Botswana: Political System
According to CANCERMATTERS.NET, Botswana is a presidential republic in the Commonwealth. The bicameral parliament consists of the National Assembly with 40 members elected every five years and the consultative House of Chiefs with 15 members. The direct election of the head of state takes place every five years; re-election is possible once. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Botswana politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is Botswana after the name of the Foreign Office, but internationally one speaks of Botswana.
|Republic of Botswana Republic of Botswana|
Fatshe leno la rona (“Blessed be this noble land”) has been the national anthem of Botswana since 1966.
Text and music were written by Kgalemang Tumedisco Motsete.
|In English||In the English translation|
|Blessed be this noble land,Gift to us from God’s strong hand,
Heritage our fathers left to us.
May it always be at peace.CHORUSA wake, awake, O men, awake!
And women close beside them stand,
Together we’ll work and serve
This land, this happy land! Word of beauty and of fame,
The name Botswana to us came.
Through our unity and harmony,
We’ll remain at peace as one.
|Blessed be this noble land,gift for us from God’s strict hand.
The inheritance of our fathers was left to us.
May it always be at peace.REFRAINWake up, wake up, oh men, wake up!
And women stand close by them,
together we will work and serve
this country, this happy country! Word of Beauty and Fame
The name Botswana came to us.
Through our unity and harmony,
we stay united and in peace.
The national flag (country flag) of Botswana was officially introduced on September 30th – Independence Day.
Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:
– Blue symbolizes the sky, the water and the rain and comes from the coat of arms of Botswana, in which the word “rain” is written.
– The white and and the black stripe and black represent the harmony between the different ethnic groups.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Botswana.
Most mammals can only be seen in Botswana’s nature reserves and protected areas.
Giraffes, zebras and impalas (black heel antelopes) live alongside lions and cheetahs in the Moremi Reserve on the Okawango Delta. Impalas are characterized by their up to 9 m wide and 3 m high jumps. The two black stripes on the otherwise light brown rump are also characteristic. The up to 90 cm long horns are only found in the males. Impalas are widespread throughout the southern part of Africa.
The annual zebra migration between the Savuti and Chobe rivers is remarkable.
The Okawango Delta is also home to numerous mammals such as the kudu, buffalo, reed, lechwes (bog antelope) and the red lychee, another antelope species, which is actually native to South Africa. Botswana also has the largest elephant population in Africa, which you can admire in the northeast of the country.
The most common mammals in the country include spotted hyenas, hippos, springboks, numerous species of antelope, including the oryx, warthogs and honey badgers, cape buffalo and baboons.
Reptiles, poisonous snakes
Both Nile monitors and Nile crocodiles can be found in the Moremi Reserve in the Okawango Delta.
The Nile monitorcan, if you add the tail, reach a length of 2.30 m. It has a greenish-black color and prefers to stay in damp habitats. The captured animals are eaten whole, with bird and crocodile eggs at the top of the menu. The leopard tortoise, which can grow up to 68 cm, can be found predominantly in bushland and dry savannah landscapes. The non-toxic rock python, lizards such as the speckled desert lizard and the savanna lizard as well as the leopard tortoise, geckos and chameleons also live in the country. In Botswana you can also find a total of 70 different species of snakes, including the following venomous snakes:
– Anchieta cobra
– Banded cobra
– Horned puff adder
– Common puff adder
– Cape cobra
– Mozambique spitting cobra
– Black mamba
Poisonous animals (without snakes)
Different species of the thick-tailed scorpion family can be found predominantly in eastern Botswana.
Children are particularly at risk from stings, as there have already been deaths, mainly from respiratory failure. The poisoning begins with severe nausea and vomiting, followed by sweating, increased salivation, feelings of weakness and occasionally cramps. Visiting a clinic is highly recommended.
Most of the bird species, of which there are up to 600, congregate in the Okawango Delta.
These include the Klunkerkranich, the African scissor beak, the saddle stork, the yellow-bellied bulbul and the bee-eater. Ospreys, cormorants, ibises, cranes, secretaries and maraboos are particularly common in the marshland.
After the rains, pelicans and flamingos gather at the Makgadikgaki salt pans. The latter form a family of their own and are also common in parts of South America, western Asia and southern France. The up to 130 cm tall birds are immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by their thick, downward-curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos. The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are. The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, because one leg is hidden in the warm plumage and there is less heat loss. This feat is not strenuous for the flamingos (as well as for storks).
Other bird species found in Botswana are the red-bellied shrike, the red-beaked toko, fish eagle, swallowtail spider, gun kibit and ostrich.
The best way to protect yourself against the tsetse fly, which is particularly common in the rainy season, is to wear light, thick clothing. Your bite is noticeable by a large swelling and later by a headache and fever. A visit to the doctor is inevitable, as this fly is the vector of sleeping sickness. The malaria-transmitting anopheles mosquito is widespread south of the Sahara. The most important precautionary measure is to avoid bites with mosquito creams, mosquito sprays and suitable clothing.
A common type of acacia is the camel thorn acacia and the button thorn, which has characteristic outgrowths on the trunk. The pods of the fruits of the camel thorn acacia are eaten by elephants and rhinos because they are very nutritious. Mostly it grows on the edge of river beds.
In the Kalahari are particularly baobabs called baobabs, commonly seen. This tree with its strikingly shaped trunk and silver-gray bark belongs to the wool tree family and can live up to 1000 years. Furthermore, it is characterized by its cucumber-shaped and wood-skinned fruits as well as fatty seeds. The baobab can store up to 5000 liters of water in the dry season, but then it loses all of its leaves in order to protect itself from excessive evaporation and thus from dying of thirst.
Other trees found in Botswana are the liver sausage tree, which bears this name thanks to its sausage-like fruits, as well as the approximately 10 m tall jackalberry with its purple fruits and creamy white flowers.
Useful and medicinal plants
The Makalaui palm, an African fan palm, can be used in many ways. Wine is made from its juice, for example, and fences, baskets and hats are made from the fronds.
A mixture of the rind and the juice of the sycamor fig is used locally for sore throats and chest pains.
In dry savannas like the Kalahari, bushes, grasses and thorn bushes are noticeably dominant. Flowers, palm trees, reeds and papyrus thrive in the Okawango Delta. To protect against predators, the lithops, so-called living stones, have taken on the outer shape of stones. They actually consist of two leaves that have grown together and belong to the ice plant family.