Indiana [indiæʹnə], abbreviated IN, State of the Midwest, USA,
located between Lake Michigan in the north and the Ohio River in the
south; 94,000 km2, 6.7 million residents (2018).The capital is
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Indiana. State Map.
The area closest to the south of Lake Michigan is influenced by the inland
ice during the recent ice ages and holds the majority of the state's
approximately 1,000 lakes. On the shores of Lake Michigan there are high sand
dunes alternating with marshy areas.
Indiana. Indiana Dunes on the south shore of Lake
Michigan is a nature park that includes both sand dunes and wetland areas.
Central Indiana consists of plains with fertile moraine clay. Southern
Indiana is comprised of a number of mountain ridges with spectacular canyons,
caves and springs. The forest areas of Indiana are concentrated to the southern
and southeastern parts. The most important tree species are noble deciduous
trees such as beech, elm, ash, sugar maple, hickory and oak.
The average temperature in January varies between −4 °C and 2 ° C, and in
July between 23 °C and 26 ° C. The average annual rainfall is 1 120 mm in the
south and 890 mm in the north.
Indiana, like other Midwestern states, has lower population growth than the
United States average. The proportion of whites is just over 86 percent. The
black population is predominantly in Chicago's suburban areas of northwest
Indiana. About 2/3 of the residents live in a dozen metropolitan areas with more
than 100,000 residents. The largest of these is
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, with just over 30 percent of the state's entire
population. Then follow Fort Wayne (431,800) and Lafayette (216,700).
The Indiana soil is very fertile and most of the state is part of the Midwest
corn belt. Furthermore, soybeans, wheat and vegetables are produced such as
tomatoes. The breeding of pigs, cattle and poultry provides great pork, meat and
egg production. Agriculture is highly mechanized and employs only a few percent
of the labor force. The greatest employment is in the service
industries. Economically the most significant is the industry. Northern Indiana
is part of the industrial belt along the Great Lakes.
In Gary, mainly heavy industry has developed. In addition to the steel
industry, for example, oil refineries, the chemical industry and the cement
industry have been located here. Other important industrial cities are Fort
Wayne, South Bend, Terre Haute and Indianapolis. Air and water pollution has
caused major problems, especially around the industrial areas on Lake
Michigan. Indiana's natural resources are mainly coal, oil and
limestone. Communication mode is excellent; major rail lines and highways pass
Indiana and provide good transport routes to important markets.
Tourism and gastronomy
Indiana hardly exhibits any major and famous tourist destinations, but
tourism nevertheless plays a relatively large role in the economy. One reason is
the state's strategic mode of transport, with a number of major thoroughfares,
which entails many travelers. Indiana was of great importance during the settler
era, and around the state there are interesting museums that reflect life during
the pioneer era. These include the memorials and reconstructed buildings that
relate to Abraham Lincoln's growing up in the southern part of the state. Some
big events, such as the Indy 500 car race in Indianapolis, also attract many
visitors to Indiana.
Like the rest of the Midwest, the state is populated by descendants of
immigrants from most of Europe and the new states of the eastern United
States. Not so many Swiss people stayed here, which is evident in a flourishing
dairy industry with cheese as a specialty. The Shaker sect had many supporters
in Indiana; their care about raw materials and functionalism in cooking has left
their mark. Corn soup with dumpling (rivel soup with corn), meatloaf
and boiled glazed parsnips are solid home-cooked food to this day, as popular as
the fast food culture's items and the thick steaks. Wine has been grown in the
state since 1804.
Indiana was originally inhabited by Native Americans, often culturally
high. The first Europeans were French explorers, fur hunters and missionaries,
who settled in the area during the 1600s. In 1763, the area became British but
in 1783 moved to the United States, where it became part of the so-called
Northwest Territory. In 1800, Indiana became its own territory and in 1816 the
state. The Indian people had resisted during a series of wars but gave up after
the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, after which Indiana was opened to
settlers. Agriculture became the most important industry, and the population
grew rapidly. After the Civil War, industry became increasingly important,
especially in northern Indiana and Indianapolis. Politically, Democrats and
Republicans have switched to power, with a certain takeover for Republicans
during the postwar period.