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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea: Political System

Papua New Guinea: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country of Papua New Guinea is:

Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea

The state is a constitutional monarchy whose head of state is the Queen of England, currently Elizabeth II. This is represented by the Governor General in Papua New Guinea. He is elected by parliament for six years and is bound by the instructions of the cabinet that the prime minister has formed. The governor general must be a citizen of Papua New Guinea.

The head of government is the prime minister, who is appointed by the governor general in parliament.

There is a unicameral parliament with 109 seats, which is freely elected every five years.

A large number of parties are represented in parliament, which are not composed on the basis of a party program, but rather according to interest groups and personalities.

The party structures are accordingly very unstable.

The voting age is 18 years.

The state is made up of the following provinces:

  • Bougainville, with an area of 9,300 km2
  • Central, with an area of 29,500 km2, with about 145,000 residents and the capital Konedobu
  • Gulf, with an area of 34,500 km2, with around 70,000 residents and the capital Kerema
  • East New Britain, with an area of 15,500 km2, with approx. 190,000 residents and the capital Rabaul
  • East Sepik, with an area of 42,800 km2, with approx. 255,000 residents and the capital Wewak
  • Eastern Highlands, with an area of 11,200 km2, with approx. 300,000 residents and the capital Goroka
  • Enga, with an area of 12,800 km2, with approx. 240,000 residents and the capital Wabag
  • Madang, with an area of 29,000 km2, with approx. 255,000 residents and the capital Madang
  • Manus, with an area of 2,100 km2, with approx. 33,000 residents and the capital Lorengau
  • Milne Bay, with an area of 16,202 km2, with around 160,000 residents and the capital Alotau
  • Morobe, with an area of 34,500 km2, with approx. 380,000 residents and the capital Lae
  • National Capital District, with an area of 240 km2, with approx. 190,000 residents and the capital Waigani
  • New Ireland, with an area of 9,600 km2, with approx. 88,000 residents and the capital Kavieng
  • North Solomons, with an area of 9,300 km2, with approx. 155,000 residents and the capital Arawa
  • Oro, with an area of 22,800 km2, with about 100,000 residents and the capital Popndetta
  • Sandaun, West Sepik, with an area of 36,300 km2, with approx. 140,000 residents and the capital Vanimo
  • Simbu, with an area of 6,181 km2, with approx. 185,000 residents and the capital Kundiawa
  • Southern Highlands, with an area of 23,800 km2, with about 320,000 residents and the capital Mendi
  • West New Britain, with an area of 24,575 km2, with around 130,000 residents and the capital Kimbe
  • Western, with an area of 99,300 km2, with approx. 105,000 residents and the capital Daru
  • Western Highlands, with an area of 8,500 km2, with approx. 340,000 residents and the capital Mount Hagen

National anthem

The national anthem of a country is a piece of music that is usually underlaid with a text and is intended to express the state, lifestyle and national feeling of a country. It is usually played on particularly festive occasions, such as state visits, special holidays or to honor politicians, business leaders, etc. But also at the award ceremony on the occasion of international sporting events such as the Olympic Games, the Tour de France or World and European Championships, the national anthem comes respective winning country for performance.

The national anthem "Arise, all you sons of this land" of Papua New Guinea was written and set to music by Tom Shacklady, a former Australian marine.

In English

O arise all you sons of this land

Let us sing of our joy to be free

Praising God and rejoicing to be

Papua New Guinea.Chorus

Shout our name from the mountains to seas

Papua New Guinea.

Let us raise our voices and proclaim

Papua New Guinea.Now give thanks to the good Lord above

For his kindness, His wisdom and love,

For this land of our fathers so free,

Papua New Guinea.Chorus

Shout again for the whole world to hear

Papua New Guinea.

We're independent and we're free,

Papua New Guinea.

And in the English translation

Oh, arise all the sons of this land,

let's sing of joy to be free

And praise God and be happy

Papua New Guinea.Gets the name from the mountains to the sea

Papua New Guinea.

Let's raise our voices and proclaim

Papua New Guinea.Now thank God above us

for his kindness, wisdom and love,

for this land of our fathers so free

Papua New Guinea.Call again for the whole world to hear

Papua New Guinea.

We are independent and we are free

Papua New Guinea.

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national flag of Papua New Guinea was designed in 1972 by 15-year-old Susan Karike, who won the competition with her design.

The flag is divided diagonally and shows the Southern Cross as white stars in the lower black part. A yellow bird of paradise can be seen in the upper red part.

The winner describes her idea as follows: The stars represent the legend of the five sisters who cried out for yams when they were hungry. The white color stands for the lime with which the betel nut is chewed in the country.

The colors red and yellow are the colors that a variety of the country's flowers have.

Papua New Guinea flag and coat of arms

Papua New Guinea: People Known

Visual artist

  • Timothy Akis: contemporary artist
  • Jakupa Ako: contemporary artist
  • Ruki Fame: contemporary artist
  • Cecil King Wungi: contemporary artist
  • Kaipel Ka: contemporary painter
  • Simon Gende: contemporary painter
  • Mathias Kauage: contemporary painter
  • Gickmai Kundun: contemporary painter, sculptor
  • Gigs Wena: contemporary painter
  • John Siune: contemporary painter
  • Mary Gole: contemporary sculptor
  • David Laise: The New Ireland artist designed the facade of the National Museum and Art Gallery in Port Moresby according to traditional patterns from different tribes.
  • Archie Brennan: The artist designed the facade of Parliament in Port Moresby according to traditional patterns.
  • Michale Mel and Anna Mel: contemporary performance artists

Writer and poet

  • Vincent Eri: The writer was the first native writer to publish the novel "The Crocodile" in 1970.
  • Russell Soaba: The local writer published the novel "Maiba" in 1985.
  • Sir Paulias Matane: The writer was extremely productive. His works include "My Childhood in New Guinea" from 1972 and "Aimbe the Pastor" from 1979.
  • John Kasaipwalova: He wrote the book "Sails Towards the Midnight Sun" which is based on legends of the Trobiands.

Papua New Guinea: Animals

Mammals

Most mammals belong to the marsupials, as there was a land connection between Papua New Guinea and Australia. Nevertheless everything has developed a little differently here. The kangaroos live on the trees and are called tree kangaroos accordingly.

There are six different types of these small marsupials. They share this ecological niche with the couscous, which is also a marsupial. Both are now threatened with extinction due to the deforestation of the rainforests. Marsupials also include bag martens, opposums, bag mice, and wallabies.

Echidna is another notable mammal.

Another notable mammal is the beaked hedgehog, which makes its home at heights of 300 to 3000 m. Characteristic is the long flat tail and especially the flat, broad, leathery and tactile beak. The ears are barely visible and the paws also have webbed feet between the grave claws. The crepuscular solitary animal feeds mainly on worms, snails, crabs and mussels. The male has poison thorns on its hind legs, but they are harmless to humans. It is unusual that the females lay eggs and hatch them, but the hatched young are then suckled. Shortly before the female lays the egg, it forms a pouch into which the egg then migrates and is incubated there for about 10 days. In the bag are also the mammary glands, on which the hatched young animal then sucks. The beaked hedgehog is related to the platypus.

Reptiles

Crocodiles, monitor lizards

The 3.50 m tall New Guinea crocodile can be encountered in the freshwater rivers and lakes. The saltwater crocodile, which is the largest living crocodile, is slightly longer, with the longest animal ever measured being 6.2 m long. It lives in coastal waters, mangrove swamps and at estuaries and is relatively widespread. Its distribution area includes the coasts of Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Burma and Cambodia, the Philippines, the Bismarck Islands, Australia and the Solomon Islands. This crocodile has been protected since the late 1970s.

Monitor lizards are not uncommon, Papua and emerald monitor lizards are more common, but Komodo lizards are also represented.

Snakes (non-venomous)

Snakes are not uncommon in Papua New Guinea, and snakes are both venomous and harmless. The non-poisonous include the bright green emerald python and the green tree python.

Poisonous animals

One of the most venomous snakes in the world is the local inland taipan.

The Papuan royal brown snake and death otter are also highly poisonous.

The Great Blue-Ringed Octopus is very pretty to look at, but no less dangerous. The name is derived from the bright blue rings that appear on the yellowish basic color and often represent a warning to attackers. The octopuses should therefore not be annoyed because their saliva is highly toxic due to a nerve poison and leads to paralysis of the muscles. In humans, paralysis of the respiratory muscles usually leads to death.

The great blue-ringed octopus has tentacles around 7 cm long, lives on coral reefs and should be avoided if possible.

The cone snails, especially the conus species, are also dangerous. They shoot down tiny poison arrows that can penetrate the skin of humans. The consequences of this are swelling, severe local pain, vomiting, symptoms of paralysis and, in the worst case, even heart failure. The cone snails live mainly in the mud and on sandbanks and feed on worms, mollusks and other marine organisms. You can easily recognize them by their net-like patterned housing.

Of the scorpion fish that live in the sea, not all species are dangerous.

Usually these fish are difficult to spot because they can camouflage themselves perfectly. You should therefore be careful, because many species have poisonous spines or poison glands. In addition to severe pain, the symptoms then include nausea, vomiting, sweating and local necrosis. However, there are no known deaths.

Birds

Most species of the bird of paradise are represented in Papua New Guinea - it is not for nothing that it is also depicted on the national flag. Nonetheless, the colorful and beautiful bird is now threatened with extinction. The bowerbird, which is related to the bird of paradise, is widespread and well known, and Papuan hornbills are not uncommon either.

The flightless cassowaries, a subspecies of the Emu, about 1.70 m tall, have become very rare. It is better not to annoy them, as a kick with the leg can be life-threatening. Last but not least, this is due to the fact that they have a ten cm long claw on the inner toe, which can be used as a very effective weapon.

The ground-dwelling crowned pigeon is endemic (only present in Papua New Guinea). With a size of about 76 cm, it is one of the largest pigeons and can be easily recognized by its blue-gray plumage and the characteristic hood on its head. Despite the ground-dwelling species, it builds its nest in the trees, whereby the clutch consists of only one egg.

The 25 cm tall birds with their black and orange plumage, which belong to the Pitohui bird genus, are somewhat unusual. By feeding on the poisonous Melyridae beetles, they have stored the poison in their feathers, skin and even in their muscles. In this way they protect themselves from possible predators. These extraordinary birds were only discovered in 1992.

Insects, spiders

The largest butterflies in the world, the birdwings, live in the Arfak Mountains. This also includes the Queen Alexandra bird wing, which is the largest of all bird wings with a wingspan of almost 30 cm. These colorful butterflies have become very rare and their population is endangered.

The spider spider and the braided spider are common spiders.

Bees, wasps, flies and ants also live here. And don't forget the numerous species of mosquitoes.

There is a lot to discover for divers around Papua New Guinea. Rainbow fish, sawfish, seahorses and octopuses up to 5 m long live here. On the outer coral reefs one can encounter manta rays, but also reef and hammerhead sharks and other types of sharks, various types of rays, mackerels, barracudas and large schools of tuna are at home in these waters. Toad, mandarin and scorpion fish feel particularly at home in Kimbe Bay. Manatees, dolphins and orcas, on the other hand, have become rather rare here.

You have to be careful of sea snakes, almost all of which are very poisonous, and of the equally dangerous cone snails.

Papua New Guinea: Plants

Trees

The coast of Papua New Guinea is lined with mangroves, while acacias and eucalyptus trees grow at altitudes of 1,000 to 2,000 m in the south of the country.

Of course, palm trees also make up a large part of the trees, which in the rainforests of Papua New Guinea, as in other rainforests, have a rather poor stand. Woods such as B. Merbauholz are very popular in the furniture industry and are cut down on a large scale.

Crops

The most common crops include bananas, sweet potatoes, coastal coconut palms, cocoa pods and the pineapple. The skins of the pumpkins are used in a variety of ways, for example. B. as a musical instrument or as dishes. In the lowlands, there are entire forests of sago palm trees, which are a staple food for the locals. Sago, a starch thickener, is obtained from the pulp of the palm.

In the lowlands, there are entire forests of sago palm trees, which are a staple food for the locals. Sago, a starch thickener, is obtained from the pulp of the palm.

Poisonous plants

Caution is advised with the bean. She has hair, which, similar to the stinging nettle native to Europe, can cause severe stinging of the skin and skin irritation when touched.

More plants

In the ever-dwindling rainforests, the variety of plants seems to be almost infinite. Around 2000 species of orchids have been counted to date. There are several types of carnivorous plants, as well as numerous tree ferns, mosses, and lichens that frolic on the ground and trees.

An extremely remarkable plant is the rafflesia, which is the largest flowering plant in the world with a flower diameter of up to 1 m. It grows exclusively in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia and only blooms for 5-7 days. The Rafflesia lives parasitically, as it taps the roots of other plants and thus gets the necessary nutrients. It has no stem, roots or leaves, gives off a carrion odor and is therefore also pollinated by flies.

 

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