Indonesia: Political System
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|Republic of Indonesia/Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia is a presidential republic whose head of government is the
president and is elected every five years. He appoints the ministers. The
parliament is composed of 550 members who are elected from 69 constituencies
according to proportional representation. In addition to the parliament, there
is the regional chamber in which the 33 provinces are represented by two
delegates each. The 33 regions also include the capital region and the special
provinces, Papua and Aceh, which enjoy more autonomy. The regional chamber and
the parliament together form the MPR, the constituent assembly. Each of the 33
regions has a provincial parliament headed by a governor who must be confirmed
by the president. The voting age is 17 years.
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Indonesia was written by Wage Rudolf R.
Supratman (1903 - 1938) in 1924 and was presented to the public in 1928
at a youth congress in Batavia, which was renamed Jakarta in 1945.
|Indonesia tanah airku, tanah tumpah darahku
Di sanalah aku berdiri, jadi pandu ibuku
Indonesia kebangsaanku, bangsa dan tanah airku
Marilah kita berseru, Indonesia bersatuHiduplah tanahku, hiduplah
Bangsaku rakyatku semuanya
Bangunlah jiwanya bangunlah badannya
Untuk Indonesia RayaIndonesia Raya,
Tanahku negeriku yang kucintaIndonesia Raya,
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya
In the English translation
|Indonesia our homeland, our birthplace.
Where we all come from to watch over the motherland.
Indonesia our nation, our people and our country.
Come here, let's shout "Indonesia united".Long live our country, long
live our state.
Our nation, our people and everyone.
Then raise your spirit, raise your masses for Greater Indonesia.Choir
(sung twice in a row)
Indonesia the great, independent and free, our beloved country.
Indonesia the great, independent and free, long live great Indonesia!
Indonesia: Known People
Politicians and rulers
- Makam Pangeran Diponegoro
The rebel leader and former prince of Yogyakarte led the war on Java
1825-30. He later spent 26 years of his life in captivity at Fort Amsterdam
in Makkassar, Sulawesi.
- Mohamed Hatta
- Sultan Syahrir
Nationalist leader who was imprisoned but later became Prime Minister
- Achmed Sukarno (Soekarno) (1901-1970)
He proclaimed Indonesia's independence on August 17, 1945 and was president
from 1949 to 1967. His grave in Blitar on Java attracts numerous people
- Haji Mohamed Suharto (1921 - January 2008)
because of an alleged communist coup attempt, he took over the office of
head of government in 1966, from 1967 he became the incumbent president in
succession to Sukarna and from March 27, 1968 he officially took over the
office. He remained president of the country until 1988. About a million
left-wing people were murdered under his rule. The genocide of the
Chinese-born people in the country also took place during his tenure. His
crimes went unpunished until his death on January 27, 2008.
Writer and poet
- Pramoedya Ananta Toer (born in eastern Java in 1925) is
one of the most famous contemporary Indonesian writers, persecuted by the
regime and imprisoned several times. His main works include "The Buru
Tetralogy", "Play Me a Song of Life", "The Partisan Family".
Theologians and philosophers
- Saint Francis Xavier, (1506 - 1552), the Spanish
Basque was one of the five founders of the Jesuit order. He was the first
Jesuit missionary in Asia, especially in Indonesia, Japan, Sri Lanka. He
reached Indonesia in Melaka in 1545 and was particularly active in
Ambon. His remains are buried in Macau.