Somalia: Political System
Somalia is a republic. The transitional parliament consists of 245 appointed
members. The Transitional National Government (TNG) tries to exercise state
authority, but has only a very limited influence. She represents the country in
the United Nations and in the Arab League. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Somalia politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
Republic of Somalia
The national anthem of the Republic of Somalia has been the following text
Qolobaa calankeedu, waa ceynoo,
Qolobaa calankeedu, waa ceynoo,
Innaga keenu waa, Cirkoo kale ee,
Oon caadna lahayn, ee caashaqaye
Xidigyahay cadi, waad na ciidamisee,
Xidigyahay cadi, waad na ciidamisee,
Carradaa kaligaa adow curadee
cadceeda sidee lo caan noqo ee
Cishadad dhalataad calooshayadii
Cishadad dhalataad calooshayadii
Sidii culaygii cidaad marisee
Allow ha ku celin cawoy dhaha
In the English translation
Each nation's flag has its own color.
Each nation's flag has its own color.
Ours is like heaven above us without the slightest sign of a cloud, which is
why we learned to love her.
Oh you white star, we are at your service
Oh you white star, we are at your service
You are superior, in every part of our country
Be known/famous oh star, like the sun
Our hearts have belonged to you
since the day you rose. Our hearts have belonged to you since the day you rose.
Purified in purity,
O Allah, don't cloud the flag, this is what we pray for this night
The national flag (country flag) of Somalia was officially adopted on October
12, 1954. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the five-pointed star symbolizes the five areas in which Somali live. The blue base color stands for the sky and the Insular Ocean, on which Somalia
top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Somalia.
Somalia: Known People
Iman Mohamed Abdulmajid (born 1955)
Iman Mohamed Abdulmajid is a Somali photo model from Mogadishu who also achieved
fame as an actress. Star Trek VI (1991) and Heart of Darkness (1993) are some of
the major films in which the model, known for short as "Iman", appeared.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (born 1964)
This Somali sheikh, originally from Shabeellaha Dhexe, has been elected
President of Somalia's interim government since early 2009. The moderate
Islamist was able to prevail against Nur Hassan Hussein and Maslah Mohamed Siad
Barre, the son of the former dictator Siad Barre. Neither Ahmed nor the
transitional government is recognized by the radical Islamist al-Shabaab, which
rules large parts of southern Somalia.
Mohamed Farah Aidid (1934-1996)
Aidid is one of the best-known political leaders in Somalia's civil war. The
Somali called warlord acted as the military leader of the United Somali
Congress. This was the main cause of the fall of the dictator Siad Barre in
1991. Aidid fought fierce battles with Ali Mahdi Mohammed, who also claimed the
now vacant office of president, which were particularly fought in Mogadishu.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born 1969)
In 1969, Ayaan Hirsi Ali was born in Mogadishu, a Dutch politician who is very
active as a women's rights activist and critic of Islam. Their origins are of
Somali origin. From 2003 to 2006 Ali was a member of the Tweede Kamer der
Staten-Generaal for the VVD.
Mohamed Siad Barre (1910 or 1919-1995)
Barre was a Somali officer who served as President of Somalia from 1969. He had
usurped this office in a military coup. If he initially undertook very popular
reforms, he led to the so-called Ogaden War against Ethiopia in 1977 and
1978; Somalia lost this war. Since the 1980s, his policies have become more
repressive and corrupt, resulting in Barre being fought by numerous guerrilla
movements and ultimately overthrown in 1991.
Antonio Cecchi (1849-1896)
The Italian explorer Antonio Cecchi died in Mogadishu in 1896. The Africa
researcher traveled extensively to and through the black continent, was the
first to describe the Galla states in detail and to produce fascinating studies
of different peoples and their languages. Since 1894 Cecchi has been the consul
general in Zanzibar. When he was on a research expedition on the Benadir Coast,
he was attacked by Somals and killed together with some companions near
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar (1908-2007)
The Beledweyne-born politician served as Somalia's first president from 1960 to
1967. Aden Adde, as Daar is also called, was considered moderate and
level-headed, but under pressure from Somali nationalists, at least
rhetorically, it represented an aggressive foreign policy that quickly isolated
the young country. Mogadishu Airport, Aden Adde International Airport, is named
Ayub Daud (born 1990)
The Somali soccer player Ayub Daud was born in 1990 in Mogadishu. He currently
plays for the Italian record champions Juventus Turin.
Waris Dirie (born 1965)
The former mannequin and photo model works today as a writer and UN special
ambassador on the subject of genital mutilation. So far she has written the
novels "Desert Flower" ("Desert Flower", 1998), "Nomads Daughter" ("Desert
Dawn", 2002) and "Children of Sorrows" ("Desert Children", 2005). In 1999 she
received the German Africa Prize in 2004 the Women's World Award and the Oscar
Romero Prize. The Vienna-based Waris Dirie Foundation "Desert Flower" maintains
projects in Somalia, Senegal and Sudan.
George Nganyuo Elokobi (born 1986)
The Cameroonian football player, who was born in Mogadishu, is currently playing
for English first division club Wolverhampton Wanderers.
Nuruddin Farah (born 1945)
The Somali author, born in Baidoa in 1945, is one of the most important and
influential African writers of contemporary literature. In his works he deals
extensively with the situation of women in today's Somalia.
Abdisalam Abdulkadir Ibrahim (born 1991)
The Somali-Norwegian soccer player Abdisalam Abdulkadir Ibrahim was born
in Mogadishu. He currently plays for Manchester City and Scunthorpe
United. Ibrahim can also be proud to be the first Somali footballer to play in
the Premier League.
K'naan (born 1978)
In 1978, Kaynaan Cabdi Warsame, who is now known as K'naan, was born in
Mogadishu. By the way, the Somali-Canadian hip-hopper is a nephew of the late
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (born 1962)
Farmajo, as M. Abdullahi Mohamed also calls himself for short, is the current
Prime Minister of Somalia from Mogadishu. In his inaugural address he formulated
the goals of his ministry: restoring security in Somalia and curbing corruption
in the government.
Ali Mahdi Mohammed (born 1939)
The Somali politician and warlord Ali Mahdi Mohammed was proclaimed the new
President of Somalia in 1991 after the overthrow of dictator Siad Barre. He came
into conflict with Mohammed Farah Aidid, who claimed this office for
himself. The result was the start of a devastating civil war.
Mustafa Mohamed (born 1979)
Mustafa Mohamed, a Swedish obstacle and long distance runner of Somali origins,
was born in 1979 in Mogadishu. He achieved his first major successes at the 1998
Junior World Championship.
Abdisamad "SpawN" Mohamed (born 1985)
Born in the Somali capital Mogadishu, "SpawN", a former Swedish Counter-Strike
player and one of the most prominent e-athletes in the world, also came from.
Alexander Graf von Schönburg-Glauchau (born 1969)
The German journalist and writer, Alexander Graf von Schönburg-Glauchau, was
born in Mogadishu in 1969. He is also head of the Count's branch of the
Yasmin Abshir Warsame (born 1976)
The Canadian supermodel was born in Mogadishu in 1976 and is now under contract
with IMG Models and NEXT Model Management. Warsame was also the youngest member
of the jury for Canada's Next Top Model.
The wildlife in Somalia has been massively decimated as a result of the long
civil war and the prevailing anarchy. Therefore it is currently impossible to
get an overview of which animals still exist.
It is therefore questionable whether the animals shown here, for example, can
still be found in the country.
A detailed and illustrated representation of the dromedary can be found here >>>
The Hunter antelope (Beatragus hunteri) - also known as Hiola - is a species of
antelope from the genus Beatragus in the red hartebeest tribe (Alcelaphini) in
the family of horned bearers (Bovidae). The animals have a shoulder height of
about 100 cm, with an average weight of 75 kg. Their horns can be up to 70 cm
long. The animals live in groups of up to 30 animals and prefer open grass
plains, where they especially feed on grass. Mating takes place between March
The males of the small kudu (Ammelaphus imberbis) can weigh up
to 100 kg - with a shoulder height of up to 1 m. The females are slightly
smaller and can weigh up to 60 kg.
Only the males have screw horns up to 90 cm long. The animals are gray-brown in
color and have up to 15 narrow, white horizontal stripes on their bodies from
the shoulders to the base of their tails.
There are two white spots on the neck. The legs are brown. The animals prefer
acacia forests and dense undergrowth. Their diet consists of leaves and
grass. They are found in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania.
A detailed description of the lesser kudu can be found here >>>
A detailed description of the black-backed jackal can be found here >>>
Somali wild donkey (Equus asinus somaliensis) is a subspecies of African wild
donkey (Equus asinus) in the kind of the horse (Equus) in the horse family
The animals have a shoulder height between 110 to 130 cm, with a head-trunk
length of about 180 to 210 cm. Their ears become over 8 inches long.
These donkeys are gray-brown in color on the back, while the belly and legs
are almost whitish. Most of the time they have a dark back stripe and sometimes
one or two horizontal stripes in the area of their shoulders. The legs are
strikingly striped, which distinguishes the African donkey from the Asian
The donkey lives in small herds and uses kicks with its hind legs as
protection from enemies. The animals feed on grasses, bushes and desert plants
and are particularly active at dawn and dusk. Their young - rarely two - gives
birth to the female after a gestation period of around 12 months. The occurrence
of the African wild ass is limited to Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia.
Somali wild dog
The Somali wild dog (Lycaon pictus somalicus) is a subspecies of the African
wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the genus Lycaon in the family of dogs
(Canidae). The wild dog family reach a head-trunk length between 70 to 110 cm
with a shoulder height between 30 and 40 cm, whereby the animals in the south of
Africa are larger than in the east. The black and dark brown basic color is
covered with brown, reddish, yellow and white spots, whereby the coat pattern is
different for each animal. Since the coat has no undercoat and is coarse and
short, the bare, black skin shines through in some places. Therefore the animals
appear to the layman as if they were sick.
They live together in packs that are led by an alpha pair, the female gives
birth to a young after about 375 to 390 days. In packs, they usually hunt
antelopes, gazelles, impalas and warthogs. The animals are diurnal and have no
fixed territories. In Somalia the animal lives mainly in semi-deserts and stone
Gemsbok, Oryx gazelle
The Gemsbock (Oryx gazella) - also known as Gemsbock or Oryx gazelle - belongs
to the genus of oryx antelopes (Oryx) in the subfamily Antilopinae in the horned
bearer family (Bovidae).
A detailed representation of the animals can be found here >>>
monkey The southern vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) is a species of
primate from the family of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecidae). It is one of the
six species in which the
animals reach a head-trunk length between 40 to 60 cm, with a tail with a length
up to 70 cm. Their weight is between 4 and 6 kg, with the males being larger and
heavier than the females. Their fur is gray-green on top, while the underside is
Her hands, feet and face are black, but this is framed by light hair on the
cheeks and forehead. Like all green monkeys, the males of the southern green
monkey have bright blue testicles and a red penis.
You can find the animals from Ethiopia and Somalia through Kenya and Tanzania
down to South Africa, where they prefer open forests and savannahs - but can
also be found in the vicinity of humans. They are diurnal and can be found both
on the ground and in trees, where they mainly spend the night. They live
together in groups that can contain up to 50 animals and consist of several
males, numerous females and their cubs.
The following linked reptiles are shown in detail at Goruma and also mostly
African house snake
The African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus) - also known as the brown house
snake - is a non-poisonous snake with an average length of 95 cm.
Cross-banded tree snake The cross-banded tree snake
Cross-barred Tree Snake (Dipsadoboa flavid) belongs to the genus Dipsadoboa in
the family Colubridae and is a non-toxic and mostly tree-living snake. It
reaches a length of about 60 to 80 cm.
Rock python (Python sebae)
Spotted house snake
The spotted house snake (Boaedon maculates) is a non-poisonous snake. The males
reach a length between 60 to 80 cm, the females between 80 to 100 cm. The
animals live in grass, savannah and cultural landscapes under stones and wood,
in piles of rubbish, holes in the ground, termite mounds - but not in dense
Marbled tree snake
The marbled tree snake (Dipsadoboa aulica) is a non-toxic tree snake. This snake
becomes about 65 cm long and feeds on frogs, geckos, but also on toads, skinks
and small rodents such as mice.
Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica)
Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)
Black and white cobra (Naja melanoleuca)
The Nile crocodile is said to be found in the south of Somalia
A detailed description of Nilwarans be found in Goruma here >>>
Here you will find some of the almost 600 species of birds that Somalia is
likely to be found in a little more detail and illustrated.
Southern yellow-beaked toko
The southern yellow-beaked toko (Tockus leucomelas) belongs to the genus of
tokos (Tockus), in the hornbill family (Bucerotidae). The bird is up to 40 cm
tall. The males weigh an average of 210 g, while the switches are lighter at 170
g. The male's striking curved beak is between 8 and 10 cm long, while that of
the female is between 6.5 and 8.5 cm long.
Her back is black with a white stripe in the middle of the back. The crown and
the nape of the neck are dark gray, with a white stripe from the forehead over
the eyes to the nape of the neck. The throat and front chest are white with dots
of gray, so that these parts of the body look almost dashed. The lower abdomen
is white. The beak is yellow but turns dark brown at the tip of the beak. The
birds' eyes are yellow, and the legs and feet are black.
Three-color gloss star
The three-color gloss star (Lamprotornis superbus) belongs to the genus of the
actual gloss starlings (Lamprotornis) in the family of starlings
(Sturnidae). The birds reach a size up to about 20 cm. Their plumage is glossy
black on the top and blue-green on the neck and shoulders. The sides of the
neck, throat and chest are shiny metallic blue. The chest band, rump and rump
are white with a russet belly.
The birds are found in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda. Here he
lives in the savannah, in the bush, on farmland, but also on the outskirts and
even in the cities.
Helmet guinea fowl
The helm guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) is the only species of the genus
Numida. It belongs to the guinea fowl family (Numididae). The helmet guinea fowl
reaches a size between 55 and 65 cm - with a weight between 1 to 1.5 kg, but the
females are slightly smaller and lighter. The head and neck of the birds are
largely featherless, with a bluish, blue-white and reddish colored skin. The
plumage is blackish-gray in color and has numerous white speckles. The animals
get their name from their horn-colored helmets.
There are nine subspecies of the helmeted guinea fowl, of which the
subspecies Numida meleagris somaliensis occurs in Somalia and in north-east
Ethiopia. The entire species with all its subspecies can also be found in
Angola, Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, South Africa, Tanzania,
Chad and Uganda.
The saddle stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis) belongs to the genus of large
storks (Ephippiorhynchus) in the family of storks (Ciconiidae) and in the order
of the striding birds (Ciconiiformes).
The animals can reach a size of 145 cm with a wingspan of up to 250 cm, whereby
the females are smaller than the males. The color of the bird is black on the
wings, neck and head, otherwise white. The beak, which is slightly bent upwards,
is strikingly red-black-red in color.
Somali cave fish
The Somali cave fish (Phreatichthys andruzzii) is a curiosity. The animals
are about 6 cm long, have no eyes or scales and are not pigmented. These fish
have existed beneath the Somali desert for millions of years - in cave waters
under the Bud-Bud oasis and within a radius of around 30 km in central Somalia -
and in complete darkness.
Somalia is a country with relatively little rainfall and the desert is
spreading more and more through deforestation of the remaining forest areas and
overgrazing. In the south there is a little more water, where the two large
rivers of the country are also located. Eucalyptus and mahogany trees as well as
mixed wolves (euphorbias) grow here. Acacias also thrive in the local thorn bush
The mangrove areas between Kismayo and the Kenyan border have unfortunately
been badly damaged.
In the north of Somalia there are isolated oases with palm trees and small
bushes. Frankincense and myrrh bushes also grow on the mountain slopes. In the
dry savannah there is then again a denser bush and grass growth.
The local frankincense and myrrh bushes are closely linked to Somali
culture. Frankincense is an aromatic, granular substance extracted from the
resin of Boswellia sacra. In the past it was used for religious ceremonies or in
medicine, today it is often found in incense sticks and perfumes.
Khat shrubs (Catha edulis) are a highland plant. Chewing the fresh leaves
creates a euphoric effect. Officially, this is considered illegal. Lavender also
grows in parts of the country. Other plants in Somalia are:
agaves, box trees (Buxus), green juniper, blackthorn acacias (Acacia mellifera),
desert lilies (Aloe Vera) and desert roses (Adenium).