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Libya

Libya Political system

Libya was under Gaddhafi as an Islamic-Socialist People's Republic with Islam as the state religion and with the Islamic legal system (Sharia).

Libya Political system

"Jamahiriya" means "rule of the masses". According to Gaddafi's doctrine of direct democracy, any representation of the people by MPs was seen as a distortion of the will of the people, so there was no parliament and no parties in Libya. The decisions of the 450 "Basic People's Congress" were presented to the "General People's Congress", which met several times a year, with around 2,700 members. The "General People's Congress" confirms the "General People's Committee", consisting of 12 secretaries, which works like a cabinet and is bound by instructions.

Until the beginning of February 2011, however, the actual power lay with Colonel Gaddafi, his close circle and with so-called revolutionary committees, which among other things control the work of the people's congresses.

But at the beginning of September 2011, the Libyan people celebrated their victory over the Gaddhafi clique together with the new transitional government. The newly elected parliament began its work in August. On October 20, 2011, Gaddafi was executed under circumstances that have not yet been fully clarified.

According to Digopaul.com, the name of the country is:

Republic of Libya

National anthem

The current (new) national anthem of the country is "Libya, Libya, Libya" It was introduced as the national anthem of the Kingdom of Libya after the country gained independence in 1951 and was valid until the overthrow of the monarchy by Muammar al-Gaddafi on September 1, 1969 Then it was called "Allahu Akbar" instead of Libya, Libya, Libya.

Abe the "National Transitional Council" formed on February 27, 2011, decided to reintroduce the national anthem of the time together with the old flag of the Kingdom of Libya.

The music of the hymn was composed by the Egyptian musician Mohammed Abdel Wahab. He also wrote the national anthem of Tunisia and the national anthem of the United Arab Emirates.

In the English translation

(The third verse is not sung because of its reference to the previous kingdom)

1st verse

Oh my country! You are the legacy of the grandfathers,

May God fend off every hand that could harm you,

If you survive we don't care if we fall.

Our silent prayers are out to you

that we, oh Libya, will never prove unworthy of you

We will never return to the fetters, we have been set free

and we have set free our homeland:

Libya, Libya, Libya!2nd stanza

Our grandfathers took their swords

as the battle called them

The holy Quran in one hand, sword in the other hand

they fought until they had brought faith, peace and well-being

into the world to

them, be eternal glory

They built the foundation our righteousness,

Libya, Libya, Libya.3rd verse

Pays tribute to Idris, the descendants of the conquerors

He is the symbol of struggle and jihad

He carried our flag high

And we followed him to liberate our country

He built the glory of his throne

And raised Libya to the skies

One free Flag

over a rich country,

Libya, Libya, Libya.4th stanza

Oh son of Libya, rich son of the lions

We stand for the glory

And the glory is yours

When we started our fight, all the people were with us

May God protect our independence

Strive for the highest heights

And be ready for battle, oh our youth

life is war for the glory of our homeland,

Libya, Libya, Libya.

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, on November 17, 1977 a new national flag of Libya was introduced. It was solid green, symbolizing the color of Islam. But it was also a reminder of the "Green Revolution" of Muammar el-Gaddafi, which he proclaimed in September 1969, and according to which Libya was to become a country with strong food production.

After the victory of the revolution over Gaddhafi there was the depicted national flag for Libya.

Libya flag and coat of arms

Mediterranean Union

At the instigation of France, a "Union for the Mediterranean" - or Mediterranean Union for short - was founded in Paris on July 13th between the EU and the countries shown in the figure. This union is a loose association of the countries shown in the figure and has agreed on the following projects:

  • Energy, medium-sized and educational project
  • Keeping the Mediterranean clean
  • Establishment of transnational waterways and highways
  • Establishment of a common disaster control

The final declaration formulated the political goal of creating a Middle East free from weapons of mass destruction. In addition, the member states committed themselves to “strengthening democracy and political pluralism”. Furthermore, every form of terrorism as well as attempts to associate a religion or culture with terrorism were condemned.

Famous pepole

Muammar el-Gaddafi (1942-2011)

After his return and influenced by the idea of pan-Arabism, Gaddafi, who was trained as an officer in Great Britain, founded the "Union of Free Officers". With his help he expelled King Idris as-Sanussi (1890-1983) in 1969 and took power in the country as the leader of a military junta. He very quickly began to transform the former kingdom into a socialist state. The country was renamed and restructured as the "Socialist Libyan Arab People's Jamahiriya". Gaddafi pursued the system of people's congresses as a form of direct democracy. In 1976 his "Green Book" was published, in which his political ideas were presented to a broad public.

After the revolution against him and his regime, he was arrested and brutally murdered by insurgents on October 20, 2011 while fleeing to Misrata.,

Mahmoud Al-Muntasir (1903-1970)

He became the kingdom's first head of government on December 25, 1951 until February 19, 1954, during which time he was also the country's foreign minister.

His second term as head of government ran from January 20, 1964 to March 20, 1965.

Aguila Saleh Issa el-Obeidi (born 1944)

Aguila Saleh Issa el-Obeidi was born in Gubba on January 7th, 1944. He has been chairman of the country's council of deputies (speaker of parliament) since August 5th, 2014.

Abdullah Thenni (born 1954)

Abdullah Thenni (el-Thenni) was born on January 7, 1954.

He has been Prime Minister of the country since March 11, 2014, succeeding Ali Seidan.

Ali Seidan (born 1950)

Ali Seidan was born in Libya in 1950.

He was Prime Minister of the country from October 2012 to March 2014 and before that he was the Libyan Ambassador to India until 1980.

In 2011 he became a member of the opposition National Front for the Rescue of Libya (NFSL).

It should be mentioned that on 10. Kidnapped by a Libyan militia in Tripoli in October 2013, but released shortly afterwards.

He was deposed on March 11, 2014 by the Libyan parliament by means of a vote of no confidence. Immediately after his dismissal, an arrest warrant was issued against him, but he was able to evade its execution by fleeing to Europe.

Mahmud Jebril (born 1952)

Mahmud Jebril was born in Libya in 1952. He was one of the founding members of the National Transitional Council and chaired its executive council from late March to October 2011.

Since then he has been chairman of the Alliance of National Forces.

Under the rule of Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, he had studied economics in the United States, but went back to Libya at the instigation of al-Gaddafi, where he headed the National Economic Development Fund until the civil war.

After the outbreak of civil war, he switched to the opposition and became one of the two foreign ministers in the transitional council.

Abu Anas al-Liby (1964-2015)

Abu Anas al-Liby was born on March 30, 1964 in Tripoli.

He was a computer expert from al-Qaeda and was one of the masterminds behind the terrorist attacks on the US embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi in 1998 who

in October 2001 he had been placed by the FBI on the list of most wanted terrorists.

At the beginning of October 2013 he was arrested in Tripoli by the US special unit Delta Force together with the CIA and the FBI and then brought to

the USA.He was charged with terrorism in the Manhattan Federal Court on October 15, 2013.

He died on January 2, 2015 - shortly before the start of the trial against him - of liver cancer.

Libya: animals

Mammals

There are only a small number of animals to be encountered in the wild and few of them are mammalian. The wide and open areas offer neither sufficient protection from enemies nor enough food.

The richest fauna can be found in the Harudj areas. Wild boars, gazelles, fenneks (desert foxes), striped hyenas and gerbils still live here.

Reptiles

Since most of the animals native to Libya are strictly adapted to the desert climate, it is not surprising that it is the reptile class that is most commonly represented. Lizards and desert monitor lizards are the most widespread; they are mainly found in the vicinity of human settlements, as the food supply here is more abundant than that in the desert. But turtles are also represented, even if their occurrence is strictly limited to the areas of the coastal mountain countries.

Poisonous animals

One of the poisonous snakes in Libya is the Egyptian sand rattle otter. It is considered one of the most dangerous snakes and a bite should be treated with an antiserum immediately. As in all other areas with snakes, the protective measures are high and sturdy footwear as well as avoiding bushes, rubble and old masonry.

Poisonous snakes of Libya:

Atlas otter

Horned viper

Birds

Most of the birds found here are migratory birds in transit, such as swallows and swifts.

In oases Hoopoes very common, and warblers have made themselves comfortable in shrubs and bushes. The conspicuously colored skittish flies with their yellowish-brown plumage and white belly are particularly common.

Other native birds here are palm pigeons, flamingos, bee-eaters, coots, ravens and falcons.

A typical bird of the Sahara is the Weißbürzelstein-schmätzer, also known as the Sahara wheatear, which is particularly common in the Tuareg regions and is called the Moula-Moula.

The curious and not at all shy bird is considered a lucky charm and is clearly recognizable by its white hood and white tail feathers on the otherwise pure black plumage.

Libya: plants

Trees

The Libyan landscape is very poor in vegetation and wild plants are few and far between. Pine trees are only found in valleys in the mountainous areas in the coastal areas and, together with eucalyptus trees, form part of the reforestation program. Eucalyptus is also often found together with mimosa and the poisonous oleander trees as edge vegetation on fields. Acacia, a tree species that is normally common in desert areas, is rather sparse in Libya.

Tamarisks are the dominant tree species in the south of the country. There are 1-3 m high bushes or up to 10 m high trees with very long roots that reach into the groundwater. They can also thrive on salt and limestone soils, as they are able to excrete the salt again via glands on the leaves. They are particularly popular as shade providers.

The only steppe areas with sparse grass and shrub growth occur in the transition area to the Mediterranean vegetation. Resistant mastic and juniper bushes, which are used to stony soils and a harsh climate, grow in higher elevations.

Crops

The main crops are olive trees, which are mainly grown in the mountainous areas of the coastal region and in temperate areas, as well as the date palm, which is the predominant plant in all oases.

Fruit trees such as orange trees, figs, almonds, peaches and mulberries are grown under the protection of the palm canopy of the oases and in turn serve as protection for the cultivation of wheat, barley, alfalfa and vegetables.

Poisonous plants

Oleander bushes and trees are mainly found in the vicinity of water points and as edge vegetation of cultivated fields. It is a poisonous plant that grows both as a tree and as a shrub and reaches a size of up to 5 m. The leathery evergreen leaves and the white or pink flowers are characteristic. All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the fresh leaves. After consumption, stomach pain, headaches, nausea, cramps and diarrhea can occur. In severe poisoning, cardiac arrhythmias can also be among the symptoms. In very bad cases, death from respiratory or cardiac paralysis can even result. Contact can cause skin irritation.

 

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