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Lithuania

Lithuania: Political System

Lithuania is a parliamentary democracy. At the head of the state is a president who is directly elected by the people every five years. Re-election is possible twice. The parliament is a unicameral system with 141 members, which is elected for four years. 71 members are elected by direct popular vote, 70 members by proportional representation. The Lithuanian constitution dates from 1992.

Lithuania: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Republic of Lithuania

National anthem of Lithuania

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Lithuania was written in 1898 by Dr. Vincas Kudirka composed and first performed by a choir under the direction of the composer Ceslovas Sasnauskas during a public concert on November 13, 1899. It became the country's official anthem in 1918. It was banned during the Soviet occupation. However, it has been revived since 1988.

Lithuania flag and coat of arms

In Lithuanian it is

Lietuva, tevyne musu,

Tu didvyriu žeme,

Iš praeities Tavo sunus

Te stiprybe semia.Tegul Tavo vaikai eina

Vien takais dorybes,

Tegul dirba Tavo naudai

Ir žmoniu gerybei.Tegul saule Lietuvoj

Tamsumus prašalina

Ir šviesa, ir tiesa

Mus žingsnius telydi.Tegul meile Lietuvos

Dega musu širdyse,

Vardan tos Lietuvos

Vienybe težydi.

And in the English translation

Lithuania, our fatherland,

land of heroes!

Let your sons draw strength from the past.

Let your children only follow the paths of virtue,

they work for you and for the good of others.

Let the sun banish all darkness from Lithuania,

and light and truth always guide our steps.

Let the love of Lithuania burn in our hearts

and let unity blossom for the will of our country.

 

Lithuania: Known People

Architects and builders

  • Rimantas Dicius (born 1934)

    architect

Visual artist

  • Mindaugas Simkus (born 1973)

    artist

  • Vytautas Karciauskas (born 1957)

    metal artist

Musician

  • Kazys Viktoras Banaitis (1896-1963)

    composer

  • Mikolajus Konstantinas Ciurlionis (1875-1911)

    composer

  • Jascha Heifetz (1901 - 1987)

    He is one of the most famous violinists of the 20th century.

  • Lena Valaitis (born 1943)

    pop singer

  • Doris Nefedov/Alexandra (1942-1969)

    pop singer

  • Vytautas Barkauskas (born 1931)

    composer

Natural scientist

  • Marija Gimbutas (1921-1994)

    archaeologist and anthropologist

  • Juozas Matulis (1899-1993)

    scientist, physicist and chemist

Politicians and rulers

  • Algirdas (1296-1377)

    Grand Duke of Lithuania

  • Gediminas (1257 - 1341)

    Grand Duke of Lithuania

  • Jogaila (1348 - 1434)

    Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland

  • Mindaugas I (1203 - 1263)

    Prince and King of Lithuania

  • Mindaugas II (1864-1928)

    King of Lithuania for three months

  • Vytautas (1350 - 1430)

    Grand Duke of Lithuania

  • Valdas Adamkus (born 1926)

    President of Lithuania since July 2004

  • Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas (born 1932)

    President from 1993 to 1998 and Prime Minister since 2001

  • Antanas Merkys (1888-1945)

    was Prime Minister

  • Rolandas Paksas (born 1956)

    Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2002 as well as President from 2003 to 2004

  • Justas Paleckis (1899-1980)

    Prime Minister of the Lithuanian SSR

  • Antanas Smetona (1874-1944)

    President of Lithuania from 1918 and from 1926-1940

  • Vytautas Landsbergis (born 1932)

    chairman of the independence movement from 1988-1990 and chairman of parliament from 1990-1996

Writer and poet

  • Antanas Baranauska (1835-1902)

    writer

  • Alexander Berkman (1870-1936)

    writer

  • Kristijonas Donelaitis (1714-1780)

    writer

  • Chaim Grade (1910-1982)

    writer

  • Maironis (1862-1932)

    writer

  • Tomas Venclova (born 1937)

    writer

Actors, directors

  • Laurence Harvey (1928-1973),

    Lithuanian-British actor

  • Juozas Miltinis (1907-1994)

    director

  • Audrius Stonys (born 1966)

    director and producer

Others

  • Zenonas Ivinskis (1908-1971)

    historian. He wrote the history of Lithuania.

  • Jonas Zemaitis (1909-1954)

    anti-Soviet resistance fighter

  • Algirdas Julius Greimas (1917-1992)

    semiotic

  • Juozas Luksa (1921-195)

    anti-Soviet resistance fighter

  • Vytautas Kavolis (1930-1996)

    sociologist and journalist

athlete

  • Šarunas Jasikevicius (born 1976)

    basketball player

  • Šarunas Marciulionis (born 1964)

    basketball player

  • Arvydas Sabonis (born 1964)

    basketball player

  • Povilas Vanagas (born 1970)

    ice dancer

  • Virgilijus Alekna (born 1972)

    athlete. He won gold in discus throwing in Sydney in 2000 and in Athens in 2004.

  • Nijole Sabaite (born 1950)

    athlete

  • Austra Skujyte (born 1979)

    athlete. She won the silver medal in the heptathlon at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens.

Theologians and philosophers

  • Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995)

    phenomenologist and existential philosopher

  • Audrys Juozas Backis (born 1937)

    Archbishop of Vilnius

  • Elijah ben Salomon Salman (1720 - 1797)

    Rabbi and Gaon (the Wise) of Vilna

  • Antanas Maceina (1908 - 1987)

    creator and ideologist of the Lithuanian philosophy of the modern Catholic direction.

 

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