Libya Political system
Libya was under Gaddhafi as an Islamic-Socialist People's Republic
with Islam as the state religion and with the Islamic legal system (Sharia).
"Jamahiriya" means "rule of the masses". According to Gaddafi's doctrine of
direct democracy, any representation of the people by MPs was seen as a
distortion of the will of the people, so there was no parliament and no parties
in Libya. The decisions of the 450 "Basic People's Congress" were presented to
the "General People's Congress", which met several times a year, with around
2,700 members. The "General People's Congress" confirms the "General People's
Committee", consisting of 12 secretaries, which works like a cabinet and is
bound by instructions.
Until the beginning of February 2011, however, the actual power lay with Colonel
Gaddafi, his close circle and with so-called revolutionary committees, which
among other things control the work of the people's congresses.
But at the beginning of September 2011, the Libyan people celebrated their
victory over the Gaddhafi clique together with the new transitional
government. The newly elected parliament began its work in August. On October
20, 2011, Gaddafi was executed under circumstances that have not yet been fully
According to Digopaul.com,
the name of the country is:
The current (new) national anthem of the country is "Libya, Libya, Libya" It
was introduced as the national anthem of the Kingdom of Libya after the country
gained independence in 1951 and was valid until the overthrow of the monarchy by
Muammar al-Gaddafi on September 1, 1969 Then it was called "Allahu Akbar"
instead of Libya, Libya, Libya.
Abe the "National Transitional Council" formed on February 27, 2011, decided to
reintroduce the national anthem of the time together with the old flag of the
Kingdom of Libya.
The music of the hymn was composed by the Egyptian musician Mohammed Abdel
Wahab. He also wrote the national anthem of Tunisia and the national anthem of
the United Arab Emirates.
In the English translation
(The third verse is not sung because of its reference to the previous kingdom)
Oh my country! You are the legacy of the grandfathers,
May God fend off every hand that could harm you,
If you survive we don't care if we fall.
Our silent prayers are out to you
that we, oh Libya, will never prove unworthy of you
We will never return to the fetters, we have been set free
and we have set free our homeland:
Libya, Libya, Libya!2nd stanza
Our grandfathers took their swords
as the battle called them
The holy Quran in one hand, sword in the other hand
they fought until they had brought faith, peace and well-being
into the world to
them, be eternal glory
They built the foundation our righteousness,
Libya, Libya, Libya.3rd verse
Pays tribute to Idris, the descendants of the conquerors
He is the symbol of struggle and jihad
He carried our flag high
And we followed him to liberate our country
He built the glory of his throne
And raised Libya to the skies
One free Flag
over a rich country,
Libya, Libya, Libya.4th stanza
Oh son of Libya, rich son of the lions
We stand for the glory
And the glory is yours
When we started our fight, all the people were with us
May God protect our independence
Strive for the highest heights
And be ready for battle, oh our youth
life is war for the glory of our homeland,
Libya, Libya, Libya.
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, on November 17, 1977 a new national flag of Libya was introduced. It was solid
green, symbolizing the color of Islam. But it was also a reminder of the "Green
Revolution" of Muammar el-Gaddafi, which he proclaimed in September 1969, and
according to which Libya was to become a country with strong food production.
After the victory of the revolution over Gaddhafi there was the depicted
national flag for Libya.
At the instigation of France, a "Union for the Mediterranean" - or
Mediterranean Union for short - was founded in Paris on July 13th between the EU
and the countries shown in the figure. This union is a loose association of the
countries shown in the figure and has agreed on the following projects:
- Energy, medium-sized and educational project
- Keeping the Mediterranean clean
- Establishment of transnational waterways and highways
- Establishment of a common disaster control
The final declaration formulated the political goal of creating a Middle East
free from weapons of mass destruction. In addition, the member states committed
themselves to “strengthening democracy and political pluralism”. Furthermore,
every form of terrorism as well as attempts to associate a religion or culture
with terrorism were condemned.
Muammar el-Gaddafi (1942-2011)
After his return and influenced by the idea of pan-Arabism, Gaddafi, who was
trained as an officer in Great Britain, founded the "Union of Free
Officers". With his help he expelled King Idris as-Sanussi (1890-1983) in 1969
and took power in the country as the leader of a military junta. He very quickly
began to transform the former kingdom into a socialist state. The country was
renamed and restructured as the "Socialist Libyan Arab People's
Jamahiriya". Gaddafi pursued the system of people's congresses as a form of
direct democracy. In 1976 his "Green Book" was published, in which his political
ideas were presented to a broad public.
After the revolution against him and his regime, he was arrested and brutally
murdered by insurgents on October 20, 2011 while fleeing to Misrata.,
Mahmoud Al-Muntasir (1903-1970)
He became the kingdom's first head of government on December 25, 1951 until
February 19, 1954, during which time he was also the country's foreign minister.
His second term as head of government ran from January 20, 1964 to March 20,
Aguila Saleh Issa el-Obeidi (born 1944)
Aguila Saleh Issa el-Obeidi was born in Gubba on January 7th, 1944. He has been
chairman of the country's council of deputies (speaker of parliament) since
August 5th, 2014.
Abdullah Thenni (born 1954)
Abdullah Thenni (el-Thenni) was born on January 7, 1954.
He has been Prime Minister of the country since March 11, 2014, succeeding Ali
Ali Seidan (born 1950)
Ali Seidan was born in Libya in 1950.
He was Prime Minister of the country from October 2012 to March 2014 and before
that he was the Libyan Ambassador to India until 1980.
In 2011 he became a member of the opposition National Front for the Rescue of
It should be mentioned that on 10. Kidnapped by a Libyan militia in Tripoli in
October 2013, but released shortly afterwards.
He was deposed on March 11, 2014 by the Libyan parliament by means of a vote of
no confidence. Immediately after his dismissal, an arrest warrant was issued
against him, but he was able to evade its execution by fleeing to Europe.
Mahmud Jebril (born 1952)
Mahmud Jebril was born in Libya in 1952. He was one of the founding members of
the National Transitional Council and chaired its executive council from late
March to October 2011.
Since then he has been chairman of the Alliance of National Forces.
Under the rule of Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, he had studied economics in the
United States, but went back to Libya at the instigation of al-Gaddafi, where he
headed the National Economic Development Fund until the civil war.
After the outbreak of civil war, he switched to the opposition and became one of
the two foreign ministers in the transitional council.
Abu Anas al-Liby (1964-2015)
Abu Anas al-Liby was born on March 30, 1964 in Tripoli.
He was a computer expert from al-Qaeda and was one of the masterminds behind the
terrorist attacks on the US embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi in 1998 who
in October 2001 he had been placed by the FBI on the list of most wanted
At the beginning of October 2013 he was arrested in Tripoli by the US special
unit Delta Force together with the CIA and the FBI and then brought to
the USA.He was charged with terrorism in the Manhattan Federal Court on October
He died on January 2, 2015 - shortly before the start of the trial against him -
of liver cancer.
There are only a small number of animals to be encountered in the wild and
few of them are mammalian. The wide and open areas offer neither sufficient
protection from enemies nor enough food.
The richest fauna can be found in the Harudj areas. Wild boars, gazelles, fenneks
(desert foxes), striped hyenas and gerbils still
Since most of the animals native to Libya are strictly adapted to the desert
climate, it is not surprising that it is the reptile class that is most commonly
represented. Lizards and desert monitor lizards are
the most widespread; they are mainly found in the vicinity of human settlements,
as the food supply here is more abundant than that in the desert. But turtles are
also represented, even if their occurrence is strictly limited to the areas of
the coastal mountain countries.
One of the poisonous snakes in Libya is the Egyptian sand rattle otter. It
is considered one of the most dangerous snakes and a bite should be treated with
an antiserum immediately. As in all other areas with snakes, the protective
measures are high and sturdy footwear as well as avoiding bushes, rubble and old
Poisonous snakes of Libya:
Most of the birds found here are migratory birds in transit, such as swallows and swifts.
In oases Hoopoes very common, and warblers have
made themselves comfortable in shrubs and bushes. The conspicuously colored skittish
flies with their yellowish-brown plumage and white belly are
Other native birds here are palm pigeons, flamingos, bee-eaters, coots, ravens and falcons.
A typical bird of the Sahara is the Weißbürzelstein-schmätzer,
also known as the Sahara wheatear, which is particularly common in the Tuareg
regions and is called the Moula-Moula.
The curious and not at all shy bird is considered a lucky charm and
is clearly recognizable by its white hood and white tail feathers on the
otherwise pure black plumage.
The Libyan landscape is very poor in vegetation and wild plants are few and
far between. Pine trees are only found in valleys in the mountainous areas in
the coastal areas and, together with eucalyptus trees, form
part of the reforestation program. Eucalyptus is also often found together with mimosa and
the poisonous oleander trees as edge vegetation on fields. Acacia,
a tree species that is normally common in desert areas, is rather sparse in
Tamarisks are the dominant tree species in the south of the
country. There are 1-3 m high bushes or up to 10 m high trees with very long
roots that reach into the groundwater. They can also thrive on salt and
limestone soils, as they are able to excrete the salt again via glands on the
leaves. They are particularly popular as shade providers.
The only steppe areas with sparse grass and shrub growth occur in the
transition area to the Mediterranean vegetation. Resistant mastic and juniper
bushes, which are used to stony soils and a harsh climate, grow in higher
The main crops are olive trees, which are mainly grown in
the mountainous areas of the coastal region and in temperate areas, as well as
the date palm, which is the predominant plant in all oases.
Fruit trees such as orange trees, figs, almonds, peaches and mulberries are
grown under the protection of the palm canopy of the oases and in turn serve as
protection for the cultivation of wheat, barley, alfalfa and vegetables.
Oleander bushes and trees are mainly found in the vicinity
of water points and as edge vegetation of cultivated fields. It is a poisonous
plant that grows both as a tree and as a shrub and reaches a size of up to 5
m. The leathery evergreen leaves and the white or pink flowers are
characteristic. All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the fresh
leaves. After consumption, stomach pain, headaches, nausea, cramps and diarrhea
can occur. In severe poisoning, cardiac arrhythmias can also be among the
symptoms. In very bad cases, death from respiratory or cardiac paralysis can
even result. Contact can cause skin irritation.