San Marino: Political System
San Marino has been a republic since 1599, making it the oldest republic in
the world. The unicameral parliament, the Grand and General Council (Consiglio
Grande e Generale), consists of 60 members. They are elected every five years by
a population of at least 18 years of age.
The highest executive in the country is the State Congress, which is responsible
for implementing the decisions of the council. In contrast, there is no head of
government in San Marino..
The heads of state are two collegially incumbent "government councilors"
(Capitani Reggenti) who are elected every six months by the parliament
(council). Their inauguration takes place on April 1st and October 1st. All
citizens entitled to vote (Arengo) are convened twice a year on the Sunday after
the inauguration of the Capitani Reggenti and are given the opportunity to
submit proposals and requests of general interest to the Consiglio Grande.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|Republic of San Marino
(Repubblica di San Marino)
The hymn of San Marino
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the hymn of San Marino (Inno Nazionale della Repubblica) is a piece of
music without text and was composed by the violinist and composer Federico
The hymn was declared the official hymn of San Marino by the "Consiglio Principe
e Sovrano" - the highest legislative body of the republic - at the session of
September 11, 1894. In the same year it was officially played for the first time
on the occasion of the inauguration of the government palace.
It sounds regularly every six months - on April 1st and October 1st - at the
inauguration of the new Capitani Reggenti.
Famous people from San Marino
Federico Consolo (1841-1906)
This violin player and composer composed, among other things, the hymn of San
Umberto Eco (1932-2016)
The famous Italian writer, philosopher, columnist, media scientist and, of
course, semiotics became world famous primarily through his novel "The Name of
The long-standing professor at the University of Bologna, who has received 33
honorary doctorates, is connected to San Marino to the extent that he founded
the associated International Center for Semiotic and Cognitive Studies at the
UniversitÓ degli Studi di San Marino in 1988, where he also established until
1995 held a teaching position.
Eco died on February 19, 2016 in Milan.
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
The famous Italian freedom fighter and protagonist of the so-called Risorgimento
was also called the “hero of two worlds” in recognition of his deeds, because he
was militarily active not only in Italy but also in South America.
After the suppression of the revolutions of 1848/49 Garibaldi had to flee to San
Marino and in 1861 received citizenship of the small country.
Marinus of Rab (d. 366)
St. Marinus is considered the founder of San Marino. According to tradition,
this stone mason is said to have come from the island of Rab across the Adriatic
to today's Croatia because he had fled from the persecution of Christians by
Allegedly he founded the dwarf state on September 3, 301. According to legend,
he died in 366.
Manuel Poggiali (born 1983)
The motorcycle racer, who was born in San Marino in 1983, was able to claim his
first Grand Prix victory in France in 2001.