Australia: Political System
According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, Australia is a parliamentary monarchy. At the head of the state is formally Queen Elizabeth II of the “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”. The queen is represented by a governor general. The prime minister elected by parliament is the country’s head of government. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Australia politics, and acronyms as well.
The parliament consists of two chambers, the House of Representatives – the lower house – with 150 seats and the Senate with 76 seats – the upper house. The voting age is 18 years. After Picairn Island and New Zealand, Australia was one of the states in which women were given the right to vote quite early, as early as 1902.
The state consists of the six states of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia as well as the two territories Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory.
Each federal state has its own parliament and its own government – comparable to the German federal states – whose head is also referred to as the Prime Minister.
The states The states have legislative powers for education, health and transportation, as well as for the police and the judiciary.
The official name of the country is:
|Commonwealth of Australia
From 1788 to 1974 the English national anthem “God save the Queen” was played and sung in Australia.
The anthem “Advance Australia Fair”, published in 1878 by Peter Dodds McCormick (1835 – 1916), has been played since 1974. On many occasions, however, the English national anthem is still heard today.
In English, the Australian anthem is:
|In the English translation
|Australians all let us rejoice,For we are young and free,
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea.
Our land abounds in nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare,
In hist’ry’s page let ev’ry stage
Advance Australia Fair.In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance Australia FairWhen gallant Cook from Albion sailed,
To trace wide oceans o’er,True British courage born him on wore,
Till he landed on our shore.
And there he raised old England’s flag,
The standard of the brave.
With all her faults we love her still,
Britannia rules the wave.In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance Australia Fair
Beneath our radiant Southern Cross,
We’ll toil with hearts and hands.
To make this Commonwealth of ours
Renowned of all the lands.
For those who’ve come across the seas,
we’ve boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing
Advance Australia Fair
|Happy let us rejoice, residents of Australia,For we are young and free,
Goldner soil and abundance are all our efforts,
Our home is enclosed by the sea.
Our land is rich in the gifts of nature, of
precious and exquisite beauty.
May history with each passage in the book.
The beautiful, happy Australia keep moving forwardThen let us sing to happy sounds:
Step forward, beautiful, happy AustraliaWhen the bold Cook sailed from Albion,
To roam the vastness of the ocean,British bravery helped him till
he landed on our coast.
And there he hoisted the flag of old England,
The Standard of the Brave.
With all of her flaws, we still love her,
Britain rules the oceans.Then let us sing to happy sounds:
Step forward, beautiful, happy Australia
Under the shining Southern Cross,
we shall strive with hearts and hands
To make this our Commonwealth
famous among the peoples.
For those who came to us across the sea,
we have limitless plains to share;
With bravery let’s put it all together
For a happy Australia.
Then we want to sing to happy sounds:
Step forward, beautiful, happy Australia!
Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national flag (national flag) of Australia was officially introduced on May 22, 1909.
– At the top left is the Union Jack – the flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
– The large white, seven-pointed star is that of the Commonwealth Star.
Six rays stand for the six states of Australia, the seventh for the so-called territories.
– The five white stars represent the constellation “Southern Cross”. One is five-pointed, the other four are seven-pointed.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Australia.
The flag of the native people of the country is composed of two horizontal stripes. A black one, which stands for the dark-skinned Aborigines and a red one, which symbolizes the earth of Australia. In the middle of the flag is a yellow circle that is supposed to symbolize the sun.
Australia: Known People
- Peter Doherty (born 1940 near Brisbaine)Together with the Swiss Rolf Zinkernagel (born 1944), he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (the name of the Nobel Prize for Medicine) in 1996 for discovering how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells.
- Robin Warren (born 1937)pathologist, together with Barry Marshall he received the 2005 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research in the field of gastric diseases due to infections with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
- Barry Marshall (born 1951),together with Robin Warren, received the 2005 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research in the field of gastric diseases caused by infections with the Helicobacter pylori bacterium.
- Jamie Seymour (née)Jamie Seymour is one of the most renowned researchers in the field of sea wasps and Irukandji jellyfish.
Architects and builders
- Glenn Murcutt (born 1936 in London)architect, in addition to numerous honors, he is a Pritzker Prize winner from 2002. The Pritzker Prize was awarded in 1979 by the US American Jay A. Pritzker, who also owns the Hyatt Hotels, and his wife Cindy donated. After the founder’s death, the Hyatt Foundation will award the prize. This annual award is considered the highest distinction in the field of architecture.
- John Andrews (born 1933 in Sydney)architect
- Philip Cox (born 1939)In contrast to the Australian followers of the international style, Cox endeavors to further develop European traditions within the framework of local Australian conditions and attaches particular importance to the preservation and continuation of the local architecture. He dedicated himself to the legacy of Australia’s unique landscape and cultural awareness.
- Wood Marsh
- Nick Cave (born 1957)rock, blues and soul musician, including band leader of “The Bad Seeds”
- Kylie Minogue (born 1968 in Melbourne)child film star and later famous pop singer, fell ill with breast cancer in 2005
- AC/DChard rock band
- Michael Hutchence (1960-1997)leader of the rock band INXS. In 1997 he was found dead in a hotel room at the Ritz-Carlton in Sydney, where he committed suicide under unexplained circumstances.
- Bee GeesBritish-Australian pop band founded in 1961
- Midnight OilThe rock and pop band existed from 1976 to 2002. The lead singer Peter Garrett, who was active in social and environmental policy when the band was founded, is currently a member of the Australian Parliament.
- Yothu YindiThe band members are Aboriginal and Australian of European descent. They play traditional Aboriginal music as well as classic pop and rock music.
- Malcolm Frazer (born 1930), Prime Minister of the country from 1975 to 1983
- Bob Hawke (born 1929), Prime Minister of the country from 1983 to 1991
- Paul Keating (born 1944), Prime Minister of the country from 1991 to 1996
- John Winston Howard (born 1939), Prime Minister of the country since 1996 and Chairman of the Liberal Party of Australia since 1995
Actors, directors, writers
- Cate Blanchett (born 1969 in Melbourne)actress. Here are some of her famous films: “Paradise Road” 1998, “Elizabeth” (“Elizabeth I.”) 1998, “The Love of Charlotte Gray” 2001, “Bandits!” 2001, “The Lord of the Rings: The Companions” 2001, “The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers” 2002, “The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King” 2003, “Aviator” 2004, “The Deep Sea Divers” 2004, ” Little Fish “2005,” Babel “2006,” Elizabeth – The Golden Age “2006
- Germaine Greer (born January 29, 1939 in Melbourne) is an Australian intellectual, author, and publicist who is considered one of the most important feminists of the 20th century.
- Malcolm Douglas (born 1941 in Melbourne) is an important wildlife filmmaker and is considered a great expert on crocodiles. He is the owner of a crocodile farm in Broome.
- Mel (Columcille Gerard) Gibson (born 1956 in New York State), US-Australian actor and filmmaker, including “Mad Max”, “Braveheart” and “The Passion of the Christ”.
- Paul Hogan (born 1939), best known as “Crocodile Dundee”. Before his acting career he worked as a fitter on the Sydney Harbor Bridge in Sydney.
- Nicole Kidman (born 1967), Kidman received the Oscar for best leading actress in the movie “Moulin Rouge” in 2002 and for best leading actress in the movie “The Hours” in 2003. She was married to Tom Cruise for eleven years.
- Heath Ledger (1979-2008), the actor born in Perth/ Australia, became known worldwide for his role as a gay cowboy in the 2006 film “Brokeback Mountain”. At the age of 19 he went to Hollywood to make a career there.He was found dead in his New York apartment on January 22, 2008. Since he had sleeping pills in his blood, it could be an accident or suicide.
- Daphne Akhurst, married Cozens (1903-1933), tennis player. In 1925, 1926, 1928, 1929 and 1930 she won the women’s tennis singles at the then Australian tennis championships, now known as the Australian Open.
- Sir Jack Brabham (born 1926), Formula 1 racing driver. During his racing career from 1955 to 1970 he drove for the teams of Cooper, Maserati, Lotus as well as for the Brabham team, which he founded and named after him. He was three times Formula 1 world champion.
- John Edward Bromwich (1919-1999), tennis player. Winner in singles in 1939 and 1946 at the Australian Open and from 1938 to 1950 eight-time winner. Wimbledon winner of 1948 and 1950 in doubles. Winner of the US Open in doubles in 1938, 1939 and 1950. Davis Cup winner with the Australian team in 1939 and 1950.
- Sir Norman Brookes (1877-1968), tennis player. His most important successes were the victories in the men’s singles at Wimbledon in 1907 and 1914 as well as the victory together with his compatriot Gerald Patterson in 1919 in doubles at the US Open.
- Maureen Caird (born 1951), track and field athlete, Olympic champion in Mexico in 1968 over 80 m hurdles in what was then a new world record
- Sara Carrigan (born 1980), racing cyclist
- Pat Cash (born 1965), tennis player. His most important win was winning the men’s singles in 1987 at Wimbledon.
- Betty Cuthbert (born 1938 in Sydney), track and field athlete and Olympic champion at the Olympic Games in Melbourne (1956) in the 100 m, 200 m and with the Australian 4×100 m relay. She won her 4th gold medal at the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964 over 400 m.
- Ronald William (Ron) Clarke (born 1937), he was one of the best middle and long distance runners in the world in the 1960s, during which time he set 17 world records. Amazingly, he never managed to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games.
- Ashley John Cooper (born 1936), tennis player. He won the men’s singles at Wimbledon, the Australian Open and the US Open in 1958.
- Margaret Smith Court (born 1942), tennis player. Her most important successes were victories at Wimbledon in 1963, 1965 and 1970, at the Australian Open (11 wins) in 1960 – 1966, 1969 – 1971 and 1973, and at the French Open in 1962, 1964 and 1969, 1970 and 1973 and the US Open in 1962, 1965, 1969, 1970 and 1973.
- Ralph Doubell (born 1945 in Melbourne), track and field athlete and 800 m winner at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico.
- Debbie Flintoff-King (born 1960), track and field athlete and winner of the 400 m hurdles at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul. Further successes: Gold medals in the 400 m hurdles at: the 1982 Commonwealth Games in Brisbane (Australia) and at the 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. In addition, a silver medal at the Commonwealth Games in 1990 in Auckland (New Zealand), also in the 400-meter hurdles.
- Edwin Harold (Teddy) Flack (1873 in London, died 1935), athlete and Olympic champion. He and his parents emigrated to Australia at the age of five. Gold medalist at the 1st Olympic Games in Athens in 1896 over 800 m and over 1,500 m.
- Dawn Fraser (born 1937 in Sydney), most successful Australian swimmer. At the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, she won the gold medal in the 100 m freestyle and the silver medal in the 400 m freestyle. With the freestyle sprint relay of her country, she was also Olympic champion over 4 x 100 m. At the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome, she won the 100 m freestyle and also won two relay silver medals. In 1962, she became the first woman in the world to stay under a minute in the 100m freestyle. In 1999 she was named Sportswoman of the Century.
- Neale Fraser (born 1933), tennis player. His most important successes were winning the men’s singles at Wimbledon in 1960 and at the US Open in 1959 and 1960.
- Cathy (Catherine Astrid Salome) Freeman (born 1973), track and field athlete. The Aborigines won the gold medal in the 400 m run at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney. She also lit the Olympic flame in Sydney. Other important achievements: In 1990 she won the gold medal in the Australian 4 x 100 m relay at the Commonwealth Games in Auckland (New Zealand), and at the Olympic Games in Atlanta (USA) in 1996 she won a silver medal over 400 meters.
- Evonne Fay Goolagong Cawley (born 1951), she is one of the most successful tennis players in the country. Her most important achievements were: two wins at Wimbledon, four wins at the Australian Open and one win at the French Open. She was also in the final of Grand Slam tournaments 18 times. In 1971, she was named Sportswoman of the Year by the Associated Press.
- Emma George (born 1974), pole vaulter
- Shane Gould (born 1956 in Sydney), Australian swimmer. At the age of 15 she was the most successful female swimmer at the 1972 Olympic Games (Munich). She won gold medals in the 200 m and 400 m free section as well as over 200 m medley. In addition, she won the silver medal in the 800 m freestyle and the bronze medal in the 100 m freestyle. After the games in Munich, she voluntarily ended her swimming career.
- Grant Hackett (born 1980 in Queensland), swimmer. He won gold in the 1,500 m freestyle and gold in the 4 x 200 m freestyle relay at the Sydney Olympics in 2000. At the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 he again won gold in the 1,500 m freestyle and silver in the 400 m freestyle as well as silver in the 4 x 200 m freestyle relay. He also won other gold and silver medals at the World Championships in Perth (1998), Fukuoka (2001), Barcelona (2003) and Montréal (2005)
- Jodie Henry (born 1983 in Brisbane), swimmer. She swam a new world record in the 100 m freestyle at the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 and won the gold medal in the discipline
- Lleyton Hewitt (born 1981 in Adelaide), tennis player. His most important successes were the individual victories in 2001 at the US Open and in 2002 at Wimbledon.
- Leisel Jones (born 1985), swimmer. Gold medal winner at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens with the 4 x 100 m medley relay. World champion at the 2005 World Swimming Championships in Montréal over 100 m and 200 m breaststroke.
- Marjorie Jackson-Nelson (born 1931), athlete and since November 3rd 2001 Governor of the Australian state of South Australia. She won at the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1952 over 100 m and over 200 m each the gold medal.
- Alan Jones (born 1946), Formula 1 racing driver who became world champion in 1980.
- Brett Lancaster (born 1979), racing cyclist. At the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, he won the gold medal in the 4,000 meter team pursuit.
- Rodney George (Rod) Laver (born 1938), tennis player. He is considered one of the most successful tennis players worldwide. His most important successes were: victories at Wimbledon in 1961, 1962, 1968 and 1969, victories at the Australian Open in 1960, 1962 and 1969 and victories at the French Open and US Open in 1962 and 1969.
- Hana Mandlíková (born 1962 in Prague), tennis player with Australian citizenship. Her main successes were: victory at the Australian Open in 1980 and 1987, victory at the French Open in 1981 and the US Open in 1985.
- Glynis Nunn, b. Saunders (born 1960), track and field athlete and gold medalist in the heptathlon at the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles (USA).
- Gerald Patterson (1895-1967), tennis player. His most significant successes were the individual victories in 1919 and 1922 at Wimbledon and the individual victory in 1927 at the Australian Open. In the years 1914 to 1927 he also won five doubles at the Australian Open, and at the US Open in 1919 he won doubles with his Australian compatriot Norman Brookes.
- Shirley Barbara Strickland, married Strickland de la Hunty (1925-2004), track and field athlete and gold medalist in the 80 m hurdles at the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki and at the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne over 80 m hurdles and in the relay 4 x 100 m.
- Petria Thomas (born 1975), swimmer. Olympic champion of the Athens Games in 2004 in 4 x 100 m medley, 4 x 100 m freestyle and 100 m butterfly. She won silver in the 200 m butterfly swim. She also became world champion nine times.
- Jan Thorpe (born 1982), swimmer. Thorpe is the most successful athlete in Australia. He won 5 gold medals, 2 silver medals and 1 bronze medal at the Olympic Games, and set 13 world records. His Olympic medals:gold medals in the 400 m freestyle, 4 x 200 m freestyle and 4 x 100 m freestyle at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney as well as a gold medal each at the 2004 Olympics in Athens in the 400 m freestyle and 200 m freestyle.He won a silver medal in the 200 m freestyle at the 2000 Olympics and in the 4 x 200 m freestyle at the 2004 Olympics.He won his bronze medal in the 100 m freestyle in 2004.
- Mark Alan Webber (born 1976), Formula 1 racing driver, with the BMW-Williams racing team since 2005.
- The Woodies was the nickname for the world’s most successful tennis doubles team. Behind the abbreviation hid the two players Todd Woodbridge (born 1971 in Sydney) and Mark Woodforde (born 1965 in Adelaide). Together they won six times at Wimbledon, once the French Open, twice the Australian Open and twice the US Open.
- Nat Young (born 1947), a surfing legend, author of the 2004 book “Surf Rage”
- Jessica Watson (born 1993)At the age of 16, Jessica Watson is the youngest female sailor who has sailed around the world with her pink yacht in around 210 days and covered around 23,000 nautical miles = 42,596 km. On her return to Sydney, from where she started, on May 15, 2010 – a few days before her 17th birthday – she was enthusiastically received by tens of thousands of Australians – including Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.
Bangarra Dance Theater
The Bangarra Dance Theater group from Sydney combines modern dance with traditional Aboriginal dances.
- Helena Rubinstein (1871-1965), the Polish-born founder of the cosmetics company of the same name, opened her first beauty product shop in Melbourne in 1902. She left Australia in 1908 to emigrate to the United States in 1914.
- Keith Rupert Murdoch (born 1931), he is the founder of a worldwide newspaper empire of Yellowpress papers such as the British newspapers “The Sun” and “News of the World” as well as the owner of film and TV production companies and broadcasters.
- Stephen Robert (Steve) Irwin (1962-2006)Steve Irwin was one of the most famous animal breeders and animal and documentary filmmakers in Australia. His nickname was “The Crocodile Hunter”. He died on September 4, 2006 as a result of being stung by a stingray in his heart.
- Sir Douglas Mawson (1882-1952), Antarctic explorer. He was born in the UK and came to Australia with his parents when he was 2 years old. He led the Australian Antarctic Expedition from 1911 to 1914, after having participated in Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton’s (1874-1929) Antarctic expedition from 1907-1909. The Australian research station in Antarctica is named after him. In 2008, the buildings he erected around 1912 at Cape Denison in Antarctica were cleared of ice and snow in order to preserve them for posterity as a testimony to the beginnings of polar research.
- Mary Mackillop (1842-1909)The religious sister was beatified in 1995 as the first Australian woman by Pope John Paul II. Her canonization took place on October 17th, 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI. instead of. She is said to have cured two women from leukemia and lung cancer. In 1867 she founded the “Congregation Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart” with Tenison-Woods. This organization should take care of the education and upbringing of children from poor families. Mackillop became the first Superior General of the Order. Born in Melbourne, Mary Mackillop was reburied in the chapel of the mother house of the Josephs Sisters in Sydney in 1914 after her death. the reason was that pilgrims had constantly taken earth from their grave and thus an unworthy condition occurred. The chapel is also visited by numerous pilgrims.
Australia is known for its marsupials such as kangaroos and koala bears.
Kangaroos are not only widespread everywhere, but can also be found on the flag of the Commonwealth as a heraldic animal alongside the emu. A total of 45 different species of kangaroos are assumed.
The greatest enemy of termites is the short-billed ant urchin (Tachyglossus aculeatus) with its characteristic duckbill. Like the platypus, this animal also lays eggs and then suckles the young. Despite the spines on its back, it is not a relative of the hedgehog. In the tubular snout it has no teeth, but horn plates with which the food is chopped up. They are quite undemanding animals that can live anywhere in Australia.
Brumbies are is Australian feral horses. They descend from horses that were released after the gold rush in the mid-19th century and then feral. The horses reach a height between 1.35 to 1.50 m. The mostly brownish colored animals are persistent, fast and wild. Since the animals reproduce very quickly, they are sometimes viewed as a nuisance. Their name goes back to Sergeant James Brumby, who left his horses behind when he gave up his property in Mulgrave Place/New South Wales in 1804 and emigrated to Tasmania.
Most of the animals are found in the state of Northern Territory and the second largest population lives in Queensland.
Dingos It is
still questionable how the dingo got to the continent. The Australian Wild Dog is more likely to be a domestic dog that has been released into the wild. It cannot bark and is found all over the country thanks to its great adaptability, except in New South Wales and southern Australia, where it is kept away by a dingo fence. Its coat color varies greatly, from rust-red to brown to black. In addition to all marsupials, his prey also includes emus, monitor lizards and echins.
foxes Flying foxes are a family (Pteropodoidea) and represent the largest species of bats with a head-body length of up to 40 cm (golden crowned bat, Acerodon jubatus). The animals are found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Australia. Also distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, in the Indian Ocean (Maldives), southern Asia and western Oceania. The following genus groups with various species occur in Australia:
– tube-nosed bat
-tongue bat – bare -backed bat
One differentiates among other things tree kangaroos, which live in the trees but look for their food on the ground. They only live on the Cape York peninsula in northern Australia
The 23 – 85 cm tall wallabies represent a separate group. It is the most species-rich genus and is represented throughout Australia. These solitary middle kangaroos are 23-85 cm tall and like to sleep under trees and bushes. You can watch them foraging in the morning and in the evening, where they mainly feed on grass, leaves, roots and insects.
The following three giant kangaroos are also worth mentioning:
– Eastern Gray Giant Kangaroo
The Eastern Gray Giant Kangaroo can be found all over the east and southeast of Australia
and on the 64,520 km² island of Tasmania.
– Red giant kangaroo
The red giant kangaroo (Macropus rufus) is the largest kangaroo and also the largest marsupial in the world.
– Western gray giant kangaroo
The western gray giant kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) is
the smallest and rarest of the three giant kangaroos and has two subspecies.
The camels (Camelidae) are a family in the order of the artiodactyla.
They can be found in the Old World camels (Camelus) with the single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and the two-humped bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) and in the New World camels (Lamini) with the alpaca (Lama guanicoe), lama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna).
Australia is home to around 300,000 wild single-humped dromedaries, introduced by the British around 1840 and by Afghan camel drivers in the 1860s. The animals played an important role in the construction of today’s 2,980 km long railway line, which runs from Adelaide in the south to Darwin in the north of the country. The train was named “The Ghan” in honor of the camel drivers and their animals by The Afghan Express.
The koala bear (Phascolarctus cinereus) has an extremely one-sided diet, and exclusively from eucalyptus.
Therefore these animals suffer greatly from the decline in their habitat, the eucalyptus forests.
Unlike the kangaroos, the koalas carry their pouch on their back.
The Kusus (Trichosurus) are a genus of marsupials from the climbing family ((Phalangeridae) in the order Diprotodontia. The animals have a head-trunk length between 35 and 60 cm – with a tail length of about 35 cm.
The fur of the animals is woolly and soft and is colored from gray to white to brown and black. Kusus feed mainly on leaves, fruits or buds, but also on insects, small vertebrates or birds. The animals can be found almost all over Australia including the islands of Tasmania. Their habitat are forests and tree-lined regions, but also in parks and gardens in cities. During the day, the more nocturnal animals hide in tree hollows, in attics or in barns. After paring, usually one, rarely two young animals are born that live in the pouch, which they leave after around four to six months. They are more commonly referred to as possums, which is incorrect, as possums are precisely a range of animals from the order Diprotodontia.
The Numbat, also known as the ant bucket, is rarely found in the wild. The white cross bars that lead over the reddish brown back and the black eye stripe are characteristic. The numbat is about the size of a rat with a size of 8 and a length of 40 cm. The most remarkable thing about him is that he has no pouch, but still belongs to the order of the marsupials based on other characteristics. Like the Tasmanian devil, it lives in eucalyptus forests. Termites provide the majority of its food.
An extraordinary mammal is the 40 to 60 cm high platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) that can be seen in the rivers and lakes of Eastern Australia, Tasmania and on Kangoroo Island. Characteristic is the long flat tail and especially the flat, broad, leathery and tactile beak. The ears are hardly visible and the paws also have webbed feet between the grave claws. The crepuscular solitary animal feeds mainly on worms, snails, crabs and mussels. The male has poison thorns on the hind legs, which are also dangerous for humans. After a sting, there is long-lasting, very severe pain and extensive swelling.
It is extraordinary that the females lay eggs and hatch them, but the hatched young are suckled afterwards. The mother has no teats and the milk has to be scraped off by the young with the help of the flattened beak. The platypus is under protection, but is still threatened by the pollution of its habitat.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) lives in eucalyptus forests and owes its name to the black fur, the red ears and the sometimes slightly aggressive behavior. The loner from the predator family has strong teeth, but is not a good hunter. It does catch small mammals, birds, insects and invertebrates, but carrion still makes up the majority of its diet.
The wombatz are close relatives of the koala bears, are nocturnal and very rare marsupials. They are considered to be the largest burrowing mammals. The four incisors that grow throughout life are characteristic of herbivores. The fur color of the up to 1 m long animals varies from gray to black. Wombats have a stocky, round body with short legs and a wobbly gait. The large paws are equipped with long and strong claws, which are needed for digging. The resulting wombat caves can be up to 20 m long and reach up to 2 m underground. Protected across Australia, the wombat has only one natural enemy, the Tasmanian Devil.
There has been a proliferation of water buffalos in the Northern Territory that were once brought in by British immigrants.
Also common are wild boars, foxes, wild cats and goats, which have now become a problem.
Reptiles, amphibians – without poisonous snakes
Crocodiles are not uncommon on the rivers in the north and northeast. The two species represented here are the dangerous saltwater crocodile and the smaller, up to 3 m long Australian crocodile (Australian crocodile), which is rather shy outside of the breeding season.
Saltwater crocodile The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the saltwater crocodile, is the world’s largest living crocodile. It lives in coastal waters, mangrove swamps, and estuaries and is relatively widespread. These crocodiles are extremely dangerous and even take their prey on land. This crocodile has been legally protected since the late 1970s. A detailed description of the animal can be found here >>>
crocodile The Australian crocodile (Crocodylus johnsoni) is a freshwater crocodile and belongs to the genus Crocodylus in the family of the real crocodiles (Crocodylidae) and in the order of the crocodiles (Crocodylia). The animals reach a maximum length of 3 m. The snout is noticeably narrow and pointed. Their back is brownish and the belly is very light. Their back and tail have black stripes.
The animals can be found in the entire area of the McKinlay River in the Northern Territory as well as in parts of Queensland and Western Australia. The Australian crocodile is less dangerous to humans than the estuarine crocodiles. They tend to be shy and rarely attack people unless they feel threatened or because they want to protect their offspring. This lower level of danger is also shown on the warning signs, for example, there is a warning about the possibility of serious injury against these crocodiles (freshwater crocodiles), while the saltwater crocodiles are expressly warned against danger to life.
The poisonous and not very attractive aga toads (Rhinella marina), which were once imported from South and Central America for pest control, have become a real plague and represent a particularly great threat to the native amphibians, mammals and insects. At around 25 cm it is the largest species of toad in the world.
Common tree snake
The common tree snake (Dendrelaphis punctulatus) – also known as the green tree snake and Australian tree snake – is a non-venomous diurnal snake that reaches a length of about 120 to 190 cm.
This snake has a very slender body and tail. The body color varies from green to olive green to black, sometimes even blue, often pale yellow on the neck and stomach. There are bruises on the side. The eyes are larger than most snakes. It is found in large parts of Australia, especially in the northern and eastern coastal areas and in Papua New Guinea: In Australia it is called “Common Tree Snake”.
Diamond python The diamond python (Morelia spinota) is a species of snake from the genus Morelia in the family of the pythons (Pynonidae). The snake is divided into six subspecies with a drawing of light and dark ribbons or nets on a brown, reddish-brown or gray background. However, the various subspecies can differ from this coloring. All subspecies have a triangular head that clearly stands out from the neck and is covered with many small scales. The animals reach a length between 200 to 350 cm. The snake species occurs in a large area of Australia and New Guinea. There are six subspecies of the snake:
• Morelia spilota spilota
• Morelia spilota cheynei
• Morelia spilota mcdowelli
• Morelia spilota metcalfei
• Morelia spilota imbricata
• Morelia spilota variegata
In Australia the snake is called Carpet python or Diamond python
Pine cone lizard
The pine cone (Tiliqua rugosa) belongs to the genus of the blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua) in the family of the skinks (Scincidae). They are brown to black or even reddish in color, with some subspecies having light transverse bands. They reach a length between 35 and 40 cm long.
The animals get their name because of their compact shape with short tail and short legs, but especially because of their rough, large and keeled scales. Your tail serves as a fat store. Their diet consists mainly of plants and fruits, but also snails, insects and worms. This lizard is found mainly in the south and west of the country.
The up to 2 m long monitor lizards (Varanus) can often be seen in the interior of the country and in the rainforests.
There are 30 different species of monitor lizards in Australia.
There are around 160 species of snakes in Australia, around two-thirds of which are poisonous to very and extremely poisonous.
Australian copper heads
The genus of the Australian copper heads (Austrelaps) comprises the following three types:
– lowland copper head (Austrelaps superbus)
copper head (Austrelaps ramsayi) – dwarf copper head (Austrelaps labialis).
The genus (Austrelaps) must not be confused with the North American copper head (Agkistrodon contortrix). The Australian copper heads reach a length between 1.30 and 1.80 m. Their color varies from yellow to red-brown and copper-colored to gray and deep black. The eponymous copper-colored head can, however, also have the color of the body. They are diurnal for most of the year and only hunt at night during the hottest days of the year. They live particularly often in the vicinity of water and are very good swimmers and hunt both in water and on land.
The poison of the Australian copper heads contains neurotoxins as well as tissue and blood-replacing components. The animals are not aggressive and flee when disturbed. However, if they bite, they are injecting a relatively large amount of venom which can kill a healthy adult human if not treated with an antiserum. In Australia the snake is called “Australia copperhead.”
The inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus) is one of three species of taipan and is considered the most poisonous land snake worldwide.
Yellow-headed whip snake
The yellow-headed whip snake (Demansia psammophis) reaches a length between 80 to about 120 cm. They have a slim build with an elongated head that is only slightly separated from the neck. The back is olive-brown to gray in color and single-colored or darkly spotted. The rear half of the body, however, is red-brown. The belly is yellow to yellow-green. A yellowish border is visible around the eyes. A comma-like, black spot can be seen between the eye and the corner of the mouth.
A bite is not too dangerous for a healthy adult and is usually associated with local symptoms such as pain or edema and various general symptoms. There are two subspecies:
• Demansia psammophis cupreiceps
• Demansia psammophis psammophis
The two subspecies are found in New South Wales, the Northern Territories, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia. In Australia the snake is called the Yellow Faced Whipsnake.
Taipan The coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus) is a subspecies of the Eastern Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus). The second subspecies is the New Guinea Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni), which does not occur in Australia.
A detailed description of the very poisonous coastal taipan can be found here >>>
Eastern brown snake
The eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) is an extremely poisonous snake that can even bite several times. It is a species from the nine species comprehensive genus of brown snakes (Pseudonaja).
A detailed description of the eastern brown snake can be found here >>>
Australian death adder
There are basically nine types of death otter and three subspecies of the Australian death otter shown here.
The pseudechis australis (Pseudechis australis), bezeichent as King Brown snake (King Brown Snake), but despite its English name no pseudonaja, but a Black Otter.
A detailed description of the Mulga snake can be found here >>>
adder The northern death adder (Aconthophis praelongus) has a size between 40 and 70 cm.
A detailed description of the northern death otter can be found here >>>
Western brown snake
The western brown snake (Pseudonaja mengdeni), also known as Gwadar, is also an extremely venomous snake. It is a species from the nine species comprehensive genus of brown snakes (Pseudonaja).
A detailed description of the western brown snake can be found here >>>
Eastern tiger otter
The eastern tiger otter (Notechis scutatus scutatus) is a subspecies of the tiger otter (Notechis scutatus) reaches a length between 120 and 200 cm. It is a subspecies of the tiger otter. A detailed description of the snake can be found here >>>
Red-bellied black otter
The red-bellied black otter (Pseudechis porphyriacus) is glossy black with a red belly side. It can be up to 3 m long. Their diet consists of mammals, frogs, fish and reptiles. The snake can be found living in the east of Australia, namely North Queensland to the southeast of South Australia.
The rough scale otter (Tropidechis carinatus) belongs to the genus Tropidechis and is the only species of the genus. The snake has a slender but powerful body and reaches a length of 70 to 100 cm. The color varies between olive-green and dark-brown. As a rule, there are several rows of dark spots along the back. They can be found in the coastal areas of eastern Australia, the northeast of New South Wales, and the southeast and northeast of Queensland. It lives in tropical rainforests and moist hard-leaved forests. The rough scale otter is ground-dwelling, but it also climbs in low bushes to look for food. Their prey includes small mammals, frogs, birds and lizards. The bite of the scale otter is considered capable of living. In Australia the snake is called ”
Stephen`s Banded Snake
Stephen`s Banded Snake (Hoplocephalus stephensii) is a very poisonous species of tree snake from the Elapidae family. The species is endemic to Australia. It was named in honor of the Australian scientist William John Stephens. The snake reaches a length of up to about 120 cm. Their color is gray to black with brown or cream colored transverse bands. The lips are marked with dark vertical lines. The ventral side is cream-colored to gray.
The snake can be found on the east coast of Australia north of Sydney.
In Australia the snake is called Stephen’s Banded snake.
Other poisonous animals (on land)
Scorpions are mostly only found in the outback. Your stings are painful and can also be life threatening to children.
Caterpillars, Centipedes, and Millipedes
There are a large number of different caterpillars in the country, so they are almost always found somewhere.
Among the numerous spiders there are, in addition to the harmless ones, some that are extremely dangerous.
mouse spider The red-headed mouse spider (Missulena occatoria) native to southern Australia is called “mouse spider” and is very poisonous. The spider digs structures up to 50 cm deep. The females grow up to 24 mm and the males up to 12 mm.
The antiserum against the poison of the funnel-web spider is also effective against the poison of this spider
– red-backed spider
The red-backed spider (Latrodectus hasselti) belongs to the genus of true widow spiders. The spider is originally from Australia, but was introduced to Japan and New Zealand.
With a size of 3 to 5 mm, the males are significantly smaller than the females between 10 and 12 mm in size, which appear black with a conspicuous red, sometimes interrupted stripe on the upper side of the abdomen.
The poison consists mainly of alpha-latrotoxin. Victims describe the abdominal pain that sets in after a bite as unbearable. The symptoms, which also include signs of paralysis, subside after about twelve hours. However, if they affect the respiratory center, this inevitably leads to death without artificial ventilation.
It is estimated that there are several hundred bites of this species of spider in Australia each year. However, there is an effective antiserum against the spider’s venom.
– Sydney funnel web spider
The Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) is extremely poisonous and also very aggressive. Their jaw claws are so strong that they can pierce even soft shoes.
Anyone who is bitten by it is in mortal danger. But since an antidote was developed in the 1980s that every hospital in Australia has, there have been no more fatal attacks.
A modified form of a protein from the venom of the funnel-web spider may possibly minimize brain damage after a stroke.
The spider lives in tunnel-like holes in the ground in a damp and cool environment, which are lined with funnel-shaped or tubular nets and are usually found under stones or dead wood.
The females spend most of their lives here and rarely leave the burrow. The males, on the other hand, also come into human houses in their search for mating.
The females reach a size of up to approx. 4 cm while the males are up to 2.5 cm in size, but their venom is up to six times stronger than that of the females.
Amazingly, the poison is hardly effective on dogs or cats, for example
– whitetailed spider.
Another not harmless spider is the whitetailed spider. While it isn’t as deadly as the two species described above, its bite can cause inflammation that is very difficult to treat.
Centipedes and millipedes A bite from a centipede, which has a pair of legs that have been transformed into poisonous claws, is very painful, but usually only leads to local reactions and is therefore not threatening – apart from allergy sufferers.
The millipedes do not have 1,000 feet but at least 700 to 350 pairs of legs. The millipedes can’t bite, but they can secrete a poisonous secretion that causes blisters, redness and swelling.
Both animals belong to the arthropods.
Probably the most well-known Australian bird is the emu. The flightless bird can grow up to 1.80 long and 1 m tall and is the second heraldic animal next to the kangaroo on the Commonwealth flag. The top speed of 50 km/h that the animals can reach is remarkable. Although he is already the only survivor from the emus family, he has long been persecuted for causing harm to agriculture. Today fences are supposed to keep him away from the farms. The plumage of the emus is gray-brown and can be found in grass steppes, savannas, steppes and in forest areas. Because it is dependent on water sources, mass migrations often occur.
The flute bird (Gymnorhina tibicen) is a species of bird of the genus Gymnorhinain in the family of the strangler crows (Cracticidae) in the order of the passerine birds (Passeriformes), family strangler crows (Cracticidae).
Since its reputation is reminiscent of a flute melody, it was given its corresponding name.
Because of its black and white plumage, it resembles a magpie (Pica pica) and is therefore called Australian Magpie in English. The bird also became known in Europe through reports of attacks on people.
The flute bird can reach a body length of around 40 cm. It has gray-black-and-white plumage, which can vary with the four subspecies. Her feet are black and her eyes are auburn. The flute bird can be found almost all over Australia and Tasmania. It is also found in New Zealand, where it was introduced by humans around 1860 and has subsequently led to considerable problems for the local bird world.
prey Birds of prey such as eagles, buzzards and falcons can be observed in the interior of the country.
eagle With a wingspan of 2.50 m and a length of 81-100 cm, the wedge-tailed eagle is the largest bird of prey in Australia. The dark brown bird can also be seen in Tasmania and southern New Guinea.
It feeds mainly on carrion, but also hunts rabbits, birds and lambs. The latter are his undoing, since farmers still hunt the wedge-tailed eagle, unseen of the species protection under which it stands.
The cassowary is a subspecies of the emus. The animals have become rare and can only be found in the rainforests with a lot of luck. Both with the emus and the cassowaries, the gender role is distributed differently; here the males raise the young.
The Koakaburra, which means something like “laughing neck”, is also very well known.
The nectar birds (Nectariniidae), also known as honey suckers, are a family in the order of the passerine birds (Passeriformes). The family comprises 15 genera.
The birds are smaller than the sparrows and have long, downwardly curved bills. With their long tongues they suck the nectar out of the flowers and use it to catch insects. The males are often brightly colored and have shiny metallic plumage. With a few exceptions, the females are rather inconspicuous. They feed mainly on nectar, but also on insects and spiders. Over half of the species of nectar bird are distributed south of the Sahara, the other half can be found from South Asia to Australia.
The parrots belong to the order of the parrot birds (Psittaciformes). This order is divided into two families, the real parrots (Psittacidae) and the cockatoos (Cacatuidae) and includes around 350 species with around 850 subspecies. The New Zealand parrots of the Strigopidae family also do not belong to the real parrots. In contrast to the cockatoos, the real parrots do not have an openable hood. Their coloration varies greatly and ranges from a single-colored matt brown to green, red, yellow and blue. All true parrots have the property that incident sunlight is refracted on the feather branches. The following species of the true parrot family occur in Australia:
parakeet (Polytelis alexandrae) – Mountain parakeet (Polytelis anthopeplus)
– Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus), this particularly colorful bird occurs on the Cape York peninsula
in the far northwest of the country.
– King parakeet (Alisterus scapularis)
– Masked dwarf parrot (Cyclopsitta diophthalma)
– Red-winged parakeet (Aprosmictus erythropterus)
– Red -headed parrot (Geoffroyus geoffroyi), the bird is found on the Cape York peninsula
in the far northwest of the country.
– Black Parakeet (Polytelis swainsonii)
The cockatoos (Cacatuidae) belong to the family of cockatoos with six genera and 21 species in the order of the parrot birds (Psittaciformes). They belong to the order of the parrots (Psittaciformes), which is divided into two families of the “real parrots (Psittacidae)” and the “cockatoos (Cacatuidae)”. A striking feature of the cockatoo is their feather bonnet, which, depending on their state of excitement, can be flat or bristled. The birds reach a size between 35 to 65 cm. They have a characteristic and strong hooked bill. Their color ranges from white, gray, black to pink, with some species also having smaller yellow or red parts. The food mainly consists of flowers, flower buds, fruits, seeds and roots but also various insects.
– Actual cockatoo (Cacatua), a genus
– glossy black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami)
– Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris)
– Gelbhaubenkakadu (Cacatua galerita)
– helmet cockatoo (Callocephalon fimbriatum)
– Inca cockatoo (Cacatua leadbeateri)
– Nacktaugenkakadu (Cacatua sanguinea)
– Nose Cockatoo (Cacatua tenuirostris)
– Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus)
Cockatoo, Arakakatu (Probosciger aterrimus) – Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus)
– Pink Cockatoo (Eolophus roseacapilla)
– Rump Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus)
Numerous water birds such as pelicans and swans breed in the coastal regions. The black swan is unique with its black plumage, white wings and red beak. Both sexes are colored the same in this species.
The black swan or black swan (Cygnus atratus) is a species of bird from the genus of swans (Cygnus) in the family of duck birds (Anatidae) and in the order of goose birds (Anseriformes). It is the only almost completely black swan in the world with the longest neck of all swans. The animals reach a length between 110 to 140 cm – with a wingspan between 160 to 190 cm, rarely more. The birds need a 40 to 50 m long stretch of water to be able to rise into the air and therefore need large and open water areas with little swell. The natural occurrence of the black swan is Australia while it was introduced in New Zealand. In Europe there are only exposed and feral Black Swans.
A bird typical of Australia is the thermometer chicken (), which differs from other animals in that it is active almost all year round, regardless of the high temperatures, and takes care of brood care.
The budgie (Melopsittacus undulatus) is native to Australia, where it inhabits large parts of the mainland. However, it is not found in the extreme southwest, and in most of the coastal regions of northern and eastern Australia, and not even on the Cape York Peninsula. Tasmania’s budgies are most likely escaped from captivity. The wild birds are around 18 cm long, with the females weighing between 25 and 40 g and the males between 20 and 30 g.
Budgerigars have a green basic color, which is
superimposed by a black transverse band in a wave shape – hence their name. The forehead, the eye region, the throat and the front half of the cheek are yellow.
They have a bruise on both cheeks and four to six black spots over the throat. The under wing-coverts are green, the tail is greenish-blue and the outer feathers have a yellow band. It is well known that budgies are popular cage animals in Europe and should be kept at least in pairs.
If you walk past artistically built hills, you can assume that these are termite structures.
Flies are a real nuisance in Australia, but you can protect yourself from them with fly screens and nets. In addition to mosquitoes (midges), sand flies are also common in some areas of the north. And of course you can also find numerous species of ants, grasshoppers, bees and wasps, ticks and mites here. Fleas, lice or bed bugs are rare.
Particularly noteworthy are the bulldog ants (genus myrmecia), which belong to the 89 species from the, 88 of which only occur in Australia.
Also very unpleasant contemporaries are the numerous caterpillars that exist in the country, which lead to considerable – mostly local – complaints on contact. These include animals from the Thaumetopoeinae, Limacodidae and Anthelidae families.
Australian waters contain the largest number of species of sea turtles in the world.
The largest fish in the world, the whale shark, can be seen occasionally at Ningaloo Reef. It is believed to be up to 18 meters long. Its color varies from gray to brown, but the light stripes and white spots are typical. Interestingly, the mouth is not, like other sharks, below the head, but is in front. It filters its food, which consists of plankton, sardines, mackerel and tuna, from the water by swimming on the surface of the water with an open mouth. The best known and most dangerous shark is certainly the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharis), which can be up to 7 m tall. Other large sharks are the very dangerous bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), which is up to 3.50 m tall. Some species from the family of up to 6 m large and less aggressive hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) also occur here. They are particularly noticeable because of their wing-like spread of their head. The following species live in the waters of Australia:
– Winged hammerhead shark (Eusphyra blochii)
– Archedhead hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini)
– Great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran)
– Smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena)
Other sharks are the up to 7 m tall and very aggressive tiger shark and the up to 4 m big not too dangerous blue shark.
Other smaller and more harmless shark species live in the Great Barrier Reef. Corals and starfish are very common and shouldn’t be destroyed under any circumstances.
Horned sea snake
The horned sea snake (Hydrophis peronii) This sea snake reaches a length of about 130 cm. The back is grayish, pale olive or brownish in color. On the ventral side it is uniformly whitish or with a number of dark transverse bands. Like almost all poisonous sea snakes, it is extremely poisonous. In Australia the snake is called Spiny-headed seasnake or Horned sea snake.
These transparent box jellyfish (Cubozoa) of the genus Carukia only reach a size of about 25 mm. An example from the genus is the species Carukia barnesi. They have four thin up to 1 m long tentacles that are covered with poisonous stinging cells. Their name goes back to an Aboriginal tribe in the north of Queensland. The consequences of meeting the nettle cells appear after about 30 minutes. There are nausea, vomiting, sweating attacks, as well as extreme and almost unbearable stomach, head, limb and back pain. These symptoms can last up to several days. There is no antidote. However, the encounter is not life-threatening for adults and healthy people. The animals are usually found in the deeper waters of the reefs and are therefore more likely to endanger divers.
In his honor they were given their species name.
There are around 600 different species of cone snails, around 70 of which are found in the warm waters of northern Australia. They all belong to the genus Conus in the family of cone snails (Conidae). They reach a size between four and about 15 cm and are partly beautifully colored. Their poison is a neurotoxin, which they shoot at their victim using a kind of poison harpoon. They can penetrate a diving suit. The poison leads to visual and speech disorders and a feeling of numbness. The symptoms of paralysis can spread to the respiratory center and lead to death without ventilation. Some of the cone snails native to Australia are listed as examples:
– Textile cone snails (Conus textile)
– Court cone snails (Conus aulicus)
– Omaria cone snails (Conus omaria)
– Striped cone snails (Conus striatus)
In Australia the cone snails are known as cone shell or cone snail.
Little blue-ringed octopus
The small blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa) belongs to the genus of the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena) in the family of the real octopus (Octopodidae) and the order of the octopus (Octopoda). There are four species of the genus Hapalochlaena, including the great blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata). The small blue-ringed octopus is presented here as an example. The animals reach the size of a human hand. Their basic color is a brownish beige with large and dark spots. The arms are also banded with such surfaces. No blue rings are visible on the body at rest. But when the animal is irritated, the dark spots and bands become darker, and bright blue rings appear on them. The octopus often hides in snail and mussel shells, which like to especially by children. Their poison – a neurotoxin – causes no pain and only causes a small puncture site. But after just a few minutes, speech disorders, nausea, vomiting and symptoms of paralysis occur. There is no antidote and the only effective therapy for respiratory paralysis is intensive ventilation. They are found on the coast of South Australia from southern Western Australia to eastern Victoria. In Australia, this genus of octopus is known as the Blue ringed octopus There is no antidote and the only effective therapy for respiratory paralysis is intensive ventilation. They are found on the coast of South Australia from southern Western Australia to eastern Victoria. In Australia, this genus of octopus is known as the Blue ringed octopus There is no antidote and the only effective therapy for respiratory paralysis is intensive ventilation. They are found on the coast of South Australia from southern Western Australia to eastern Victoria. In Australia, this genus of octopus is known as the Blue ringed octopus
Puffer fish belong to the family (Tetraodontidae) in the order of the puffer fish relatives (Tetraodontiformes). There are around 200 different types of puffer fish. Their size ranges from about 2 cm in the dwarf puffer fish (Carinotetraodon travancoricus) to 120 cm in the giant puffer fish (Arothron stellatus). Puffer fish can inflate themselves in danger by pressing water from the oral cavity into a belly-sided, sac-like enlargement of the stomach. This should act as a deterrent to attackers. The spines, which are otherwise close to the body, then protrude and act as barbs, which makes it almost impossible for predatory fish to eat them. In their internal organs they have one of the most effective poisons in the animal kingdom, the nerve toxin tetrodotoxin. Already around 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight lead to death in humans from respiratory paralysis. Nevertheless, puffer fish is a popular delicacy in Japan as “fugu”. In order to be able to prepare the meat in a non-toxic way, the chefs need years of special training. The fish are found on almost the entire coast of Australia. In Australia the fish is called blowfish or pufferfish.
The Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) reaches a size of up to 40 cm. The fish have a striking coloring in brown and red tones, which are interrupted by contrasting white stripes. Your entire body is surrounded by long and thin fin rays. The nocturnal fish lives in lagoons and on outer reefs. The fish have a relatively strong poison that is found in a skin secretion on the stings on its dorsal fin. They do not have a venom gland and the spines do not have a venom duct either. The poison causes severe pain locally, sometimes with radiation to the entire affected limb. Furthermore, local swellings, local necroses, local paresthesias possibly spreading to the entire affected extremity and blistering occur. Also anxiety, nausea, vomiting, Sweating, dyspnoea, chest and abdominal pain, impaired consciousness, high blood pressure, facial flushing, headache are observed. However, there are no known documented deaths. In Australia the fish is called the Pacific lionfish or Red lionfish
Platelet sea snake
The platelet sea snake (Pelamis platura) reaches a size between 60 to 70 cm – rarely more. The snake lives mainly on the surface of the sea and has an excellent sense of smell.
The animals are very curious but not aggressive. Divers and swimmers should therefore keep calm so as not to irritate the animal. A detailed description of the snake here >>>
Plump sea snake
The plump sea snake (Lapemis curtus) is between 80 and 110 cm long and, together with the beak-headed sea snake, is one of the most dangerous sea snakes in the world and is feared by both fishermen and divers alike. Again and again fishermen die if the animal got on board in their nets with the catch.
A detailed description of this sea snake can be found here >>>
The Portuguese galley (Physalia physalus) can reach a size between 2 to 15 cm. The nettles are dangerous – but usually not life-threatening – with their tentacles up to 10 m long. The consequences of an encounter with nettles can lead to severe local pain, skin changes, headaches, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. In rare cases, the circulatory system can collapse. Vinegar hardly helps, but treating it with water at around 45 °C has resulted in a noticeable reduction in pain. The Portuguese galley drifts on the surface of the water, driven by the wind. They are found primarily in the Pacific, but also off the Canary Islands and Portugal. It is also widespread in the Caribbean, for example off the coast of Cuba. In 1975 large swarms were to be found even off the Dutch coast. In Sydney, for example, there are often hundreds of the bluish animals lying around on the beach. In Australia the animals are called Bluebottle or Portuguese man o ‘war.
Beak-headed sea snake
The beak-headed sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa) reaches a length of 100 cm to a maximum of 140 cm. It is considered to be quite unpredictable and can attack divers or snorkelers for no apparent reason. The animal is crepuscular and nocturnal and lives more in shallow water and/or the estuary deltas of rivers.
A detailed description of this sea snake can be found here >>>
Sea wasp, box jellyfish
The sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) belongs to the class of box jellyfish (Cubozoa). The animals reach a size of about 30 cm. The poison in their tentacles, which are about 60 to about 5 m long, is extremely effective, very painful and, without an antidote, often fatal. There are numerous stinging cells or nettle capsules on their tentacles, which have a double-walled structure and a small barb at the end. The tiny, fine nettle cells are ejected at a speed of up to two meters per second and the barbs of the nettle cells penetrate the skin, where a poison is injected. The use of zinc gluconate has proven to be a good first measure. Rinsing with water is unsuccessful and vinegar is also only considered to have limited effectiveness. In addition to unimaginable pain, those affected develop cardiac shock, cold sweat, a rapid pulse and impaired consciousness. Hypertension, rapid breathing, hypotension and bradycardia also occur. In addition, there are shortness of breath, pulmonary congestion and edema. Paralysis and abdominal pain as well as malaise and severe restlessness also occur. As a rule, people who survive the first 10 to 15 minutes have a good chance of survival afterwards. The jellyfish belong to the preferred prey of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). In Australia the box jellyfish is called Jellyfish. Hypotension and bradycardia. In addition, there are shortness of breath, pulmonary congestion and edema. Paralysis and abdominal pain as well as malaise and severe restlessness also occur. As a rule, people who survive the first 10 to 15 minutes have a good chance of survival afterwards. The jellyfish belong to the preferred prey of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). In Australia the box jellyfish is called Jellyfish. Hypotension and bradycardia. In addition, there are shortness of breath, pulmonary congestion and edema. Paralysis and abdominal pain as well as malaise and severe restlessness also occur. As a rule, people who survive the first 10 to 15 minutes have a good chance of survival afterwards. The jellyfish belong to the preferred prey of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). In Australia the box jellyfish is called Jellyfish. The jellyfish belong to the preferred prey of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). In Australia the box jellyfish is called Jellyfish. The jellyfish belong to the preferred prey of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). In Australia the box jellyfish is called Jellyfish.
The stingray belongs to the genus Dsyatis in the family of the stingrays (Dasyatidae). They can be up to two and a half meters long and almost three meters wide. They have a poisonous sting on their tail that can penetrate deep into human tissue and cause severe injuries. The poisonous effect of the sting consists of nausea, sweating attacks and diarrhea – worse effects are rather rare and usually not fatal. The death of the wild elf expert and animal filmmaker on September 4, 2006 in the Great Barrier Reef by a stingray in the heart caused a worldwide sensation. The genus Dsyatis is divided into the following five types:
• Dasyatis chrysonota
• Dasyatis hypostigma
• Dasyatis marmorata
• Dasyatis pastinaca
• Dasyatis tortonesei
In Australia the animals are called Stingray
Stonefish (Synanceiidae) are a family in the order of the perch-like (Perciformes), which consists of 36 species in nine genera and three subfamilies. Have them divided. Depending on the species, they reach a size of about 10 to 60 cm. These fish stonefish are solitary bottom dwellers, mostly camouflaged as stone or rock, in relatively shallow water in coral and rock reefs, on sand, scree and soft bottoms. Therefore, the bathers often step on the animals that are in their Dorsal fin spines are sometimes very effective neurotoxins. The poison is extremely painful and can be fatal to humans. In Australia the animals are called Stonefish.
Groupers (Epinephelidae) are a family of small to very large marine fish in the order of the perch-like (Perciformes). One of the largest reef fish is the dark giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), which is up to 1.70 m tall. The smallest grouper is the Pseudogramma guineensis with a size of 2 to 3 cm. Most, however, are between 20 to about 80 cm tall. The grouper family is divided into 4 subfamilies, 26 genera, approx. 235 different species. Numerous species are very brightly colored and many serve as food fish. Almost all groupers live near the coast of tropical and subtropical waters, with most species being found in shallower water above 300 m. In Australia the animals are called groupers.
A very special plant is the bottle-shaped baobab tree in the north and northwest of Australia, also known as the baobab tree. This tree, with its strikingly shaped trunk and silver-gray bark, belongs to the wool tree family and can live up to 1,000 years. Furthermore, it is characterized by its cucumber-shaped and wood-skinned fruits as well as fatty seeds. The baobab can store up to 5000 liters of water in the dry season, but then it loses all of its leaves in order to protect itself from excessive evaporation and thus from dying of thirst. In the past the hollow trunk was used as a prison.
Forests Eucalyptus forests grow almost everywhere in the country, with around 400 species of this unique tree.
The tallest trees in the world include the Karri eucalyptus in the south-west, with a size of 90 m, and the mountain ash, which is over 100 m high, in the south-east of Australia.
trees Where the bottle brush trees got their name from is easy to recognize by the beautiful flowers. These trees thrive especially well on moist soils in open or wooded areas.
Most common in Western Australia are grass trees. The trees, which can grow up to 6 m high, belong to the lily family and grow very slowly. Characteristic are the up to 1 m long, grass-like leaves that spread like a hood over the palm-like trunk, which is also a typical feature of these extraordinary trees. Grass trees can withstand bush fires, but their trunk becomes blacker and blacker afterwards. The trees owe their second name “Blackboy” to this fact. The trees only reproduce after the bush fires.
One often comes across the salt-tolerant casuarina with their horsetail-like branches.
Parts of Australia’s coastline are lined with mangroves.
The Desert Oak is typical of arid areas.
The macadamia nut trees can be up to 100 years old and 15 m high. They belong to the silver tree family. This plant is widespread in north-east New South Wales and in south Queensland. The young and soft leaves of the grass tree are often eaten, while the older and hard leaves can act as a cutting tool. The resin contained in the root is used by the Aborigines as glue or polish.
The eucalyptus tree is also known under the names fever tree and blue gum tree. It belongs to the myrtle family, grows very quickly and reaches a size of 6 m. Typical of the tree with the reddish to light brown bark are the older, drooping, leather-like leaves that are up to 20 cm long. Both the dried leaves and the essential oil are used as remedies. It promotes expectoration, relaxes cramps and, when applied locally, promotes blood circulation. Therefore, the eucalyptus is used externally as an oil for colds of the respiratory tract and for rheumatic complaints
The ripe berries of the Lantana species are poisonous.
The Australian nettle takes its name from the stinging hairs that cover the entire plant, including the berries. It grows predominantly in Queensland and is found there mainly in the rainforests. The skin-irritating effect is much stronger than that of the stinging nettle native to Europe, so special care is required with this plant.
In the north of Australia there is a rainforest with lianas, ferns and numerous types of orchids. The bush-like acacia trees are widespread throughout the country, while the golden acacia tree has become the national flower symbol. This grows especially in the southeast either as a tree up to 8 m tall or as a shrub with golden-yellow flowers.
In the dry interior of the country, the tough Spinifex grass thrives with the hard and pointed blades of grass, which is the food source for numerous desert animals, as well as the prickly cactus, which made whole areas inaccessible for a long time.
Just as typical for this area of the country are the mallee eucalyptuses, which are a low-growing type of eucalyptus in the form of a dry bush. It is characterized by its many trunk and its very slow growth of 3 cm/year. They are found mainly in southern Australia and are the habitat for numbats. Over time, numerous mallees have fallen victim to bush fires and clearings.
Other plants include the exotic cat’s paw, bougainvilleas, hibiscus, jacaranda, tree ferns and various species of lantana. The jacaranda trees that come from South America and bloom from October to November are not indigenous.