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Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands: Political System

The Marhall Islands are a republic in free association with the United States, which is responsible for defense. According to Western European understanding, the form of government is a mixed parliamentary-presidential system. The offices of the head of state and the head of government are united in the function of the president.

Marshall Islands: Political System

The parliament, Nitijela, with 33 members is elected by the people for four years. The MPs in turn elect the head of government, who recruits the cabinet from the MPs. The Council of Iroij, which consists of 12 tribal chiefs, supports the parliament with regard to customs and traditions.

The official voting age is 18 years.

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Republic of the Marshall Islands

The state consists of 29 coral atolls and five islands, which are divided into the following 33 administrative districts:

Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje

National anthem

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, forever Marshall Islands, since 1991. Text and music are by Amata Kabua (1928-1996).

Marshall Islands flag and coat of arms

The Mashallesian text

Aelon eo ao ion lometo;

Einwot anger ko loti ion dren elae;

Kin meram in Mekar jen ijoilan;

Erreo an romak ioir kin meramin mour;

Iltan pein Anij eweleosim woj;

Kejolit kij kin ijin jikir emol;

Ijjamin Ilok jen in aolemo ran;

Anij an ro jemem wonakke in kej rammon Aelin no am.

The German text

My island is beyond the ocean;

Like a wreath of flowers on the sea;

With light from Mekar from high above;

It seems full of life with brilliant rays;

Our father's wonderful creation;

Inherited to us, our motherland;

I will never leave my dear, lovely home;

God of our forefathers protect and bless the Marshall Islands forever.

The English text

My island lies o'er the ocean;

Like a wreath of flowers upon the sea;

With a light of Mekar from far above;

Shining with the brilliance of rays of life;

Our Father's wondrous creation;

Bequeathed to us, our Motherland;

I'll never leave my dear home sweet home;

God of our forefathers protect and bless forever Marshall Islands.

 

Nuclear weapons tests

Nuclear weapons tests, aborigines

Nuclear Weapon Tests

After the Allies' victory over the Germans and Japanese, a conflict quickly arose with the Soviets under Stalin. A few months after the end of the war, the "Cold War" that lasted until 1989 began.

After the atomic bombs (A bombs) were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasakí on August 6 and 10, 1945, the USA continued to work intensively on smaller and more effective nuclear weapons, which soon included hydrogen bombs (H bombs) in addition to A bombs. In the case of A bombers, the energy of the explosion is obtained by splitting uranium 235 or plutonium 239. In the case of the H-bomb, on the other hand, the much higher energy is generated when hydrogen is fused into helium. This process, which takes place slowly there, is the source of the sun's energy.

With promises, money and gentle pressure, the US had persuaded the residents of Bikini Atoll to move to other islands. This paved the way for numerous nuclear weapons tests in this region.

As part of the so-called "Crossroad Project", the first A-bomb with an explosive force of 23 kT (kilotons TNT) was detonated there on June 30, 1946. The bomb was named "Able" and was detonated in the lagoon of the atoll. A few weeks later - on July 24, 1946, a bomb of roughly the same strength called "Baker" was detonated at a depth of 26 m. The resulting huge water column collapsed shortly after the explosion and contaminated the place of the explosion in a special way. A number of ships that - of course without crews, but often with animals - were exposed to the tests and are now lying on the sea floor, have now become a popular destination for divers.

On February 28, 1954, an H-bomb called "Bravo" with an explosive power of 15 MT (mega = million) was detonated on Nam Island.

A total of 67 nuclear weapons tests were probably carried out there by 1958

The indigenous people

With the help of money and more or less strong pressure, the indigenous people became willing to leave the atoll and settle on another uninhabited island.

But the relocation to the Rongerik Atoll turned out to be a disaster for the people - not least because of the considerable supply bottlenecks due to the poor supply situation. Therefore, after only a few months they wanted to be brought back to their homeland, which was simply impossible in view of the ongoing tests and the radioactive contamination. It was only about two years later that they were shipped to the island of Kwajalein, where they literally vegetated in tents next to the airport buildings for about half a year. From there they went to the remote island of Kili, where they have been dependent on outside supplies ever since.

Under President Lyndon B. Johnson, the islanders began to return after 1968 and houses were built. Due to the lack of military transport problems, the move was extremely arduous and took place very slowly. Measurements of the radioactivity in 1972, 1975 and 1977 showed that the drinking water and the fruits growing on the atoll were highly polluted and could not be consumed. Despite the supply from the USA, the people from there had to be evacuated again at the end of 1978. There is currently no agreement in science as to when the Artoll will be fully habitable again. Pessimists do not expect this before the year 2040.

In the meantime, however, the islands are no longer a restricted area, so the ships that have sunk in the lagoon have become a popular destination for wreck divers. According to experts, there is no danger for the divers.

The bikini

The bikini - a very tight two-piece swimsuit - is named after the Bikini Atoll.

The reports of the US nuclear weapons tests on the atoll inspired the French fashion designer Louis Réard to call his new swimsuit a "bikini". He promoted his creation with: "le bikini, la première bombe an-atomique", which he presented to the public on July 5, 1946 in a Paris swimming pool. Because of the expected scandal, no regular model wanted to introduce the two-piece. He therefore resorted to a stripper from a Paris nightclub. Predictably, a cry of indignation rose over the "immoral" garment, which was surprisingly much more violent than the condemnation of the bombing attempts.

 

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