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Uruguay

Uruguay: Political System

Uruguay has been a presidential republic since 1830. At the head of the state is a president who is elected directly by the people every five years and - as in the USA, for example - is also head of government. You can be re-elected as often as you like. The House of Representatives is a bicameral parliament. It consists of the Camara de Diputados (House of Representatives) and the Senado (Senate). The Cámara is elected every five years in free, equal and secret ballot and has 99 members as of January 1, 2006. The Senate is the representation of the provinces. It consists of 31 members who are elected by the people every five years. The head of government is the president. The president can dissolve parliament and force new elections. Voting is compulsory for all citizens over the age of 18.

Uruguay: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

República Oriental del Uruguay

Republic of East Uruguay

National anthem

The text for the national anthem of Uruquays was written by Acuña de Figueroa, who is also the author of the national anthem Paraquays. The music is by José Debali.

The first stanzas

Orientales la Patria o la Tumba!

Libertad o con gloria morir!

Es el voto que el alma pronuncia,

Y que heroicos sabremos cumplir!

Libertad, libertad Orientales!

Ese grito a la Patria salvó

Que a sus bravos en fieras batallas

De entusiasmo sublime inflamó.

De este don sacrosanto la gloria

Merecimos tiramos temblad!

Libertad en la lid clamaremos,

Y muriendo, también libertad!

Dominado la Iberia dos mundos

Ostentaba sus altivo poder,

Y a sus plantas cautivo yacía

El Oriente sin nombre ni ser;

Mas, repente sus hierros trozando

Ante el dogma que Mayo inspiró,

Entre libres, déspotas fieros,

Un abismo sin puente se vió.

National flag

The national flag (country flag) of Uruguay was officially introduced on July 11, 1830. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, above left is the Argentine Sol de Mayo, the freedom sun. However, the Uruguayan sun has only 16 rays while the Argentine sun has 32 rays. The five white and four blue stripes represent the nine original departments of the country.

Uruguay flag and coat of arms

Uruguay: Known People

Poet and writer

Delmira Agustini (1886-1914)

This Uruguayan poet can easily be counted among the greatest Latin American poets of the early 20th century and one of the most important and first representatives of feminism in this part of the world.

Mario Benedetti (1920-2009)

This well-known Uruguayan journalist, writer and poet, who had received countless prizes in the course of his work, died recently in Montevideo.

Juana de Ibarbourou (1895-1979)

The poetess from Uruguay, also known as "Juana de América", was one of the most famous poets in Latin America. The later very melancholy verses are dedicated to themes such as love and nature and do not lack a certain surrealistic coloring. Juana continued to stand out as one of the first Latin American feminists, which is particularly evident in her poems "La Higuera" and "Como La Primavera".

Eduardo Hughes Galeano (born 1940)

The journalist, essayist and writer was able to publish the first version of his important work in 1971: In the "Las venas abiertas de América Latina" he deals with Latin American history and deals with modern colonialism.

Jorge Majfud (born 1970)

The well-known writer from Uruguay won the Finalista Premio Casa de las Américas of Cuba in 2001 and the Excellence in Research Award 2006.

Juan Carlos Onetti (1909-1994)

The Uruguayan writer, who died in Madrid in 1994, received the Gran Premio Nacional de Literatura of Uruguay in 1985 and the Premio de la Unión Latina de Literatura in 1990. During the reign of the military junta, Onetti was imprisoned in 1974 and after his release fled to Madrid, where he spent the rest of his life.

José Enrique Rodó Piñeyro (1872-1917)

Probably the best-known work by this Uruguayan essayist is "Ariel", in which Piñeyro warns of the developing utilitarianism. He also shows the diversity of Anglo and Latin America.

Florencio Sánchez (1875-1910)

Social problems are often treated in the plays of Sánchez, a Uruguayan playwright and writer.

Juan Luis Zorrilla de San Martín (1855-1931)

The most important poem by this Uruguayan poet and poet was "Tabaré". In his epic creations, de San Martín often devoted himself to the history of his country.

Musician

Jorge Drexler (born 1964)

The Uruguayan musician, who was born in Montevideo, became internationally known for his composition of the theme song for the film "Young Che's Travels" in 2005, for which he also won an Oscar.

Gerardo Matos Rodríguez (1897-1948)

The Uruguayan pianist, composer and journalist Rodríguez became famous in 1916 at the latest with his tango "La Cumparsita", which is still the most famous tango of all time.

Other personalities

Juan Pablo Rebella (1974-2006)

On July 5, 2006, the well-known Uruguayan screenwriter and director committed suicide in the apartment of his hometown Montevideo. Rebella became internationally famous in 2001 with his first feature film "25 Watt" and received many awards. His second film "Whiskey" also received many awards, including at the Cannes film festival.

Carlos Paez Vilaro (born 1923)

Vilaro is considered one of the most important artists in South America. Throughout his life he was mainly concerned with the culture of Afro-American people. In this context, he visited numerous African countries - such as the Congo, Liberia, Cameroon and the Sengal. His most important work is without a doubt the studio, house and hotel he built in the cliffs of Punta Bellana in Uruguay. The unusual eight-story building, in which there are hardly any straight lines or surfaces, was started by him in the 1950s and bears the name "Casa pueblo".

Uruguay: animals

Mammals

Wildlife

Wildlife in Uruguay includes jaguars and pumas, foxes, deer, tapirs, wild cats and rodents. Furthermore, red deer (axis and fallow deer), wild boar, Asian water buffalo, brown hares, armadillos, otters, including the giant otter, which is up to 2.20 m long and threatened with extinction. In addition, capybaras, which are threatened with extinction and protected are livestock The main farm animals are in the local agriculture uses They are: - alpacas - goose - chicken - beef, especially the breeds Hereford and Aberdeen Angus - Sheep - Pork - goats

- Horses are still often kept as farm animals on farms and especially estancias, but they are also bred as racehorses and for export, for example the Arabian stallions. The most typical local breed is the Criollo breed

Pets

The most widespread domestic animals in this country are dogs, which also have the function of watchdogs, especially in rural areas, followed by cats, birds, ornamental fish, hamsters and more exotic mascots.

Bird life

The most typical bird species for Uruguay include the rust potter (span. Hornero, zool. Furnarius rufus) and the sulfur tyrant (a passerine bird, span. Benteveo, zool. Pitangus sulphuratus).

Other typical bird species are:

Ñandús, the South American ostrich (Rhea americana), budgerigars, cotorra (Melopsittacus undulatus), owls, cardinals, storks, flamingos, herons, vultures, swans, including the very rare black-necked swans), hummingbirds, partridges as well various other pigeon and wild duck species.

Reptiles - without poisonous snakes

Yellow anaconda

The yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) is up to approx. 4 m in length and weighs approx. 40 kg.

The yellow anaconda can be found in the northeast of Argentina (Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fé, Corrientes), in the southeast of Bolivia, in the southwest of Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná São Paulo) as well as in Paraguay and Uruguay.

You can find a detailed description of the yellow anaconda at Goruma here >>>

Alligatatoren

In Rio Uruguay live alligators

Caimans

Small caimans can be found next to the alligators in the Rio Uruguay

Lance vipers

The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae). The genus includes 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies. The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.

Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.

It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation. The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.

Crescent lance viper (Bothrops alternatus)

The snake is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Pampas lance viper (Bothrops pubescens)

The snake occurs in Brazil (Rio Grand do Sul) and in Uruguay (Artigas, Rivera, Tacuarembó, Cerro Largo, Treinta y Tres, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Canelones, Rocha and San José).

There are no subspecies of the snake.

More poisonous animals

Banana spiders

The genus of the banana spiders (Phoneutria) comprises eight different species, all of which are very aggressive and extremely poisonous. They are also known as the Brazilian wandering spiders.

The most dangerous species is the "Phoneutria nigriventer". It occurs only in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The females are between 30 and 50 mm in size, while the males are smaller, at most 40 mm. The basic color is dark brown with light stripes.

Their venom can kill a healthy, adult human in a matter of hours. However, the spider does not inject venom with every bite. There is also a counter serum. Most spider bite accidents occur in the home during the day. Every now and then individual spiders made their way to Europe in banana boxes, where they always caused great excitement.

Water world

After Alaska, Uruguay has the world's largest colony of seals and sea lions - on the "Isla de Lobos" off Punta del Este.

Whales and dolphins can also be found off the coast of the country. They also penetrate the Río de la Plata up to the level of Piriápolis! The freshwater dolphins of the Río de la Plata are a specialty.

A common fish is the corvina blanca (eagle fish). It makes up most of the catch. It is mainly found in the Laguna de Rocha nature reserve. The southern right whale (southern right whale), which is under species protection, is even larger. In Uruguay, it can be found in the waters of Maldonado and Rocha, sometimes off the coast of Montevideo and Canelones.

Freshwater fish

The Uruguayan waters are very rich in fish. The rivers Río de la Plata, Río Uruguay, Río Negro and tributaries are the habitat of over 150 species of fish, including some that taste delicious and are also very popular with sport fishermen.

The electric fish that spread from the Amazon to the Río de la Plata are a curiosity. The most potent of them, the up to 2 m long South American electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) generates the highest electrical voltages of a living organism with about 800 V. His blows can also be dangerous to humans. In Uruguay, this giant is quite rare, but smaller electric fish are relatively common. Piranhas (Serrasalmus spilopleura) can also be found in Uruguayan waters, but not very often.

Other freshwater fish are various species of catfish (Bagre), narrow-mouthed tetra (Boga de río), saber-toothed tetra (Chafalote), tiger tetra (Tararira), carp (Carpa; in the Río de la Plata also giant carp weighing over 100 kg !, Eagle fish (Corvina), sea bream (Dorado), mullet (Lisa), La Plata earfish (Pejerrey), freshwater ray (Raya de río), shovelmouth (Surubí atigrado), Patí. (Patí), an archaic resident of the rivers of southern South America.

Saltwater fish and seafood

Uruguay is a paradise for anglers not only for freshwater fish, but also for marine life. From anchovies (anchovies) to swordfish to large blue sharks you can catch everything here. Shrimps, mussels and crabs are also 'harvested' off the Uruguayan coast. Sharks are never a problem on Uruguayan beaches. The main food fish and seafood include:

- Argentine hake, Merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi)

- White-mouthed crook, Corvina blanca (Micropogonias veneeri), it also invades rivers

- Small hake, pescadilla (Cynoscion guatucupa),

- Black hake Merluza negra (Dissostichus eleginoides)

- La Plata earfish, Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis), it is also found in fresh water

- Brown forkfish, brótola (Urophycis brasiliensis)

- Anchovi, anchovy, anchoa, anchoita, burel (Engraulis anchoita)

- Squid, calamar, pulpo (Illex argentinus)

- Shrimp, Crab, Camarón, Quisquilla (Penaeus paulensis)

- (Antarctic King Crab, Centolla (Lithodes santolla)

- Red Crab, Cangrejo rojo (Chaceon notialis)

- Tuna, Atún (Thunnus), is a genus with eight species

- Swordfish, Pez Espada (Xyphias gladius)

-

blue mussel, mejillón (Mytilus edulis) - blue crab, Cangrejo azul, (Callinectes sapidus)

Note

The Spanish name and the scientific name in brackets follow the German name

Uruguay: plants

Uruguay has very rich, subtropical vegetation that includes around 2,500 plant species.

The most widespread trees are eucalyptus, pines, cedars and palms, especially the butia palms (jelly palms, bot. Butia) typical of Uruguay, which thrive here better than anywhere else. The national plant is the ceibo tree (coral tree, cockscomb tree, bot. Erythrina crista -galli L.) with its fiery red flowers. Also worth mentioning are willows, hibiscus and the Jacarandá with its blue-violet flowers, which is typical for these latitudes. The ombu tree (dioecious pokeweed, bot. Phytolacca dioica) and especially the mate shrub (bot. Ilex paraguariensis) should not be missing from such a list.

Uruguay is also characterized by its variety of fern species, including giant ferns, as well as orchids and jasmines. Medicinal herbs are also characteristic of the Uruguayan flora. The Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides) and the Cola de Caballo, field horsetail, horsetail (Equisetum arvense) should be mentioned in particular. The main distribution area of the former is the Uruguayan Costa de Oro.

Plants in Uruguay

Uruguay has very rich, subtropical vegetation that includes around 2,500 plant species. The most widespread trees are probably eucalyptus, pines, cedars and palms, especially the butia palms typical of Uruguay (jelly palms, bot. Butia), which thrive here better than anywhere else. The national plant is the ceibo tree (coral tree, cockscomb tree, bot. Erythrina crista-galli L.) with its fiery red flowers. Also worth mentioning are willows, hibiscus and the Jacarandá with its blue-violet flowers, which is typical for these latitudes. The ombu tree (dioecious pokeweed, bot. Phytolacca dioica) and especially the mate shrub (bot. Ilex paraguariensis) should not be missing from such a list.

Uruguay is also characterized by its variety of fern species, including giant ferns, as well as orchids and jasmines. Medicinal herbs are also characteristic of the Uruguayan flora. The Carqueja (bot. Baccharis genistelloides, also Baccharis trimera) and the Cola de Caballo (field horsetail, horsetail, etc., bot. Equisetum arvense L.) should be mentioned here. The main distribution area of the former is the Uruguayan Costa de Oro.

The rhea is the largest bird in South America. The bird can reach an age of around 40 years.

Marine mammals

After Alaska, Uruguay has the world's largest colony of seals and sea lions - on the "Isla de Lobos" off Punta del Este.

Whales and dolphins can also be found off the coast of the country. They also penetrate the Río de la Plata up to the level of Piriápolis!

The freshwater dolphins of the Río de la Plata are a specialty.

Underwater world

After Alaska, Uruguay has the world's largest colony of seals and sea lions - on the "Isla de Lobos" off Punta del Este.

Whales and dolphins can also be found off the coast of the country. They also penetrate the Río de la Plata up to the level of Piriápolis!

The freshwater dolphins of the Río de la Plata are a specialty.

A common fish is the corvina blanca (eagle fish). It makes up most of the catch. It is mainly found in the Laguna de Rocha nature reserve. The southern right whale (southern right whale), which is under species protection, is even larger. In Uruguay, it can be found in the waters of Maldonado and Rocha, sometimes off the coast of Montevideo and Canelones.

Freshwater fish: The Uruguayan waters are very rich in fish. The rivers Río de la Plata, Río Uruguay, Río Negro and tributaries are the habitat of over 150 species of fish, including some that taste delicious and are also very popular with sport fishermen.

The electric fish that spread from the Amazon to the Río de la Plata are a curiosity. The most potent of them, the up to 2 m long South American electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) generates the highest electrical voltages of a living organism with about 800 V. His blows can also be dangerous to humans. In Uruguay, this giant is quite rare, but smaller electric fish are relatively common. Piranhas (Serrasalmus spilopleura) can also be found in Uruguayan waters, but not very often.

Other freshwater fish: Various species of catfish (Spanish Bagre), narrow-mouthed tetra (Spanish Boga de río), saber-toothed tetra (Spanish Chafalote), tiger tetra (Spanish Tararira), carp (Spanish Carpa; in the Río de la Plata also giant carp of over 100 kg. Surubí atigrado), Patí. (Spanish Patí; an archaic resident of the rivers of southern South America).

Saltwater fish and seafood: Uruguay is a fishing paradise not only for freshwater fish, but also for marine life. From anchovies (anchovies) to swordfish to large blue sharks you can catch everything here. Shrimps, mussels and crabs are also 'harvested' off the Uruguayan coast. (Note: Sharks are never a problem on Uruguayan beaches.)

The most important edible fish and seafood include:

Merluza (hake; Merluccius hubbsi)

Corvina blanca (white-mouthed croak; Micropogonias furnieri; also invades rivers)

Pescadilla (small hake; Cynoscion guatucupa),

Merluza negra (black hake; Dissostichus eleginoides)

Lenguado.

Pejerrey (La Plata earfish; Odontesthes spp.; also occurs in freshwater)

Brótola (Brown fork; Urophycis brasiliensis)

Anchoa, Anchoita, Burel (Anchovi, anchovy; Engraulis anchoita)

Calamar, Pulpo (squid, octopus; Illex argentinus)

Camarón, Quisquilla (prawns, crabs, prawns, shrimp; Penaeus paulensis)

Centolla (Antarctic king crab; Lithodes santolla)

Cangrejo rojo (“red crab”; no translation found; Chaceon notialis)

Atún (tuna; Thunnus spp.)

Pez Espada (swordfish; Xyphias gladius)

Mejillón (blue mussel; Mytilus edulis)

Cangrejo azul, Jaiba (Blue crab; Callinectes sapidus)

 

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