Madagascar: Political System
Madagascar is a republic. At the head of the state is a president who is
directly elected by the people every 5 years. The parliament is a bicameral
system. It consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. The 150 members of
the National Assembly are elected for four years. Two thirds of the senators are
elected for a term of four years, one third is appointed by the head of
state. According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
République de Madagascar
Republic of Madagascar
The national anthem of Madagascar was written by the priest Pasteur Rahajason
(1897-1971) and set to music by the pianist and professor Norbert Raharisoa
(1914-1963). It became the country's official anthem in 1958.
|In Malagasy language
||In the English translation
|Ry Tanindraza nay malala ô
Ry Madagasikara soa.
Ny fitiavanay anaotsy miala,
Fa ho anao ho anao doria tokoa.REFRAINTahionao ry Zanahary
'Ty No sindrazanay ity
Hiadana sy ho finaritra
He sambatra tokoa izahay.Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô
Irinay mba hanompoan'anao
Ny tena sy fo fanahy anananay 'zay sarobidy
Sy mendrika tokoa.REFRAIN
Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô
Irinay mba hitahian 'anao,
Ka Ilay Nahary' zao ton tolo izao no
Fotogra ijoroan, ny satanao.
|Oh you beloved land of our ancestors
Oh you beautiful Madagascar
Our love for you will not wane
but will always exist for you.REFRAINYou Creator God, bless
this island of our ancestors.
She will know peace and joy
so that we may live in perfect happiness.O beloved land of our
we want to put ourselves in your service.
Our love, hearts and souls,
what we have precious and worthy.REFRAIN
O beloved land of our
blessed are you,
That the creator of the world may be
the basis of your conduct
The national flag (country flag) of Madagascar was officially introduced on
October 21, 1958. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, it is based on the white and red colors of the Hova realm. The white of today's flag symbolizes purity, red the sovereignty of the country
and green stands for hope.
Madagascar: Known People
Andrianampoinimerina (around 1745-1810)
This king of Madagascar was also the founder of the kingdom. By expanding his
power over the entire island, he founded the Merina Kingdom of
Madagascar. Because of his clever political and social measures, he is still
considered one of the country's most important rulers.
Andrianjaka (d. 1630)
The son of Ralambo ruled the so-called Imerina in Madagascar from 1610 to 1630.
But he is better known as the founder of today's Malagasy capital,
Antananarivo. Andrianjaka built his royal seat on the Analamanga hill. This was
the first palace on the site of today's Rova. According to Andrianjaka's pious
wish, his city should live to be a thousand years old, which explains the city's
name because it is derived from ho arivo an-tanana, where arivo means thousand.
D'Gary (born 1961)
The Malagasy guitarist, born as Ernest Randrianasolo in Antananarivo, has also
achieved international fame. He is currently playing with the Indian tabla
player Nantha Kumar.
Ida Pfeiffer (1797-1858)
Die 1797 as Ida Reyer in Viennaborn writer also made a name for herself as a
world traveler. In total, she covered about 240,000 kilometers by sea and 32,000
kilometers on land on four continents. She visited Madagascar in 1857 when
Ranavalona II ruled the island. Ida Pfeiffer was allowed to visit the Queen, but
was unfortunately embroiled in a plot by Ranavalona's son against his mother and
had to leave Madagascar immediately. These experiences were written down in Ida
Pfeiffer's book Conspiracy in the Rainforest. With this travelogue she has
created one of the few authentic documents that tell about the Malagasy history
from this dark period. Because at that time the island kingdom had sealed itself
off from all foreign influences.
Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo (1901-1937)
The important Malagasy writer found more and more African and Malagasy means of
expression in the 1930s with which he wrote his poems. His most famous books are
"La Coupe de Cendre" from 1924, "Sylves" from 1927 and "Vielles Chansons de Pays
d'Imerina" from 1939.
Charles Rabemananjara (born 1947)
The politician, born in Ampatsakana-Antananarivo in 1947, was Prime Minister of
Madagascar and held office from 2007. At the same time he was army general.
Radama I. (1783-1828)
The son of Andrianampoinimerina became ruler of the Kingdom of Madagascar in
1810. As his father had suggested, Radama I. subjugated the entire island by
1824. He established a cabinet based on the English model, de facto abolished
slavery and opened Madagascar to missionaries.
Radama II. (1829-1863)
Radama II ruled as King of Madagascar from 1861 to 1863. The son of Ranavalona I
pursued a moderate policy, with which he came back to foreign countries. With
his special rights to the French (Charte Lambert), he also laid the foundation
for the later colonization by the French. He was murdered in 1863 for his
The Prime Minister of Madagascar, who was in office from 1864 to 1895, concluded
important treaties with some western states, finally abolished polygamy and
slavery and was very tolerant of local traditions. Furthermore, he operated a
massive upgrade of the school system, the army, the legal system as well as the
social, health and police systems.
Andry Nirina Rajoelina (born 1974)
The politician, who has been the self-proclaimed president of Madagascar since
2009, previously worked as a professional DJ and was the mayor of Antananarivo
for two years.
Gabriel Ramanantsoa (1906-1979)
The politician who was President of Madagascar from 1972 and 1975 was also Prime
Minister of his country at the same time.
Ranavalona I. (around 1782-1861)
The ruler of Madagascar, blessed with the short name Rabodoandrianampoinimerina
when she was born, ruled the country in a harsh and cruel manner after the death
of her husband, Radama I. Not only did she indiscriminately torture and execute
her, it also forbade the practice of the Christian faith.
Ranavalona II. (1829-1883)
The widow of Radama II, who ruled Madagascar as queen from 1868 to 1883, made
Protestantism the state religion and carried out a massive westernization of the
island. It ensured remarkable economic growth, had schools built and the law was
codified for the first time. At the same time, there were increased conflicts
Ranavalona III. (1861-1917)
The last Queen of Madagascar ruled from 1883 to 1897 and had to sit out the
first war with France, after which her position was considerably weakened. After
another French attack in 1896, Madagascar was declared a French
protectorate. The queen was deposed in 1897 and died in exile in Algeria in
Raymond Ranjeva (born 1942)
The Malagasy lawyer and former Vice President of the International Court of
Justice received a professorship at the University of Madagascar in 1981 and
soon afterwards became dean of the law faculty there. After he was even
appointed rector of the University of Madagascar in 1988, he was elected as a
judge to the International Court of Justice in 1991. From 2003 to 2006 he served
as the Vice President of this court.
As the successor to her cousin Radama II, Rasoherina came to the Malagasy throne
in 1863 (until 1868). Under her, constitutionally extended rights for foreigners
and local Christians were permitted and the participation of nobles and chiefs
Didier Ratsiraka (born 1936)
Ratsiraka served as President of Madagascar from 1975 to 1993 and from 1997 to
2002. After he had established a socialist government during his first term in
office and lost to Albert Zafy in the 1993 elections, he was able to reign as
president from 1997 to 2002.
Marc Ravalomanana (born 1949)
From 2002 to 2009, Ravalomanana was President of Madagascar. Despite the
improving economic and infrastructural situation in the country, the people in
the country had to carry a high economic burden. There were also corruption
problems. Ravalomanana achieved the greatest recognition with its development
plan for Madagascar, the Madagascar Action Plan published in 2006. In 2009,
however, there were demonstrations against Ravalomanana's administration. He was
accused of enrichment and corruption. After the situation escalated several
times, Ravalomanana resigned as president in 2009.
About 95% of the animals living in Madagascar are endemic, the mammals even
almost 100%. Endemic means that they are only found in Madagascar. However,
birds are an exception, only half of them are endemic.
There are around 110 species of mammals here - including over 70 species of
lemurs. Furthermore, around 260 bird species, 205 amphibian species, 300 frog
and 400 reptile species have been observed so far.
The whole is complemented by around 100,000 species of insects and 300 species
of butterfly species discovered to date. Amazingly, many of the local animal
species were only discovered after 1990.
It should be mentioned that there are no predators or highly poisonous snakes
here, with the exception of crocodiles and the sneak cat.
The ancestors of most animals came to the island from Africa 60 to 70 million
years ago via what was then still a very narrow waterway - although Madakascar
had already separated from the mainland around 90 million years ago. Because of
the increasing isolation from the mainland, the animals had developed into those
The most famous and popular animals of the island continent
of Madagascar are the lemurs, of which there are around 70 different
species. They only occur in Madagascar.
The lemurs belong to the order of the primates (primates) and to the
subordination of the wet-nosed monkeys (Strepsirrhini), whereby the designation
half-monkeys has been considered obsolete for some time.
The weight, and thus its size, ranges from 30 grams of the Berthe mouse lemur to
the approx. 10 kg heavy Indri.
Depending on the species and region, their fur ranges in color from white,
gray-brown to black. Most of them are not colored in the same color, but are
sometimes white and black.
They have a very long and furry tail. The large eyes are particularly noticeable
on their often hairless face.
The animals live in trees and feed on leaves, fruits, plant debris and
nectar, but some species are omnivores and also eat insects, spiders, millipedes
or small mammals and bird eggs. Their young initially live in leaf nests, only
to be carried around later under the mother's stomach and then on their back.
Madagascar has an area of 587,041 km² and is therefore a lot larger than
Germany (357,050 km²). It is therefore not surprising that the animals - even
within a species - can clearly differ in their appearance, behavior and eating
habits depending on the region.
With the exception of the central highlands of the island, where they are
rather sporadic, they can be found all over the island.
The fruit bats belong to the class of mammals (Mammalia), to the order of the
bats (Chiroptera) and to the suborder "Megachiroptera". The family of the fruit
bats (Pteropodidae) comprises around 40 genera with around 200 species and a
number of subspecies.
They are relatives of the bats.
In addition to Madagascar, the animals are also found in the tropical and
subtropical regions of Africa as well as in the Seychelles,
southern Asia, Australia and western Oceania.
In Europe , the animals do not occur - with the exception of the Egyptian bat
Flying foxes can reach a wingspan of up to 170 cm and some have a length of
up to 40 cm (head-trunk). Flying foxes are usually crepuscular or nocturnal,
while during the day they often hang upside down on trees in large colonies. In
contrast to the bats, they do not orientate themselves with the help of
ultrasound - with the exception of the rosette bats. Rather, they have
well-developed eyes and an excellent sense of smell. Due to the warm climate in
their habitats, the animals do not hibernate or hibernate.
The animals are vegetarians and feed mainly on nectar, pollen, fruits and
There are around 60 endemic species of chameleons in Madagascar. A total of
over 170 species live here.
Taxometrically the family of chameleons is divided into the sub-cases "real
chameleons" (Chamaeleoninae) and "stump tail chameleons" (Brookesiinae).
- In contrast to the "real chameleons, the stump-tailed chameleons are
characterized by a rather inconspicuous coloration - mostly brown and green. In
addition, they only have one type of tail, which is usually only a few
- The subfamily of the" Real chameleons are divided into the following genera:
dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) with 14 species, Calumma with 32 species,
Chamaeleo with 2 subgenera and a total of 52 species, Furcifer with 21 species
and the genera Kinyongia with 10 species and Nadzikambia with only 1 species.
The subfamily of the "stump tail chameleons" is divided into the following
Brookesia with 26 species, Rhampholeon with three sub-genera and a total of 14
species, and the genus Rieppeleon with 3 species.
The following is a selection of some of the species:
- Amber Mountain Chameleon (Calumma ambrensis
- Antimena Chameleon (Furcifer antimena)
- Bibron Chameleon (Calumma nasutum)
- Campan Chameleon (Furcifer campani)
- Canopy Chameleon (Furcifer wilsii)
- Small chameleon (Furcifer minor)
- Shorthorn chameleon (Calumma brevicornis)
- Labord's chameleon (Furcifer labordii)
- Madagascar giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti), with a total length of 70 cm,
it is the largest chameleon world
- Nashornchameleon (Furcifer rhinoceratus)
- Parson's chameleon (Calumma parsonii)
- Perinet -Chameleon (Calumma gastrotaenia)
- Carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis)
- Warty chameleon (Furcifer verrocusus)
- dwarf chameleon (Brookesia micra), with a size of about 3 cm it is the
smallest chameleon in the world
Chameleons are characterized by a high degree of visual acuity due to their
special cornea. In this way, the animal can recognize potential enemies early
and take shelter in the leafy trees. In addition, both eyes protruding from the
head can be moved independently of each other.
With the help of its sling tongue - comparable to a rubber band - which pops out
of its mouth in fractions of a second, prey animals have no chance of fleeing.
The well-known possibility that the animals can change their color is used for
camouflage but also for communication between the animals.
The Parsons chameleon (Calumma parsonii) - from the subfamily of the real
chameleons - can be up to 70 cm long and is one of the largest representatives
of the chameleons in Madagascar. The animal is found only in the north and east
of Madagascar - especially on the island of Sainte Marie. The smallest
representative of the local chameleons is dwarf chameleon (Brookesia micra) with
a size of only 3 cm.
The genera Oplurus and Chalarodon belong to the Iguanidae family. With the
exception of one species, which is also native to the Comoros, all animals of
the genus Oplurus are endemic to Madagascar. That is why they are called
Malagasy iguanas. The Ankarafantsika National Park is home to two species of
- Madagascar iguana (Oplurus cuveiri)
- Madagascar spiny iguana (Oplurus cyclurus).
On the rocks in Anja Park in Ambalavao you can watch the species Grandidier's
Madagascar iguana (Oplurus grandidieri) sunbathe.
The Malagasy crocodiles belong to the genus of crocodiles (Crocodylus) and
the species Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and used to be native to many
of the island's lakes and rivers. Nowadays the Nile crocodile is rarely found in
the wild. It should be noted that they are considered sacred by some of the
island's population groups. The crocodiles are now bred on farms and their meat
is processed into pies and steaks and their skin into crocodile leather goods. A
detailed description of the Nile crocodile occurring here can be found at
Goruma here >>>
snakes There are no poisonous snakes dangerous to humans in Madagascar, but
there are numerous non-poisonous snakes. A total of around 62 different species
of snakes from three families live here.
The strangler snakes living here can be up to 3 m long, which from a length of
around 2 m can also be dangerous for a healthy adult.
The Boaschnangen (Real Boas or Boas) belong to the
family Boinae and the subfamily Boidae. They occur in Central and South America
to the Pacific region with American Samoa.
In Madagascar, the two genera "Acrantophis" and "Sanzinia" occur with their
two species that have no subspecies. They are:
- Acrantophis dumerili (Dumerils Madagascarboa)
- Acrantophis madagascariensis (northern Madagascarboa)
The genus Sanzina has only one species, it is the "Madagascar dog-headed boa"
(Sanzinia madagascariensis) with the two subspecies:
- Sanzinia madagascariensis madagascariensis
- Sanzinia madagascariensis volontany
The Madagascar dog-headed boa is the most famous snake species in Madagascar.
Platelet sea snake
The very poisonous platelet sea snake (Pelamis platura) can also be found in the
waters around Madagascar. A detailed description of the snake can be found at
Goruma under: Plate sea snake
As already mentioned at the beginning, of the around 260 bird species living
here, a little less than 50% are endemic, i.e. birds that only occur here
The glutton with the Latin name "Mycteria ibis" belongs to the stork family
These birds are found south of the Sahara as well as in Madagascar. Its beak is
yellow and stands out from its red face. The plumage of the animal is white -
except for black edges on the wings. The legs typical of storks are
red-orange. The animals grow to an average height of 1 m. Their diet consists
mainly of fish or frogs, they nest in larger colonies on trees - often in the
vicinity of human settlements.
Birds of prey, Madagascar sea eagles
There are 16 species of birds of prey in Madagascar, such as pilgrim falcons,
owls and eagles. Particularly noteworthy is the Madagascar sea eagle, the
heraldic animal of Madagascar
Madagascar has around 65 species of songbirds and three species of gray and
Flamingos are mainly found at a salt lake in the south of the island. They have
flown many 100 km from Africa to breed here. They are one of the few vertebrates
that can drink the salty water and survive here well under quite extreme
Madagascar weaver (Fody)
The Fody is a species of sparrow with a brown-gray color that can be found all
over the island. During the mating season between November and April, however,
the bird is wonderful to look at, as the back and chest of the males turn bright
red during this time.
The malachite kingfisher is a very colorful bird, which
is also found in Germany
bog duck The Madagascar bog duck from the genus "Aythya" is one of the rarest
ducks in the world - there are said to be only around 19 specimens of this
We have put the Latin names in brackets for the following birds that occur in
Madagascar - especially for bird lovers:
- Blue Vanga (Leptopterus madagascariensis)
- Madagascar Heron (Ninox superciliaris)
- Black fork drongo (dicrurus forficatus), a species of raven with a
striking tuft of feathers on its head
- Crested silk duckuck (Coua cristata)
- Helm-Vanga in the Marojejy area with a strikingly large blue beak
- Holy ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), it occurs in the west in the delta of
- Little ratite (Atelornis pittoides)
- Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis ibis)
- Kurol (Leptosomus discolor), the bird is related to the cuckoo;
- Madagascar teal (Anas bernieri), its distribution area lies in the west
in the Mahavavy Delta;
- Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus), its range is in the west in
the delta of the Mahavavy River
- Madagascar Falcon (Falco newtoni newtoni)
- Madagascar eared owl (Asio madagascariensis)
- Madagascar heron (Malagasy: Vorompasika) Its distribution area is in the
west in the delta of the Mahavavy
- Madagascar robin (Copsychus albospecularis)
- Madagascar short-toed eagle (Eutriorchis astur)
- Malagasy cuckoo bird (Centrophus toulou)
- Mane ibis (Lophotibis cristata)
- Plilger falcon: (Falco peregrinus radama), it is the heraldic animal of
the Rova Palace and the Malagasy royal family
- Giant kua (Coua gigas)
- Barn Owl (Tyto alba affinis)
- Sickle vanga (Falculea palliata)
Beetles, butterflies and other insects
There are probably well over 100,000 species of insects in Madagascar. Many
are still not cataloged or researched. Some bugs, butterflies and other insects
in alphabetical order:
In the forests of Madagascar one can find small leeches that can attach
themselves to the skin and even to the eyelids.
Flies and mosquitoes
Unfortunately there are many flies and mosquitoes on the island - especially
outside the cities. The sand fleas that live in the sand on the beaches cause
extremely itchy and long-lasting stings. Since the female of the "Anopheles
mosquito" can transmit malaria, appropriate prophylaxis must be taken. It occurs
particularly in the warm and humid climate of the east coast.
There are around 20,000 known beetles on the island,
some of which are several centimeters long. Particularly noticeable is the male
giraffe beetle with its bright red body, which merges into a long and bent neck.
lovers get their money's worth here. There are 3,000 species on the island, of
which the "Charaxes andara" is strikingly beautiful. It should be mentioned that
there are butterflies with a length of approx. 50 cm
There are 12 species of scorpion and over 400 species of spiders in Madagascar,
including the "Nephila komaci", the females of which reach a body length of 3 cm
and a leg length of 12 cm. This makes it the largest species of spider in the
Millipedes, giant spherical millipedes
The giant millipedes have a strikingly colorful body
and an astonishing size. Curled up giant spherical millipedes (Sphaerotheriida)
can grow as big as an orange. They take on their spherical shape in case of
danger. Their diet consists of old leaves and rotten wood.
Wasps and bees hardly differ in their behavior and way of life from animals in
The chirping concert of the cicadas is known to most from the Mediterranean area
- some love their song and others find it extremely annoying.
The humpback whales (megaptera novaeangliae) are native to the Indian
Ocean. These whales can be over 15m long - with a weight between 30 and 40 tons
(1 ton = 1,000 kg).
During their mating season and the birth of the young (mid-August to September),
the animals come to the coasts of Madagascar. In the east of the island in the
Bay of Antongil and around the island of Ste. Marie can be seen during this
time. There are trips to whale watching.
Fish and other marine animals
Numerous species of fish and other marine animals live off the coast of
barracudas, captains, rays or swordfish as well as octopuses, lobsters, crabs,
oysters and sea urchins. But there are also sharks here. Therefore you should be
careful when bathing.
The large coral reefs in front of "Toliara" and around "Nosy Be" are a true
underwater paradise for divers and snorkelers.
More animals in Madagascar
Below is a brief and alphabetical description of some of the other
interesting animals found on Madakar:
or river pig This hoofed animal native to the island is
a subspecies of the African bush or river pig -
unfortunately the animal has become quite rare in Madagascar.
In addition to the flying foxes, there are three species of bats on the island,
of which the "pteopus" is on the list of specially protected species.
F crispness (Mantellidae)
It is estimated that there are in Madagascar more than 400 different species of
frogs and many are still not known and cataloged nichr. The orange-red golden
frog (Mantella Aurantiaca), which can only grow up to approx. 24 mm, is
wonderful to look at. It belongs to the family of Madagascar
frogs (Mantellidae) and the subfamily Mantellinae. Also worth mentioning is the
tomato frog (Dyscophus antongili), up to almost 11 cm in size, which belongs to
the animal family close-mouth frogs (Microhylidae) and the
Belongs to subfamily deaf frogs (Dyscophinae). It gets its name from its red to
reddish brown color.
Ge ckos There
are 70 species of geckos in Madagascar. Worth mentioning is the strikingly
green, green Madagascar day gecko (phelsuma madagascariensis). The geckos feed
on insects. It is fascinating that the animals can also run up vertical walls
with the help of their suction feet. There are both diurnal and nocturnal types
of climbing on vertical surfaces. They are divided into diurnal and nocturnal
species and can be found all over the island
rat The Madagascar rat (Hypogeomys antimena) is a rodent from the subfamily
Nesomyniae, with around 15 different species. The animals The size of the
animals is quite variable and ranges from the size of a mouse to the size of the
rats native to Europe. The largest representatives are the rat kangaroos or
Votsotsas (Hypogeomys antimena) - with a length of up to 35 cm. Although their
appearance is reminiscent of small kangaroos, they are not related to
them. Their diet consists mainly of fruit that has fallen from trees. They live
in long and relatively deeply dug caves.
Creeping cat or frettcat
The creeping cat Fossa or frettcat is the largest
predator on the island with a head to tail length of approx. 1.40 m. Their diet
consists mainly of birds and smaller mammals. A number of these cats have a
resemblance to the gorse cats or the mongoose. There are 8 different species of
this cat in Madagascar.
This type of cat is bred at the Duisburg Zoo
Over 60 species of tortoises are known worldwide, 9 of which are found in
The most common and best-known turtles in Madagascar are the up to 40 cm long
radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) from the genus Astrochelys. On the
other hand, the beaked breast
turtles (Asterochelys yniphora) are very rare. On Madagascar one can still find
some species from the family of pelomedus tortoises (Pelomedosidae), which is
also widespread in the rest of Africa. This family of animals has the two genera
Pelomedusa and Pelusios. The turtles that live here from the family are the
Pelusios castaneus, Pelusios subniger and the Pelomedusa subrufa.
Other turtles found here are the spider tortoises (Pyxis arachnoides) and the
flat-backed tortoise (Pyxis planicauda), the rail tortoise (Erymnochelys
madagascariensis) and the smooth-edged jointed tortoise (Kinixys belliana).
The endangered species "Geochelone yniphora" and "Pyxis planicauda" are bred in
the turtle reserve in Ampijoaroa.
Tanrek or Tenrek
Depending on the species, the Tanrek or Tenrek is related to the European
shrews, moles or hedgehogs. There are about 30 species of the animal represented
in Madagascar. The smallest species of this animal weigh only a few grams and
the largest up to one kilogram. Some species prefer the ground as their habitat,
others climb trees to forage and some are even aquatic life. There are types
with bristles and others with fur as well as fur-bearing ones. The big tenreks,
the striped tenreks and the hedgehog tenreks are worth mentioning. The animals
complement the menu of the local people.
The Zebusrind be mentioned here as a frequently encountered livestock in
Madagascar. Its Latin name is "Bos taurus indicus. It is particularly common in
the savannah landscapes of the south and west. Far more of these cattle live on
the island than there are people here
Madagascar is home to more than 12,000 plant species, more than 80% of which
are endemic, meaning that they only occur here. Among them are around 40 endemic
tree species. Other peculiarities of the flora of the island state are:
- Of 170 palm species, 165 are found in Madagascar
- The Didiereaceae plant family with all species is also only found in
Madagascar. The Malagasy people like to use them as fences.
- Madagascar has almost 1,000 species of orchids, around 85% of which are
- There are eight different baobab species worldwide. Six of them are endemic to
Madagascar. This makes Madagascar one of the most biodiverse countries in the
The aloe plants (Aloe vera) with their milky-white juice are mainly used for
skin diseases. This species belongs to the genus of aloes (Aloe) in the
subfamily of the Affodill plants in the family of the grass tree plants
(Xanthorrhoeaceae). The plants either have no trunk and if they do, then it has
a diameter of about 10 cm. The aloin contained in aloe has a strong laxative
effect, which is why it can also be used for constipation. The plant was
introduced to the island
The spurge plants (Euphorbiaceae) are a family of plants in the order of the
Malpighia-like (Malpighiales). Worldwide there are about 240 genera with about
6,000 different species. The milkweed family comprises around 700 different
species in Madagascar. The milkweed family includes:
- Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), which occurs mainly in Central and South
America but also in Madagascar.
- Christ thorn (Euphorbia milii), it occurs with numerous subspecies in
- Rubber tree, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), it also occurs in Madagascar
The legumes (azuki beans) are divided into around 700 genera with around 15,000
known species. The plants can be herbaceous or also trees, shrubs and
lianas. They usually have a relatively high protein content, making their fruits
and seeds an important part of the human diet. They are almost indispensable,
especially in the case of a low-meat, vegetarian or vegan lifestyle. Examples of
legumes used as food for humans and animals are for example azuki beans, green
beans, peas, peanuts, chickpeas, lima beans or lentils and lupins as well as
soybeans and vetches.
Baobab trees The baobab trees - also known as baobabs
- are not only a real eye-catcher for nature lovers. The baobab trees
(Adansonia) are a genus from the subfamily of the wool tree family
(Bombacoideae) in the family of the mallow family (Malvaceae). They reach a
height between 5 and 30 m. There are only eight different species of the baobab
species worldwide - seven of them grow in Madagascar and six of them are even
endemic. There is another type of baobab in Australia.
The baobabs are large and often bizarre growing deciduous trees. They are
characterized by a relatively short, extremely thick trunk and the tree crown
consists of strong, often misshapen appearing branches that form a widely
spreading crown. In the unleaved state, the crown of branches is reminiscent of
a root system, which has contributed to the legend that the baobab tree is a
tree planted upside down. The gray-brown to gray bark is between 5 to 10 cm
thick and is hard on the outside and fibrous on the inside. Therefore, the trees
can withstand smaller bush fires quite well.
The sweet fruits are used as fruit or for the production of fruit juices and
confectionery, and precious oil is extracted from the seeds. Ropes, ropes,
straps, strings for musical instruments, baskets, nets and fishing lines are
made from the fibers of the bark. The dried bark is used, among other things, as
a remedy for fever.
The genus Ravenala is endemic to Madagascar. The tree species (Ravenala
madagascariensis) from the genus Ravenala is used as an ornamental plant in many
tropical areas worldwide because of its colorful flowers. The tree can reach a
height of 10 to 15 m, with the leaves of the plant up to 3 m long. It is
interesting that rainwater collects in the leaf base.