are wine-growing regions in the
Tokaj region that are world-famous. The blackthorn fruits of the sloe, also
known as blackthorn, can be used to prepare jams, jellies, syrups and liqueurs.
However, they have a slight pulling effect. The flowers can be prepared as a
tea. This 3 m high shrub grows on roadsides, bushes and in sparse deciduous
forests. It is widespread throughout Europe and Western Asia.
One of the best-known medicinal plants is chamomile, which unfortunately only
rarely grows in the wild. In Hungary it thrives on soda floors as part of a
still natural vegetation. The characteristic flower of the 10 - 50 cm tall
plant, from which teas and tinctures are made, consists of yellow tubular
flowers and white ray flowers and has a very strong scent. Chamomile has
anti-inflammatory, calming, wound-healing, anticonvulsant, dehydrating and
flatulence effects. It continues to be used for menstrual cramps. However, you
should never get close to the eyes with the chamomile, as the fine hairs of the
flower can be very irritating to the eyes.
The poisonous peony was previously used as an antispasmodic and against
epilepsy. However, this effect has not been proven. It can allegedly also be
used for skin and mucous membrane inflammations, fissures, gout, rheumatism and
diseases of the respiratory tract. In homeopathy, it is used for hemorrhoids.
The green hellebore is not only poisonous, but is also used homeopathically for
meningitis, poor circulation, kidney inflammation and epilepsy.
The distribution strategy of Feldmann litter is interesting. The fruit-bearing
stems detach from the roots and are carried on by the wind. The 20 - 50 cm tall
plant has an appetizing and diuretic effect and is also used as a food and
Horehound originally comes from southern Europe and was already known, valued,
and cultivated as a medicinal plant in ancient Greece. The plant usually grows
on limestone soils, is perennial and branched. The flowering herb, which is
collected between June and August, is used. Horehound is used in many ways,
including for chronic bronchitis, gastrointestinal inflammation, for poorly
healing wounds and is used to increase the immune system. It is also used for
nervous heart disorders and as a pulmonary medicine. You can make it as a tea or
as a tincture.
The black nettle, also known as the horehound, is a medicinal plant. The plant,
which can grow up to 90 cm tall, contains diterpenes, which have a calming and
antispasmodic effect. Therefore, it is used for depression, vomiting and
nausea. It is also used in manners, arthritis and gout.
In homeopathy, an essence from the bark of black locust is used in cases of
gastric acidosis and migraines.
Sage reduces perspiration, relieves coughs, has antiseptic and wound healing
properties and is also used for abdominal diseases.
It also alleviates diarrhea and indigestion and reduces milk production (e.g.
The peony from the buttercup family is between 50 and 100 cm tall and blooms
from June to May. The large red flowers with a diameter of 12 cm and petals with
a length of 5 - 8 cm are striking. Most types of peony are common in Europe,
Asia, and North America. It prefers light and rocky mountain slopes to grow. Due
to the alkaloid paenonin, this plant is poisonous and causes gastrointestinal
complaints and vomiting and colic in excessive doses. In the correct dosage, it
can also be used as a medicinal plant.
The rare and protected fire rose is also known under the name Adonis rose and
also under the name "devil's eye". The perennial herb, which is up to 30 cm in
size, has a strong, dark rhizome and a single yellow flower that appears in
early spring. They can be found on calcareous soils, on sunny slopes, on dry
meadows and in pine forests. The distribution area includes not only Europe but
also Asia and America. Although all parts of the plant are poisonous, the leaves
are collected and dried during the strongest flowering period (April - May), as
they also contain cardiac glycosides. Therefore, the Adonisröschen is used as a
cardiac tonic, but also as a sedative for dry coughs, asthmatic and epileptic
seizures, Cramps and rheumatic pain use. However, teas and infusions should only
be consumed according to a doctor's prescription, otherwise there is a risk of
All parts of the plant of the Robinia imported from North America are poisonous,
but especially the bark and the fruits. The tree belongs to the group of
butterflies, grows very quickly and can be 20-30 m tall.
The whitish flowers grow in clusters on the tree. The symptoms of poisoning are
vomiting, convulsions, visual disturbances and insomnia.
Poisoning with the green hellebore leads to irritation of the mucous membranes
and thus to scratching in the mouth and throat. Vomiting, diarrhea, irregular
heartbeat, restlessness and cramps can also occur. Paralysis occurs much less
often, which can lead to respiratory failure.
The wormwood is used to produce the well-known absinthe. It contains thujone, a
powerful neurotoxin, which can lead to hallucinations, epileptic seizures and
ultimately to psychological damage.
Rose hip bushes, hawthorn and sloes can be found in the limestone and
dolomite regions of Hungary.
At Bugae in Kinskunság National Park you can even come across juniper.
Natural vegetation with panicle sweet grasses and wormwood leaves has been
preserved on the soda floors. A large field of poppies can be admired in the
Balaton Oberland. The rare and protected flowers include the poisonous green
hellebore, the sage, as well as the peony, Hungarian wildflower and the
poisonous fire rose.
The mountain gamander is rare and can only be found in Hungary in the Õrseg
In the Puszta the soil is too salty, so that only salt-resistant plants such as
salt aster, sea aster, sea lavender, sea lavender, steppe sage, alant and hour
flower can thrive here.
Other plants in Hungary are field litter, tuberous meadowsweet, pannoic
carnations, horehound and black nettle.
A plant introduced from America is the Robinia, also known as false acacia,
which has already been mentioned several times. It is a widespread tree in
Hungary and is often planted at the roadside because it is very hardy. However,
it is poisonous.