Sudan: Political System
Sudan is an Islamic republic with an Islamic legal system (Sharia). The
unicameral parliament, the National Assembly, has 360 members, 270 of whom are
elected every 4 years, 35 places are reserved for women, 26 for academics and 29
for the trade unions. The direct election of the head of state takes place every
5 years. De facto, however, the country has been a military dictatorship with
presidential character since 1989. According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
Republic of Sudan
Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan (We Are the Army of God and of
Our Land) has been the national anthem of Sudan since 1956. Sayed Ahmad Muhammad
Salih wrote the lyrics, the music is by Ahmad Murjan.
It reads in the English translation
|We are the soldiers of God and
our homeland We will never hesitate to sacrifice ourselves when we are
Whether to face death, misery or pain
We give our lives for the price of glory
May this country, our Sudan, live long
All nations the way pointing
O tribes of Sudan, called upon to serve now.
Take the burden and keep your la
The national flag (Landesflagge) was introduced on May 20, 1970. Based on
flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the colors
of the flag are interpreted as follows:
- Green stands for Islam and the Fatimid dynasty
- Red is the color of revolution as well as socialism and progress
- White symbolizes peace, light and optimism
- Black indicates that the state belongs to the " Black Continent ”
Sudan: Known People
Umar Hasan Ahmad Al-Bashir (born 1944) came to power in 1989
after a bloodless military coup in Sudan and has been President of Sudan since
1993. He pursues a fundamentalist policy that is strictly oriented towards
Jafar Muhammad an-Numairi (1930-2009)
Jafar Muhammad an-Numairi was a native of Omdurman. Between 1971 and 1985 he was
the President of Sudan. During his term of office, the end of a civil war that
had lasted for 17 years between North and South Sudan with the so-called Addis
Ababa Agreement, but also his country's turn to Sharia law and the resurgence of
the civil war between North and South fall.
Muhammad Ahmad ibn as-Sayyid Abdallah (1844-1885)
Mahdi, that is, the "one guided by God", has been called Muhammad Ahmad ibn
as-Sayyid Abdallah. The charismatic Islamic political leader was the namesake of
the Mahdi uprising and an important person not only in Sudanese, but also in
Arab-Islamic history in the 19th century.
Mohamed Badawi (born 1965)
The Sudanese linguist, born in Omdurman in 1965, also made a name for himself as
a publishing director, composer and singer. He is also the founder of the Sudan
Education Project, with the help of which street children are supported
musically. Badawi also developed the concept for establishing the Nihal European
John Garang de Mabior (1945-2005)
De Mabior was a very popular South Sudanese rebel leader. After the peace
agreement of July 9, 2005, he became the First Vice President of Sudan. He died
in a helicopter crash on July 30, 2005.
Nawal El Jack (born 1988)
In 1988 the Sudanese athlete Nawal El Jack was born in Khartoum. In the course
of her career, she should celebrate especially as a sprinter in the 400 meters.
Mende Nazer (born approx. 1980)
She comes from the Nuba people, was robbed by Arab slave traders as a child and
after her escape wrote her autobiography under the title "Sklavin", which became
a bestseller. In 2002 Mende Nazer received the International Human Rights Award.
Abdel Aziz El Mubarak (born 1951)
The Sudanese singer and oud player comes from Wad Madani, a city that is
considered the city of artists in Sudan. The successful musician sings mostly
love songs with orchestral accompaniment.
Omer Ihsas (born 1958)
The Sudanese singer and composer from Nyla has made a name for himself as a
modern interpreter of traditional folk music from Darfur. He was no less engaged
in politics. Incidentally, his best-known song was Darfur Baladna (1991), in
German: Heimatland Darfur.
Abd al-Chaliq Mahdschub (1927-1971)
The Sudanese politician was active in the independence movement at an early age
and has been General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Sudanese
Communist Party (SKP) since 1949. Mahjub was arrested in 1971 and later executed
for his alleged involvement in the attempted coup by left-wing officers against
President Jafar Muhammad an-Numairi.
Ali Muhammad Nagib (1901-1984)
Ali Muhammad Nagib was the first President of Egypt. Interestingly, he was born
in Khartoum, Sudan, in 1901. The general, who also took part in the 1st
Palestine War against Israel, overthrew King Faruq in 1952 together with Gamal
Abdel Nasser and became President of the Republic of Egypt on June 18, 1953.
The north of Sudan consists mainly of deserts or semi-deserts. Thorn bushes grow
in the Sahel zone, which adjoins it in a southerly direction, and grass and
acacias even further south in the savannah areas. Sometimes baobabs can be seen
here and there. There are only a few animals here. In contrast, there are more
animals in the humid savannas of the south.
All in all, African wild dogs, antelopes, buffalo, various types of gazelle,
giraffes, hyenas, lions, baboons, desert foxes and zebras live in Sudan. Hippos
can be found on the banks of the river. Other animals that can be found in Sudan
Images will be imported by the beginning of March
The white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is the world's largest land mammal
after the elephant. It can grow up to 4 m long from head to torso, reach a
shoulder height of up to 2 m and weigh up to 3,500 kg.
The most striking feature of this rhinoceros is undoubtedly its two horns - from
which its name comes. The front horn protrudes over the rear and can be up to
150 cm long.
You can find a detailed description of the white rhinoceros at Goruma here >>>
As is well known, a distinction is made between the African (Loxodonta africana)
and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The African elephant is larger and has
significantly longer ears than the Asian elephant.
A detailed description of the African elephant can be found at Goruma here >>>
The fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are a family of mammals in the order of the bats
(Chiroptera). The family includes around 40 genera with around 200 species. To
the layperson, they resemble bats. The animals are found in the tropical and
subtropical regions of Africa - including Madagascar and the
Seychelles. Furthermore in the Maldives, the southern part of Asia, in Australia
and the western Oceania. In Europe, the Egyptian bat is only found in the form
of the Egyptian bat on the island of Cyprus. With the exception of the rosette
bats, the animals do not orient themselves with the help of the echo
sounder. Their food is vegetable and consists mainly of flowers, fruits, nectar
and pollen, fruits. The fruit bats are mainly crepuscular or nocturnal,
The largest types of fruit bats are the Kalong fruit bat (Pteropus vampyrus),
the golden crowned fruit bat (Acerodon jubatus) and the Indian giant bat
(Pteropus giganteus), which have a head-body length of up to 40 cm - with a
wingspan of up to 1.70 m - can achieve.
The hippopotamus, also known as the hippopotamus, is considered to be the most
dangerous mammal in Africa, and there have been numerous reports of the giant
animals galloping towards people, fatally injuring them in the process. But
boats were also attacked by them. Because of its tasty meat, its resilient skin
and its ivory teeth, the animals are heavily hunted and their population is
considered to be endangered. Despite its name, the animal no longer occurs on
the Nile and the Nile Delta in Egypt. You can find a detailed description of the
hippopotamus at Goruma here >>>
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is certainly one of the most fascinating big cats
of all. When hunting, it reaches speeds of 100 to 120 kilometers per hour and is
therefore the fastest mammal living on land. This top performance is also the
reason why animals have been serving people for thousands of years. Even the
ancient Egyptians used trained cheetahs for hunting, which is why they were
given the name hunting leopard. You can find a detailed description of the
cheetah at Goruma here >>>
Caracal , Wüstenluchs The caracal (Caracal caracal), also
known as desert lynx, belongs to the genus Caracal in the subfamily of small
cats (Felinae) in the family of cats (Felidae). The animals are reminiscent of a
lynx, not least because of its large, long, black-painted ears. They have a
head-torso length between 60 and 70 cm and a shoulder height between 40 and 50
cm, with a tail 30 cm long on average. The weight of the male is 13 to 18
kg. The females, on the other hand, are smaller and lighter.
The leopard (Pathera pardus) occurs in parts of Africa and Asia. The animals
belong to the genus of the real big cats (Panthera) in the family of cats
(Felidae). The size and weight of the animals are very different, so the
forest-dwelling leopards are usually smaller than those that live in more open
habitats. But one can generally state that they have a head-torso length between
90 and 190 cm - with a 60 to 110 cm long tail and a shoulder height of 70 to 80
The males weigh around 40 to 90 kg, while the females are around half that size
and weigh around 30 to 60 kg. It should be mentioned that the black panther is a
color variant of the leopard. If you look closely, you can still see the spots.
A detailed description of the leopard can be found at Goruma here >>>
Gourmets (Oryx gazella) reach a head-trunk length between 180 to 200 cm, with a
shoulder height of 115 to 125 cm. Their tail becomes 70 to 90 cm long and their
weight ranges from 180 to 240 kg. Their sharp horns reach a length of about 1.50
m. The males become considerably larger and heavier than the females. Their
short-haired fur is cream-colored to light brown in color. The upper areas of
the extremities and the lower area of the flanks and above the tail are dark
brown. In contrast, the lower areas of the legs are whitish apart from a few
dark spots. The long and black tail ends bushy and is reminiscent of that of
The plains zebra (Equus quagga) is one of the favorite animals, especially of
children, because of its almost funny-looking stripes. Since it belongs to the
genus of horses (Equus), it is also valued by all horse lovers.
The following 6 species belong to the genus of horses:
- In Africa live plains zebras, mountain zebras, Grevy's zebras and wild asses.
- In Asia you can find Przewalski horses and half donkeys.
You can find a detailed description of the zebras at Goruma here >>>
The linked reptiles are shown in detail at Goruma
African spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis)
In English the Avicennaviper (Cerastes viper) is called Sahara Sand Viper.
The snake belongs to the genus of African horned vipers in the subfamily of the
real vipers (Viperinae) in the family of vipers (Viperidae). Despite its generic
name (Ceraste) and in contrast to the other species of the Cerastes genus, it
usually has no horns above the eyes.
Common puff adder (Bitis arietans) Jamesons mamba As
a rule, the very venomous Jamesons mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni) grows to around
2 m long - in rare cases over 3 m. She is slim and very agile. They are
green-yellow to grass-green in color, while the throat, belly and temples are
lemon-yellow. Lighter and darker spots form indistinct, backward running
transverse bands. The Jamesons Mamba is tree and ground dwelling. They are
mainly found in rainforests and in humid and warm forests on river banks. But
they can also be found near human settlements, on farmlands, and in urban parks.
The increasing desertification of Sudan is the result of deforestation and
overgrazing, which in turn are a consequence of poverty, the 20-year war - which
only ended in 2011 - and the Islamist terror that continues to this day.
The north of Sudan consists mainly of deserts or semi-deserts with only little
vegetation with the exception of date palms in the oases. Thorn bushes grow in
the Sahel zone, which adjoins it to the south, and tall grass and acacias grow
even further south in the savanna areas. In the Sahel zone to the south there
are thorn bushes, further to the south there are extensive savannah areas with
tall grass and acacia vegetation, and here and there are also baobabs.
The most fertile and plant-rich region of the country can be found in the
south in the floodplains of the Sudd. Papyrus, reeds, hyacinths and a large
number of different marsh plants grow here - and even remnants of tropical
rainforests with mahogany trees have been preserved here. After the construction
of irrigation systems, wheat and alfalfa are grown on the banks of the Nile.