Ukraine: Political System
Ukraine is a presidential republic, which is reflected in the powers of the
president, but according to the constitution the country is actually a republic
with a presidential-parliamentary system of government. The head of state, the
president, is directly elected for five years; He is Commander-in-Chief of the
Armed Forces, Chairman of the National Security and Defense Council, and holds
significant emergency powers. He has the right to initiate legislation and can
veto legislative decisions. The prime minister is the chairman of the
government, which has to answer to the president and parliament. The legislature
rests with the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada), which is elected for four
years. Since the constitutional amendment of 2000, the establishment of a
bicameral parliament has been established.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|Presidential Republic of Ukraine
In terms of administration, Ukraine is in 24 regions (Oblasty), two major
cities with this status. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea came to Russia as a
result of the referendum on March 16, 2014
- Ivano Frankivsk
- Lviv (Lviv)
The national anthem of Ukraine, неЩевмерлаУкраїна, means something like
"Ukraine is not yet dead" in the English translation. The Catholic priest and
composer Mykhailo Verbytsky, composed the music for a poem by the patriot Pavlo
Chubynsky, written in Kiev in 1862, in 1863. In 1917 the resulting song became
the national anthem of the young Republic of Ukraine. The anthem was replaced
under the Soviets, but reinstated unchanged in 1992 by the new Ukrainian
|In Cyrillic script
||In the English translation
|Ще не вмерла України і слава, і воля,
Ще нам, браття молодії,
Згинуть наші воріженьки, як роса на сонці.
Запануєм і ми, браття, у своїй сторонці.
Душу й тіло ми положим за нашу свободу,
І покажем, що ми, браття, козацького роду.
Станем, браття, в бій кровавий від Сяну до Дону
В ріднім краю панувати не дамо нікому;
Чорне море ще всміхнеться, дід Дніпро зрадіє,
Ще у нашій Україні доленька наспіє
|Fame and freedom
have not yet died to Ukraine,
nor is fate
friendly to us, young brothers.
Our enemies will disappear
like dew in the sun,
and we too, brothers, are masters of
our own land.We want to
give body and soul for our freedom
and show that we, brothers, are of the
The Ukrainian flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width. Based
on flag descriptions by
upper half is blue, the lower half yellow. Blue and yellow are said to symbolize
the colors of the sky over golden wheat fields. This means that the Ukrainian
national flag has the same colors as the Swedish.
The flag has its origin in the colors of the emblem of the Varangian dynasty of
the Rurikids, who ruled over Kievan Rus and the Russian Empire from the 9th -
In July 1990 the state independence of the Ukrainian SSR was declared and the
national flag was hoisted on the building of the Kiev City Council next to the
state flag of the USSR. The national flag was allowed to fly over the Ukrainian
parliament for the first time in August 1991 after the declaration of
independence from the Soviet Union.
Ukraine: writers and poets
Hrihorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda (1722-1794)
Hrihorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda an important Ukrainian philosopher, musician, poet
and musician. He was and is often referred to as the "Wandering Philosopher", as
he traveled the country as a pilgrim and teacher in the last decades of his
life. His philosophical writings were strongly influenced by the writings of the
Neoplatonists, stoicism and mysticism, whereby he himself dealt mainly with
Jurij Ihorewytsch Andruchowytsch (born 1960)
The works of this writer, poet, essayist and translator have been translated
into several languages and he is considered one of the most important
intellectuals in Ukraine. His works include the volumes of poetry "Heaven and
Places", "Downtown", "Exotic Plants and Birds" as well as several novels and
essays. He has been awarded several national and international prizes.
Michail Afanasjewitsch Bulgakow (1891 - 1940)
This writer from Kiev is one of the great satirists of Russian literature.
Ivan Franko (1856 - 1916)
This Ukrainian poet and writer is one of the most famous in his country. Among
other things, he translated Goethe's "Faust" and Heine's "Germany" into
Ukrainian. He worked for several magazines and dealt with the national and
literary history of Galician Ukraine. In Vienna he defended his dissertation "On
Barlaam and Josaphat and the Unicorn Parable".
Ljubko Deresch (born 1984)
The young Lemberger has already published four novels and numerous short
stories. In October 2005 the English translation of his novel "Kult" was
published by Suhrkamp Verlag. Deresch studies economics in Lviv.
Ilja Grigoryevich Ehrenburg (1891 - 1967)
The writer and journalist was born in Kiev and came from a Jewish-German
family. From 1909 he lived in Paris and Berlin. As a Jew and an intellectual he
could not feel safe in the Soviet Union and was repeatedly confronted with the
disappearance of people from his environment. He wrote for the army press,
reported from the front. In the meantime he was banned from writing, and in 1952
he was awarded the international Lenin Peace Prize.
Nikolai Wassiljewitsch Gogol (1809 - 1852)
This Russian writer of Ukrainian origin dealt with the humorous depiction of
devils and witches, but later his works became increasingly demonic. He was also
a professor at the Department of General History at the University of Saint
Heorhij Ruslanowytsch Gongadze (1969 - 2000)
This Georgian-Ukrainian journalist founded the Internet newspaper "Ukrajinska
Pravda". He disappeared in September 2000, and in November his decapitated body
was found near the city of Tarashcha.
Michail Jefimowitsch Kolzow (1898 - 1940)
The older brother of the cartoonist Boris Jefimowitsch Jefimow was a columnist
and journalist who was best known for his reports on the Spanish Civil War. He
was Stalin's court journalist, but was executed by the Stalinist apparatus in
1940 for alleged sympathy for Trotsky.
Lev Zinowjewitsch Kopelew (1912 - 1997)
The Germanist and writer was born in Kiev and sentenced to camp imprisonment
under Stalin. After Stalin's death he was released and started working as a
literary scholar. During a trip abroad to Germany, he and his wife were
expatriated and from then on they lived in Cologne. Kopelew campaigned for
international understanding and fought against human rights violations.
Alexander Kostinsky (born 1946)
The Ukrainian-Jewish poet, writer and illustrator wrote children's books,
developed cartoons and worked as a broadcaster. His important children's books
include "The Wind Embraces Me", "My Yiddish Luck" and "The Star Seller".
Ivan Petrowytsch Kotljarewskyj (1769 - 1838)
This Ukrainian poet renewed the written Ukrainian language. His subjects
included, for example, the transfer of Greek classics to the realities of life
of the Ukrainian people. The Kharkiv State University of the Arts "Kharkiv State
Kotlyarevskyi University of the Arts" was named in his honor.
Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin (1844-1930)
Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin (Ukrainian: Ілля Юхимович Рєпін) was one of the most
important representatives of Ukrainian and Russian realism as a painter. In his
earlier pictures he primarily depicts the life of the Ukrainian and Russian
people and denounces the social grievances of the time. Later he devoted himself
more to portraits of famous Russian writers and composers.
A trip to the Volga in 1870 inspired him to create his wonderful painting: "The
Taras Hryhorowytsch Schewtschenko (Shevchenko) (1814
This poet first became famous for his painting, but from 1840 he only published
his literary works and became a kind of "voice of the people", a little later
"the" Ukrainian romantic.
Hryhorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda (1722-1794)
Hryhorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda (Ukrainian Григорій Савович Сковорода) was a
philosopher, poet and musician. He was also called the "Wandering Philosopher"
because he spent the last decades of his life as a traveling pilgrim and
Between 1741 and 1744 he was a singer in the court choir at the Tsar's court in
St. Petersburg because of his excellent voice.
Lev Nikolajewitsch Count Tolstoy (1828 - 1910)
The main works of this Russian writer are "War and Peace" and "Anna
Karenina". The literary genre of the historical novel was decisively shaped by
these works. In accordance with the enormous popularity of Tolstoy in Russia, a
modern Russian coin was dedicated to him.
Lesja Ukrainka (1871 - 1913)
This Ukrainian was a well-known poet, dramaturge and translator. Her poetry was
folkloric, traditional, impressionistic and historical and is considered an
important contribution to neo-romanticism.
Architects and builders
- Grigorij Ivanovich Kotoff (1859, 1942), Russian architect, restorer, art
historian and scientist. From 1878 he attended the Petersburg Art
Academy. After graduating, he studied abroad for four years on a
scholarship, and then from 1888 on, teaching at his graduation academy in Saint
Petersburgto accept. From 1889 he taught art history, was the head of
the renovation of the academy building from 1891 to 1893 and finally
received the chair of architecture in 1894. At the age of 35 he was a
professor at the Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, from which he had just
completed his academic degree. Shortly afterwards, Kotoff became director of
the Baron Stieglitz drawing school. Kotoff is known for his work as a
restorer (he restored the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, the
Wladimiro-Wolynskij-Cathedral in Moscow and the
Christ-Transfiguration-Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky), as the general
curator for numerous sacred buildings and also as an architect (building of
the Moscow City Duma with Preobrazhensky, design for an embassy church in
Vienna, which was built from 1839 to 1899).
- Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin
(born 1844 in Ukraine, died 1930 in Kuokkala in Finland;
today: Repino near Petersburg in Russia) studied at the
Academy in Petersburg from 1864 to 1871. In
1870 he found his most important motive while traveling on the Volga - the
motif for the painting "Burlaken an der Wolga" or "Wolgatreidler" from
The painting becomes the program picture of the artist group Peredwischniki
(Wanderer), which Repin joined in 1878. In his pictures Repin, who is
considered the most important representative of the Russian realists in the
second half of the 19th century, denounces the social grievances. His works
are characterized by strong colors, dramatic scenes, psychological insights
and historical representations.
They are considered to be the model of Soviet realism.
- Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (born in Kiev in1878, died in
Leningrad in 1935) studied at the art schools in Moscow and Saint
At the beginning of his artistic career, Malevich orientated himself towards
the Fauves, Cubists and Futurists, but especially towards their rural
scenes. In 1915 in the manifesto "From Cubism to Suprematism" he defined the
term Suprematism (the pure non-objectivity) and took the abstraction begun
by Cubism to the extreme. His abstract artistic language was based on
geometric shapes and pure colors. In 1929 he finally returned to the USSR.
Like other Russian painters, he devoted himself (probably) to figurative
painting under political pressure; his works at this time were peasant
pictures and portraits.
Until the 80s, his abstract paintings were not valued in the USSR. His most
famous works are "Black Square" (1912) and "Eight Red Rectangles" (1914).
- Boris Jefimowitsch Jefimow (born 1900)
The artist and cartoonist initially designed posters for the CPSU propaganda
organization Agitprop in Kievand Odessa, then he moved to Moscow. As
a cartoonist, he worked for several newspapers and collaborated with his
brother, who was an editor. His caricatures were critical and often
criticized the Western world.
- Anatoly Solovyanenko (1791-1844)
opera tenor, people's artist of the USSR. Solovianenko was born in Donetsk,
and it was here that his artistic career began.
- Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (1791 - 1844)
The son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was also a composer and piano virtuoso,
but could never live up to the demands placed on him. He did not marry and
left no offspring.
- Reinhold Moritzewitsch Gliére (1875 - 1956)
The Russian composer came from Kiev. He wrote orchestral works (also for
wind orchestra), ballet music and chamber music.
- Swatoslaw Richter (1915 - 1997)
The Soviet pianist became famous primarily for his legendary recordings: he
played works by Tchaikovsky, Schumann, Liszt, Bach and Rachmaninoff.
- Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin (1844 - 1930)
The Russian painter has become the model of Soviet socialist realism. He
painted the life of the Ukrainian people and denounced the social
- Igor Markevitch (1912 - 1983)
The composer and conductor went to France in 1914 and became one of the most
important Russian composers there in the 1930s. He composed orchestral
pieces, chamber music works, choral works, piano pieces as well as a piano
concerto and a sinfonietta.
- Misha Mengelberg (born 1935)
The Kiev-born Dutch pianist heads the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra,
which combines European music with elements of free jazz.
- Ruslana Lyschytschko (born 1973)
The Ukrainian singer, dancer, producer and composer sang in a music group as
a child and studied at the conducting faculty of the Lviv Conservatory. She
writes texts and music for her pieces herself and also produces them, in
2000 she was voted Personality of the Year. In 2003 "Wild Dances" was the
first Ukrainian album to go platinum. In 2004 she won the Eurovision Song
Contest in Istanbul. In the same year she became a symbol of modern Ukraine
and the Orange Revolution when she stood up for Viktor Yushchenko. She is
running for Yushchenko's party in the Ukrainian parliamentary elections in
of cholera. For the discovery of phagocytosis, he and Paul Ehrlich received
the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908
Laboratory ". Under Dwight D. Eisenhower he was involved in the construction
of the first atomic bomb. From 1977 he was chairman of the" Council for a
Livable World ", a society that is committed against nuclear war.
electric welding, the so-called "Paton method", made him an expert in steel
bridges. He built a 1,492 km in Kiev
long bridge over the Dnieper, which was inaugurated in 1953.
At the time, so-called Ghetto Polyclinic in Lemberg, in 1942 she was executed
in Lemberg for political reasons.
finally worked with the mathematician Hugo Steinhaus, who found him an
assistant position at the chair of mathematics.
His dissertation dealt with functional analysis, with which Banach created a
new area of mathematics. He was born in 1924
Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 1930 also of the Academy of
Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic. He will
considered a math genius.
Politicians and rulers
but independent ways, whereupon Peter I had his portrait hung on the gallows
and Maseppa from the Russian Orthodox Church
- Mikhail Sergejewitsch Gorbachev (reign: 1985-1991) (born 1931 in
joined the CPSU in 1952 as a lawyer. He made a rapid career within the party and
was born in 1971
Member of the Central Committee, Secretary of the Central Committee in 1978
and member of the Politburo in 1980. In 1985 he was at the head of the Soviet
Union, he became
General Secretary of the party. His election not only brought about a
generation change at the top of the CPSU, but also one
Change of style in Soviet politics. Gorbachev changed cadres and appointed
new members of the Politburo. He
Since his appointment as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in
1988, initiated a program of reform that would reduce the political
Should loosen up structures and ascribe partial independence to economic
activity within the USSR.
The decisions of the bodies in power should be brought closer to the
population in their decision-making process. The leading role
the party should be within this reform movement, which with the keywords
"Perestroika" (conversion) and "Glasnost" (transparency and
Openness) went down in history, remain untouched. Gorbachev's "revolution
from above" led to one so far
impossible socio-political diversity of opinion, but also to a radicalization
of this. Non-Russian peoples and
Nations strove to leave the Soviet Union, the spirit of "perestroika" and
"glasnost" also wafted into the communist ones
Countries of Europe. Especially in the GDR, the Soviet reform idea developed
a momentum of its own, which ultimately led to the change in 1989
contributed. Without Gorbachev's political rethinking, this quick turnaround
on the German-German question would not have been possible.
Gorbachev's reform movement was an autonomous "revolution from below" that
led to the dissolution of the Union in December 1991
Soviet Socialist Republics and Gorbachev's resignation.
- Leonid Brezhnev (reign: 1964-1982) (born 1906 in Kamenskoje, today
Dnjeprodzerzhinsk, died 1982 in Moscow)
was an engineer by training and became after the fall of Khrushchev (1964)
General Secretary (from 1966) of the CPSU. Brezhnev had been a member of the
CPSU since 1931 and took part after being a supporter of NS Khrushchev
had risen in the Ukrainian Communist Party organization as a political
commissar in World War II. Brezhnev's political
Rise accelerated with his membership in the Central Committee from 1952.
Brezhnev was secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU from 1950 to
1952, 1956 to 1960 and 1963 to 1964. From 1957 he was a member of the
Presidium, 1966 of the Politburo of the CPSU and from 1960 he stood as
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet for the first time at the
head of the Soviet regime. His was important for Brezhnev
Participation in the fall of Khrushchev in 1964, succeeding him as First
Secretary and later from 1966 as General Secretary of the CPSU
Brezhnev expanded his domestic political power in the following decade, so that
he in 1976 the title of one
Marshal of the Soviet Union received and in the following year in addition to
the party leadership as chairman of the Supreme Soviet
second time occupied the post of Soviet head of state.
During his reign, Brezhnev worked domestically like
once Stalin sought stricter regulation of cultural life and, through the
Final Act of Helsinki (1975)
The Soviets that arose and encouraged partial cooperation between East and
West through the turnaround heralded in Helsinki
To suppress civil rights movement. The "Stalin Constitution", which had been
in force since 1936, was replaced in 1977 by the "Brezhnev Constitution". In
among other things, the social conditions in the Soviet Union were
redefined. Another (personal) domestic political goal
was the careful rehabilitation of Stalin in the Soviet Union, not least
because Brezhnev was already a member of Stalin's senior leadership
belonged to. In terms of foreign policy, Brezhnev increased political
influence on the internal affairs of the communist
Satellite states, especially in Europe. The violent ending of the Prague
Spring by the Warsaw Pact troops was made possible by the so
called Brezhnev Doctrine justified. This doctrine basically nullifies the
sovereignty of the socialist countries as soon as
"There is a danger to the security of the whole socialist
community". Brezhnev also invaded Afghanistan in 1979, what that
Long-term damage to the reputation of the Soviet Union in the world. In the
East-West conflict, Brezhnev sought a détente and
Disarmament policy to keep the power of the Soviet Union on the world
political stage by having the Federal Republic
Germany and the existing borders in Europe recognized in the Moscow Treaty of
1970. A year later, im
Four Power Agreement of 1971 West Berlin confirmed as part of the Federal
Republic. At the end of the Brezhnev era (1964-1982) was the
The Soviet Union was marked by intensified political and social differences
and general stagnation.
- Nikita Sergejewitsch Khrushchev (reign: 1954-1964) (born 1894 in
Kalinowka, died in Moscow in 1971)
was originally a trained locksmith and later an engineer. The one from the
Soviet politicians who came by circumstances began his political career as a
member of the Central Committee in 1934. Memberships followed
of the Politburo (1939 to 1952), the Presidium of the CPSU (1952 to 1964),
followed by offices such as First Secretary of the Muscovites (1935 to
1937) and the Ukrainian party organization (1938 to 1945 and 1947 to
1949). During World War II, Khrushchev was
political commissar on various sectors of the front (1941 to 1945). After
Stalin's death (March 5th, 1953) Khrushchev rose to the ground
a brief period of collective leadership and became First Secretary of the
CPSU. By taking over the key offices in
Party and state he could on the XX. CPSU party congress of 1956 - extremely
cautiously - Stalin's methods of rule and the order
criticize and counteract the cult of personality that has arisen. With his
open criticism, he initiated de-Stalinization - the
Autonomy practiced by Stalin should be reduced in favor of a collective
leadership - which ultimately leads to changes in the
economic and cultural policy area.
From 1958 Khrushchev also took over the leadership of the government. He had
continuously removed its internal party critics from the party leadership and
could thus its political goals, among other things the reform
economic administration and the expansion of the armaments industry.
Foreign policy and especially in the
East-Western confrontation under the Khrushchev government was also the
thesis of peaceful coexistence of states
different social order. This policy of détente led to other wrong political
decisions in the eyes
his critics to Khrushchev's disempowerment in 1964. After his disempowerment,
Khrushchev was considered a "non-person" by the Soviet
- Jossif Wissarionowitsch Stalin (reign: 1924-1953) (born 1879 in
Gori/Georgia, died in Moscow in 1953)
was not originally called the "Steely One", but JV Dschugaschwili and was more
Origin. During his time in the Orthodox seminary (from 1894), the young
Stalin also dealt with revolutionary literature
(including the writings of Karl Marx), which ultimately led to his entry into
the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party in 1898
led. His assistance in organizing strikes and demonstrations gave rise to
expulsion from the seminary in 1899. Stalin,
devoted to the Bolsheviks, was exiled to Siberia in 1903. After his escape
(January 1904) he learned at the Bolshevik party congress
In 1905 he met the delegate Lenin, who valued him as an organizer, and Stalin
was accepted into the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks in 1912
caused. Stalin's influence in the party grew, among other things through the
publication of his work "Nationalities Question and Social Democracy"
(1913), in which the solution of the nationality question in the territory of
the Russian Empire on the basis of the revolutionary concept of
Bolsheviks was discussed. In the course of Lenin's determined preparations
for a proletarian revolution, Stalin became a member in 1917
the Office for the Political Direction of the Uprising. After the successful
October Revolution, Stalin was the government's People's Commissar
Lenin's responsibility for nationality issues (1917 to 1923) and for the
workers 'and peasants' inspection (1917 to 1924).
Renaming of the party in Communist Party of Russia (Bolsheviks) and its
reorganization (1919) Stalin increased his
political power that culminated in 1922 when he assumed the newly created
post of general secretary of the party. Although this office
originally only involved organizational preparatory tasks, it became a key
position under Stalin's influence
Party and his personal instrument of struggle in dealing with internal
political opponents. After Lenin's death could
Stalin maintained his political supremacy and switched his political
opponents such as Trotsky and allies between 1924 and 1929
Currents out. Stalin used his power to validate his thesis of "building
socialism in one country" both in the party (from 1925
CPSU) as well as in the state. From 1929 he had the collective leadership of
the country against his personal dictatorship over party
and state exchanged. The consequences were excesses of state or party
patriotism through a bloody purge (Great Chistka) in
the 1930s, which presumably killed more than 15 million people through the
GULag (head office of the camps) penal system
fell. Furthermore, a consistent Russification followed, which the
national-cultural independence of the non-Russian
Peoples in the folklore and the building of socialism in the cultural area,
resulting in a unification of
Art as a means of popular education. Art was only allowed to thematize Soviet
In the economic sector
Since 1928, Stalin has been pushing industrialization of the country with the
five-year plans. At the same time were also in the agricultural sector
ideological changes made; between 1930 and 1933 the farmers were subjected to
Long-term food crises and millions of hunger victims followed.
In terms of foreign policy, Stalin led one in the 1930s
careful balance and contract policy. However, this policy ended with the
invasion of Hitler's Germany in 1941.
The so-called "Great Patriotic War", the defensive struggle against the
Germans, united the previously fragmented Soviet
Population, because not Bolshevism but "Mother Russia" should be defended. 20
to 30 million human lives
demanded the war on the Soviet side. Stalin used the start of the war to
deport entire nations and population groups
because of actual or alleged collaboration with Hitler's Germany.
After the end of World War II and the territorial
The expansion of the USSR resulted in alienation between the Stalin
government and the Western powers - not least because of the
"Two-worlds theory", which excluded a peaceful conflict between socialist and
capitalist camps. The cold
In 1953 Stalin died. He left behind a country marked by repression and
stagnation. The territorial enlargement of the
Land and the status of world power made many overlook Stalin's violent
- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (reign: 1917-1924) (born 1870 in Simbirsk,
died 1924 in Gorky near Moscow)
was called Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov before his adaptation of the political
alias. Lenin was from
from the educated middle class and could look back on Russian, Jewish, German
and Tatar ancestors. Boy
Intellectuals came into contact with the revolutionary movement early on, and
he soon headed it as one of the leading figures.
In 1895 Lenin traveled to Switzerland and was arrested on his return for
political agitation among workers. 1897 was
he was exiled to Siberia for this. He spent a few years of his life in exile
and later in exile in Germany and Switzerland. During this time he wrote some of
his basic work. So posed
In 1899 he stated in his book "The Development of Capitalism" that Russia was
already in the hands of the capitalists and that
no bourgeois-liberal, but only a proletarian revolution could change this
Lenin emerged in exile from 1900
Concept of the revolutionary cadre party, which as the vanguard of the
proletariat in the struggle for the creation of a socialist state and
Social order should exist. In 1903 Lenin's party concept split the Russian
social democracy into
two camps: the Bolshevik camp led by him and the Menshevik camp.
Tried in the 1905 revolution
Lenin to disempower the Russian government by all means. His failed coup
attempt forced him again into exile, from which he
Returned to Russia in 1917 after the February Revolution. In this revolution
he saw his chance to act and worked
single-minded towards the proletarian revolution. His April theses, a
revolutionary, uncompromising program of action, always found
more resonance in the Russian population, so that in July 1917 it again
became one of the Bolsheviks, however
unsuccessful revolt of workers and peasants came. Lenin fled to
Finland. There he prepared for another armed man
Uprising in Russia and wrote his policy on the form and methodology of a
Bolshevik rule ("State and
Supported by Trotsky and Stalin, Lenin established after a successful and
violent change of power in
On October 25, 1917, Russia adopted a dictatorial system of government based
on its political ideals, and the use of it to enforce it
violent means and brutal severity was legitimate. Lenin pursued a long-term
policy of world revolution and foreign policy
tried through the "Communist International" (Comintern) founded in March
1919, the revolutionary movements in Europe and the
national currents in Asia for his political goals. His undisputed authority
through a thorough knowledge of the
Writings by Marx and its further development (Marxism-Leninism) made it
possible for him to counteract the opposing forces of the domestic politics
To hold the party together and to tackle the development of the party, state
and economic apparatus.
With the establishment of the Politburo
and the Secretariat in 1919 and the ban on the formation of factions in 1921,
he centralized political power in the hands of his
Leadership cadre and created crucial conditions for the bureaucratization of
the party. Through this centralization, he paved the way
Stalin, before whose takeover he had warned, the way.
Lenin was assassinated twice: in 1918 and 1920. In May 1922
and in 1923 he suffered two strokes and succumbed to their
consequences. Before his death he saw the replacement of Stalin in the 1922
Can no longer enforce the office of general secretary, so that Stalin at the
memorial service for Lenin in January 1924 for the first time in
Name of the party leadership appeared. After Lenin's death, Stalin headed the
"Union" that had already been proclaimed on December 30, 1922
of the Socialist Soviet Union "(USSR) - consisting of the four
Bolshevik-ruled individual republics RSFSR, Ukrainian,
Belarusian and Transcaucasian Republic.
Tsarist empire out of self-isolation and achieved a cautious opening towards
the West and its technical innovations, the
especially the military, craft and manufacturing benefited. Shaped by his
being burdened by internal conflicts
Youth, the young tsar turned away from old Moscow society and traveled -
which no tsar has done before him - to
Study abroad "incognito". In the opera "Zar und Zimmermann" by Albert
Lortzing his incognito journey into the
The Netherlands sung about.
After taking office, he implemented his knowledge and experience from his
travels in Russia,
whereby he completely restructured many areas of life. One of the major
achievements was that of careers in government services
were no longer linked to the origin but to the performance of the
candidate. The upper echelons of reading should also
Be proficient in writing and arithmetic. On the cultural level, he created
the first Russian museum, the Kunstkammer, and founded the in 1725
first academy of science.
His internal and external renewal of Russia from a worldly-pragmatic perspective
did not stop at the Russian Orthodox Church either. He broke the tradition
that after the death of a patriarch the
The patriarchal throne was replaced. He gave to his newly established highest
church organ, the "Holy Governing Synod"
added a secular person to control and made the Russian Orthodox Church de
facto a state church. Even the church
Property and finances were under state control. From now on it was the task
of the church, in the absolutist and enlightenment sense
To act as an institution for popular education and for the maintenance of an
ethics that is useful to society. This so-called
The "synodal period" of the Russian Orthodox Church lasted until 1917.
Death of her husband Tsar Peter III. (Grand Duke Peter Fjodorowitsch) crowned
Tsarina of Russia in 1726. She was born in 1729 as
German Princess Sophie Auguste Friederike von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg in
Stettin. She was considered intelligent, versatile
interested, determined and power-oriented Tsarina who, to compensate for her
foreign origin, is "Russian" and
showed more consistent in asserting the interests of their empire than most
of their predecessors and successors. She died in 1796
born and died in the aftermath of an attack by the Bolsheviks in
Yekaterinburg in 1918. The eldest son of Tsar Alexander III. and the
Tsarina Marja Fjodorovna came from the Romanov dynasty, the
Romanov-Holstein-Gottrop family. By marrying Alexandra Fedorovna
In 1894, a German from the house of Hessen-Darmstadt, he was with Queen
Victoria I of England, the German Kaiser Wilhelm II.
and related to the British King George V. His reign (1894-1917) is marked by
two symbolic events.
During his festive coronation in Moscow there was a mass panic that killed
several hundred people. Until his
At the end of his life, his son, the heir to the throne, who suffered from a
blood disease, was almost enthusiastic about the monk Grigori Rasputin
Piety accompanies. The connection to the monk and his influence brought the
environment of the tsarist family and also the population to it
During the First World War against the tsarist couple and their five
After the February Revolution of 1917 the tsarist family lived
in captivity, where they were murdered by the Bolsheviks in Yekaterinburg in
1918. The bones of the murdered were not revealed until July
In 1998, under the government of Boris Yeltsin, she was solemnly buried in
the family crypt in Saint Petersburg. The Russian Orthodox Church
canonized the last tsar in August 2000, from now on his icons can be admired
in every Russian Orthodox church.
scientific socialists. He founded Trotskyism and is considered the founder of
the Red Army.
Prime Minister of Israel. During her childhood the family had to flee to
America, where Golda Meïr became a teacher; only moved in 1921
she and her husband to Palestine, where they first lived in a kibbutz. They
then lived in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, where that
The couple had two children.
Golda Meïr was involved in Israeli politics from 1923, and from 1946 she headed
Department of the Jewish Agency. She was Israel's ambassador in Moscow from
1948 and a member of the Knesset from 1949. In 1969 she became
Israeli Prime Minister elected; she resigned towards the end of the Yom
Kippur War in 1973 because of severe domestic political criticism
he worked for the CPSU, in 1990 he became a candidate for membership in the
party's Politburo. When Ukraine moved away from the
The Soviet Union began to break away, Kravchuk was parliamentary president of
the Ukrainian Soviet Republic and later of Ukraine. In December
In 1991 he was elected the first president of independent Ukraine and was
replaced by Leonid Kuchma in 1994.
and 1992 member of the Ukrainian Parliament and from 1992 Prime Minister. He
resigned from this office in 1993 to work for the des
To run for president. He won the elections and was re-elected in 1999. In
2004, he could constitutionally not a third time
elected, which is why his term of office ended after ten years. He was also
from his political opponents participating in the
Accused of murdering journalist Heorhiy Gongadze and curtailing freedom of
the press. In the presidential election
In 2004 he supported Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych.
in January 2006 the suspicion. He had initially taken over the office of
Julija Tymoshenko on a provisional basis.
sentenced to several years imprisonment for theft and bodily harm. His
criminal record was canceled in 1978,
however, his political opponents often used his past against him. He started
out as a racing driver for his
Country and ran his own fleet of vehicles. From 1996 Yanukovych was chairman
of the administration of Donetsk and from 2002 a deputy in the
Parliament of Donetsk. In 2002 he was elected Prime Minister of Ukraine, on
December 31 he announced his resignation, the five
Days later it was adopted by President Kuchma. Yanukovych ran for president
in 2004 and held elections
at first just won. However, due to the irregularities in the elections, there
were massive allegations of election fraud against him and him
New elections were called for, and there were mass protests by the Ukrainian
population for weeks, which became known as the Orange Revolution
History has gone down. The Kiev Supreme Court declared the runoff election
void and ordered it to be repeated
Viktor Yushchenko won with 51.99%. Yanukovych accepted the election result.
worked for Marxism and Leninism. At the age of 21 he joined the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union. From 1997 it was
Yushchenko chaired the National Bank of Ukraine and was known for his
successful fight against inflation in the country
which he also received the "Global Finance Award". Between 1999 and 2001 he
was Prime Minister of Ukraine and came across market economy
Reforms and fought corruption. In 2002 a vote of no confidence was put
against him and he was forced to resign. From
In 2002 he was a Member of Parliament and a member of the Committee on
Citizens' Affairs, National Minority Issues and International
Relationships. In 2004, Yushchenko ran for the office of president of the
opposition party "Our Ukraine". At first he lost
against Viktor Yanukovych, but the elections were repeated and Yushchenko won
the second runoff. It
There had been weeks of peaceful protests by the Ukrainian people ("Orange
Revolution"), whereupon it was repeated
had been decided.
Since December 6, 2004, Viktor Yushchenko has suffered from dioxin
poisoning. The symptoms were so severe that
the election campaign had to be interrupted for several weeks. The doctors of
Yushchenko go after thorough examinations of one
Poisoning that Yushchenko must have contracted while eating. His organs were
critically injured and
disfigured his face.
During his tenure as president, Yushchenko campaigned against the division of
Ukraine. He also undertook
numerous state visits and lifted the visa requirement for EU citizens and
Swiss. In September 2005, Yushchenko broke his
Government, as its advisors had repeatedly been accused of corruption.
initially as a shipbuilding engineer. In 1990 the workers at his shipyard
proposed him as a member of the Ukrainian parliament, he
was elected and served on an economic reform commission. In 1999 he was
already Deputy Prime Minister of the
Ukraine, following the 2001 vote of no confidence in Prime Minister
Yushchenko, President Kuchma appointed him as his successor.
During the "Orange Revolution" he supported Viktor Yushchenko. In February
2005 he was named the first deputy prime minister
appointed by the government of Yulia Tymoshenko.
Economics in Dnepropetrovsk and initially worked as an industrial
engineer. From 1989 she headed a youth center.
In 1991 she founded the company "Ukrainian Gasoline" and was the company's
director; because of this it still becomes the today
Called "Gas Princess". Between 1995 and 1997 she also headed the energy
In 1996 she was elected to the Ukrainian parliament. Under Prime Minister
Yushchenko she was responsible for the
Energy range. She was involved in the market economy reforms of the
Yushchenko government, which were unpleasant for the oligarchs
were. It is believed that for this reason she was dismissed from the
government and persecuted by the Ukrainian authorities. Since the
Parliamentary elections in 2002 her "Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc" has some seats in
parliament. Along with Yushchenko, she was one of the most important
Opposition members and was finally appointed Prime Minister of the country by
Yushchenko after the 2004 election.
In September, the president had to fire her and his entire government on
corruption charges. Your party is however
since the elections of the upper council in March 2006 with 129 seats the
second largest parliamentary group in the new parliament.
List of other Prime Ministers of Ukraine:
- Vitaly Massol (born 1928)
- Witold Fokin (born 1932)
- Juchym Swjahilskyj (born 1933)
- Valentin Symonenko (born 1940)
- Mykola Azarov (born 1947)
- Jurij Ivanovych Jechanurow (born 1948)
- Pavlo Lassarenko (born 1953)
Acting lessons, then had to flee from the National Socialists because of his
Jewish origins. He worked in France and
England, in Hollywood from 1937. He has received several Oscar nominations,
his most famous film is "Anastasia" with Ingrid Bergmann. He
got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
was. One of his most famous films is "Nachtblende" with Romy Schneider and
Klaus Kinski. With the French actress Sophie
Marceau he had his son Vincent in 1995.
he had significant successes in building helicopters.
the Soyuz spaceships are still in use today in a modernized form.
Legal history, he also drew up a civil code.
In addition to cigars and cigarettes, the Davidoff brand now also produces
leather goods, glasses, perfumes and cognac.
Co-founder of the NBA's predecessor, the "BAA". He was inducted into the
Basketball Hall of Fame.
had to manufacture agricultural implements. He then went to Sevastopol and
was building up Soviet aviation
entrusted. He constructed float planes and flying boats. He died of leukemia
Newspaper and as a consultant for economic policy at the General German Trade
Union Confederation. In 1977 he was supposed to be President of the American
Economic Association, but died shortly before of a heart attack.
Ukrainian born in Lviv. During the Second World War, he and his family were
deported to Auschwitz, in the Buchenwald concentration camp
He was forced to develop a vaccine against typhus for the SS. It is said that
he was ineffective at the SS
Delivered fluids and only passed his vaccine directly to inmates. In 1952 he
moved to Warsaw with his wife and became
there member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, where he mainly researched
- Serhij Nasarowytsch Bubka (born 1963)
The former pole vaulter has been chairman of the National Olympic Committee
of Ukraine since 2005. He was the most successful pole vaulter of all time
and was Olympic champion in Seoul in 1988. He set 34 world records and
overcame the 6-meter mark 43 times. He still holds the world record in his
discipline with 6.14 meters.
- Valery Lobanovsky (1939 - 2002)
The Russian and Ukrainian soccer coach worked after his playing career as a
coach at Dynamo Kiev and coached the Ukrainian and Soviet national soccer
teams. After his death from a stroke in 2002, he was given the title "Hero
of Ukraine", the highest honor in the country.
- Vitali Klitschko (born 1971)
The former Ukrainian professional boxer initially studied sports science and
philosophy, but began his boxing career at the age of 13. In 1996 he became
a professional boxer; In 1999 he won the world title, in 2004 he was again
world heavyweight champion, but announced his resignation in November 2005
due to several knee injuries.
- Oleh Blochin (born 1952)
The former Ukrainian soccer player now trains the Ukrainian national soccer
team. In 1990 he ended his active career and in 1975 he was voted Europe's
Footballer of the Year.
- Oleh Romanischin (born 1952)
The Ukrainian chess player is also a trained Germanist. He won numerous
titles at major chess tournaments, including the Olympic Games and World
Championships. He has lived in Lviv since he was born.
- Wassyl Ivanchuk (born 1969)
The Ukrainian chess grandmaster won the European Championship in 2004 and
was vice world champion in 2001/2002. He learned to play chess at the age of
six and has since won countless international tournaments.
- Tatjana Lebedewa (born 1973)
The former Russian ski racer was born in Kiev and, along with other
placements, won second place in the Super-G in 1992. After an accident at
the 1996 World Ski Championships, she did not return to the World Cup.
- Andrej Medvedev (born 1974)
The Ukrainian tennis player won eleven tournaments during his professional
career, three of them the German Open. In the final of the French Open 1999
he lost to Andre Agassi.
- Wladimir Klitschko (born 1976)
Vitali Klitschko's younger brother is also a world-famous boxer. Like his
brother Vitali, he received his doctorate in sports science and philosophy,
but began his career as a professional boxer together with his brother in
1996. It is considered to be technically superior to its brother, even if it
could never reach the hardness of the stroke. In April 2006 he became world
champion in the IBF and IBO associations.
- Andrij Shevchenko (born 1976)
The Ukrainian national soccer player is one of the most expensive soccer
players in the world. He used to play for Dynamo Kiev, since 1999 with AC
Milan. He has already been five times Ukrainian champion, four times he won
the Ukrainian Cup, was once Italian champion, won once the Italian Cup, once
the UEFA Champions League, once the European Supercup, was Ukrainian top
scorer and European Footballer of the Year 2004.
- Yevgeny Valeryevich Aldonin (born 1980)
The Russian national soccer player was born in Kiev. In 2004 he played at
the European Championship.
- Jana Oleksandriwna Klotschkowa (born 1982)
The Ukrainian is one of the best medley swimmers in the world. In 1998 she
won the silver medal in Perth, in Sydney she set the world record in 400 m
individual medals as well as two gold and one silver medal. At the 2001
World Championships she also won the gold medal in the 400 m freestyle, and
in 2003 in Barcelona she also won all disciplines. At the Olympic Games in
Athens, she also won the gold medal in the 200 m and 400 m medley, so she is
currently considered the most outstanding female swimmer in the world.
- Andrei Wolokitin (born 1986)
The Ukrainian chess master was first Ukrainian youth champion, 1998 youth
world champion and 2001 vice-champion of Ukraine. In the same year, at the
age of 15, he was made grandmaster.
Well-known Ukrainian football players are also:
- Serhiy Beschenar
- Olexander Holowko
- Andrij Hussin
- Viktor Leonenko
- Oleh Luzhny
- Yuri Maximov
- Andriy Nesmachnyj
- Serhiy Rebrow
- Andrij Shevchenko
- Olexander Schowkowskyj
- Viktor Skrypnyk
- Anatoly Tymoshchuk
- Wladyslaw Waschtschuk
- Andrij Vorobej
- Andriy Voronin
Theologians and philosophers
Appointed Archbishop and Cardinal in 2001.
- Lyubomyr Cardinal Husar (born 1933)
The cleric, who was born in Lviv, holds the office of Grand Archbishop of
the Greek Catholic Church of the Ukraine, which is associated with Rome
is united. In 1944 his parents went with him from the Ukraine to the USA,
where he was ordained a priest in 1958. 1969 followed Husar
Rome. Since 2001 he has been Grand Archbishop of Lemberg and Pope John Paul
II elevated him to the rank of cardinal. 2005 chose Husar with the
Conclave the new Pope.
The mammals in the forests include elk, foxes, red deer and especially wild
cats, which are quite numerous. The steppe is mainly populated by rodents such
as mice, hamsters and polecats.
On the Crimean peninsula, which has been annexed by Russia, where steppes are
extremely large, also dwarf and pearl pebbles and mulled lemmings
live. Predators are not uncommon here because of the abundant food supply,
including red foxes, steppe iltiss, badgers and raccoon dogs.
In addition to wolves and brown bears, there are also lynx in the Carpathian
Mountains, which can be easily recognized by their characteristic brush ears
and whiskers, which are used for intra-species communication.
The mammals of the Crimean Mountains include wild boars and red deer as well as
mouflons, which live in Europehave a large distribution area, but are rather
small in their existence. They are also known as European wild sheep. Mouflons
reach a size of 65 to 90 cm and live on average 8 to 10 years. Characteristic is
the gray to yellowish colored saddle spot on the brown fur and the horns of the
males, which grow throughout life and can reach a length of 0.45 m. The horns of
the females are much shorter or nonexistent.
The mouflons have a well-developed sense of hearing and smell, but the sense of
sight is best developed. Their diet includes grasses, herbs and woody plants,
but also mushrooms and fruits.
One of the few lizards found in Ukraine is the sand lizard, which has a very
wide distribution area, as well as the eastern green lizard, which is hard to
miss because of its striking green color.
One of the harmless specimens is the non-poisonous and not very biting
leopard snake, which is one of the 15 non-poisonous species of adder in
Europe. In addition, the slender snake is considered the most beautiful snake in
Their range is relatively small, and their occurrence in Ukraine is limited to
the Crimean peninsula, which has been annexed by Russia.
Among the poisonous snakes that comes in Ukraine viper before. The local steppe
otter is a subspecies of the adder.
Typical mountain birds include the alpine swifts nesting in rocks, red chalk
and stone fowl, as well as birds of prey such as golden eagles, imperial eagles
and vultures. Birds are particularly numerous on the Black Sea. Here you can
meet egrets, silk egrets, purple and great egrets as well as sickles, spoonbills
and white storks.
The Great Bustards, which are also represented in Ukraine, belong to the
order of the crane birds and are very shy and sensitive to disturbance
birds. They live in the original steppe areas or in areas used for
agriculture. But despite this closeness to humans, you rarely see them, not
least because of the inconspicuous coloration outside of the courtship. Both
males and females have brown-black patterned plumage and a light gray head and
neck. The main difference between the two is in size.
The males weigh 8 to 16 kg, while the females weigh just 3 to 5 kg. However,
during courtship the male changes significantly. Its underside is colored white,
and this is turned upside down, so that it finally turns into a white pile of
The great bustard's diet includes buds, shoots, leaves, seeds, but also mice,
lizards, grasshoppers and other small animals. Despite a relatively wide
distribution, the great bustard is on the red list. A main reason for the
massive decline is the industrialization of agriculture.
Some of the birds of prey have started to nest on the ground, which can be
seen especially on the Crimean peninsula in steppe areas with steppe eagles,
sucker falcons, buzzards and steppe harriers.
A large number of songbirds also live here, but crows, eagle owls, owls,
woodpeckers, jays and magpies are also native to the country.
The tarantula, which occurs on the Crimean peninsula, which is claimed and
occupied by Russia, belongs to the wolf spiders, grows to 3 to 5 cm in size and
is light brown in color with dark markings on its back. The nocturnal spider
lives in caves and tree crevices. It is interesting that it does not catch its
prey in the net, but rather actively hunts. Lizards and smaller rodents are then
on the menu.
The poison sting poses only a minor threat to humans, whereby the symptoms after
a bite are almost always only expressed locally. There may be moderate to mild
pain and local inflammation with redness, itching and swelling. The tarantula is
widespread in the Mediterranean region, the tropics, subtropics and in
The black widow, on the other hand, who can be found in the Karadah
reservation, is a completely different case. The female can be dangerous not
only for the male, which is often eaten after mating. The black widow owes its
name to this fact and to its deep black color.
The red markings on the belly are also characteristic. Bite accidents are rare,
but they can happen occasionally, especially in places where it's dark and
cool. In the case of outside toilets in particular, the seats should be
carefully examined before you sit down on them.
It is not uncommon for the black widow to stay in these places, as the smell of
faeces attracts insects and thus their nutritional basis. The main symptom of a
bite is sweating and general, severe body ache. A sure sign is sweating of the
skin at the bite site. Allergy sufferers have to be particularly careful here,
as a bite can be fatal for them.
Life in the Black Sea only takes place above the 200 m limit, as hydrogen
sulfide deposits near the sea floor make life at this depth impossible.
Regardless of this, there are still numerous species of fish that have found a
home in the Black Sea. The most common are sardines, sprat, mackerel, bluefin
tuna and anchovies, and flounder, turbot, sturgeon and sea catfish live near the
coast. There are even sharks in Ukrainian waters, but these are small dogfish
that are harmless to humans.
Special features such as dolphins, porpoises and seals can mainly be admired in
It takes a lot of luck combined with the right timing to see these animals in
their natural environment.
The Carpathian Mountains and the Crimean Mountains on the Crimean peninsula,
which have been annexed by Russia, are particularly rich in forests. The forest
fauna of the Crimean Mountains is based on the three zones of the outer, inner
and higher main mountain range. At an altitude of 250-300 m, the juniper-oak
forests dominate, followed by the Crimean pine forests. Beech forests offer a
typical picture at heights of 500 to 1,300 m, while the southern slope of the
mountains is the habitat of the hooked pine. In the direction of the north,
mixed forests alternate with marshland. The dominant tree species in these areas
are alder, oak, hornbeam, pine and spruce. There are also linden, maple,
mountain ash, birch and rowan berries in the country.
Much of the original vegetation is used for agriculture today. The country
mainly focuses on wheat cultivation, but the cultivation of sunflowers,
potatoes, sugar beets, corn and vegetables is an important part of Ukrainian
agriculture. Wine is also grown.
The alkaloids of the deadly nightshade, which in itself are highly poisonous,
have an effect on the central nervous system and are used in the correct dosage
in some cases for nausea and vomiting, a certain alkaloid is also used to dilate
In homeopathy it is used for febrile illnesses. However, all drugs require a
Despite its high toxicity, monkshood is also used in medicine and homeopathy.
It is used for rheumatism, pleurisy and nerve pain, as well as homeopathically
as a tincture for colds, pneumonia and sciatica.
Peony, which is also poisonous, was previously used as an antispasmodic and
against epilepsy. However, this effect has not been proven. It can allegedly
also be used for skin and mucous membrane inflammation, fissures, gout,
rheumatism and diseases of the respiratory tract. In homeopathy, it is used for
The common thorn apple is a bushy annual plant. The plants reach a height of
0.2 to 1.2 m, rarely up to 2 m. All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially
the roots and seeds.
Besides Europe, the deadly nightshade also has its home in the Balkans, Iran,
North Africa and Ireland. It grows to a height of 1–2 m and blooms from June to
August with purple and bell-shaped flowers. The cherry-sized fruits are still
green at the beginning, but turn black over time. Due to the alkaloids contained
in all parts of the plant, this plant is very poisonous, so that even small
amounts can be fatal. However, the deadly nightshade is also used as a medicinal
plant in medicine.
The rhododendron, also known as the golden yellow alpine rose or rose
tree, grows in the central zone of Ukraine and is very poisonous due to the
diterpenes contained in the flowers, leaves, fruits and nectar. The plant, which
belongs to the heather family, causes stomach irritation and symptoms of
paralysis to vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, cramps and in very severe cases even
death from respiratory paralysis. The rhododendron, which comes from North
America, has its origins in Asia and is also the main distribution area there.
From Eisenhut there are different types that occurring in Ukraine kind of pale
yellow monkshood. All species are very poisonous, so that the monkshood is
considered the most poisonous plant in Europe.
It is 1 to 2 m high and has light purple flowers that are arranged in dense
clusters. The poisonous alkaloid aconitine is found in all parts of the plant,
but the roots are particularly enriched with the poison.
Just a few grams of it are fatal for an adult. What is special is that the
poison can also be absorbed through the skin, where it then has a local
anesthetic effect. Oral ingestion of the poison leads to sweating, vomiting and
diarrhea after an initial tingling sensation in the fingers and toes.
Eventually death occurs from cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest.
In the past, monkshood poison was used as an arrow poison and quite often also
in poisonous murders.
Apart from the toxicity, the monkshood must not be picked because it is strictly
The rare holly from the holly family is an evergreen shrub or tree that can
reach a height of 6 m and live up to 300 years. Other names are piercing sleeve,
piercing oak and palm thorn. It is named after its leathery and thorny toothed
leaves, which are brightly colored on the underside and dark green on the upper
side. It blooms with inconspicuous small white flowers between May and June, so
that the fruits ripen in autumn. These are first green, later coral red.
Both the leaves and the fruit are poisonous, and children in particular should
be careful as a dose of 20-30 berries is considered fatal to them. The symptoms
of poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea and drowsiness.
The holly can be found in beech and spruce forests on moist, lime-poor soils.
The diptame from the rhombus family, which is also under conservation, is
also known as the "burning bush" or "woodpecker root". It grows up to four feet
and blooms with white or pink flowers between May and June.
The family characteristic of the rhombus family is the presence of secretion
canisters on the leaves with strong-smelling essential oils. On hot and windless
days, the diptam's fruit bunches evaporate so large amounts of the essential
oils, which have a strong lemon smell, that they can be ignited over the
plant. This is why the diptame has been given the nickname "Burning Bush".
Indian fire-worshipers worship it as a sacred plant. It grows widespread on
calcareous soils on sunny, rocky slopes, on dry meadows and in sparse oak
forests. However, the diptame is poisonous, and leads to skin irritation when
touched, which only heals very slowly.
The peony from the buttercup family is between 50 and 100 cm tall and flowers
from June to May. The large red flowers with a diameter of 12 cm and petals with
a length of 5 to 8 cm are striking.
Most types of peony are common in Europe, Asia, and North America. It prefers
light and rocky mountain slopes to grow. Due to the alkaloid paenonin, this
plant is poisonous and causes gastrointestinal complaints and vomiting and colic
in excessive doses. In the correct dosage, however, it can also be used as a
The steppe is widespread in the whole of Ukraine, especially on the Crimean
peninsula there are several different steppe types such as the dry steppe,
forest steppe and meadow steppe.
Grasses are an essential part of all steppe species, but the flora between the
different steppe species is anything but identical. In the forest steppe,
cinquefoil, flat peas as well as the Crimean and poisonous peonies dominate.
Characteristic of the meadow steppes are the gray sun rose, the ear spoon
catchwort, thyme and the scarlet sage.