Cape Verde: Political System
The official name of the country is:
|República de Cabo Verde Republic of Cape Verde|
According to CANCERMATTERS.NET, Cape Verde is a parliamentary democracy with a classic separation of powers and a decentralized structure. Parliament and President are elected every 5 years in general, free and secret direct elections. The President is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He stands above the parties and is the representative of the entire people. The head of government is the prime minister. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Cape Verde politics, and acronyms as well.
The national anthem of Cape Verde has been “Cântico da Liberdade” since 1996. The melody is composed by Adalberto Higino Tavares Silva (born 1961) and Amílcar Spencer Lopes (born 1948) wrote the text.
|The Portuguese text||In the English translation|
Canta, meu irmão
Que a liberdade é hino
E o homem a certeza.Com dignidade, enterra a semente
No pó da ilha nua;
No despenhadeiro da vida
A esperança é do tamanho do mar
Que nos abraça,Sentinela de mares e ventos
Entre estrelas eo Atlântico
Entoa o Cântico da Liberdade.
Sing, my brother
Because freedom is a hymn
And man is certainty.Bury the seeds with dignity
in the dust of the bare island;
On the steep slope of life
, hope is as great as the sea that
embraces us,Guardian of the seas and winds
Between the stars and the Atlantic
Voice of the song of freedom.
The national flag (country flag) of Cape Verde was officially introduced on September 22, 1992.
The ten yellow stars symbolize the ten islands of the country, with the circular arrangement standing for the state and its unity. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors are interpreted as follows:
– Blue stands for the sea and the sky
– White symbolizes hope.
Red stands for the blood shed during the independence struggle.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Cape Verde.
Cape Verde: Famous People
Mayra Andrade (born 1985)
The Cuba- born Cape Verdean singer released her debut album in 2007 and named it Navega. The artist, who mainly sings in Creole, received the German Record Critics’ Prize for this and is now one of Cape Verde’s best-known singers
Luís Carlos Almeida da Cunha (born 1986)
The Portuguese footballer, also known as Nani, was born in the Cape Verdean capital Praia in 1986. As a member of the Portuguese national team, he reached the quarter-finals in 2008.
Manuel dos Santos (born 1974)
The soccer player, who was born in Praia in 1974, has both Cape Verdean and French citizenship. He currently plays as a defender for Racing Strasbourg.
Bela Duarte, a painter from Cape Verde, was born on the island of São Vicente and founded the Cooperativa da Resistência in Mindelo in 1974. She currently teaches batik, dyeing and tapestry at the Centro Nacional de Artensanato. In 1995 she was awarded the Fonte Lima Prize of the National Cultural Institute for her batik work.
Cesária Évora (1941-2011)
The artist, born in Mindelo in 1941, is considered the best-known singer of the Cape Verdean Islands and at the same time the Queen of the Morna. She was called a “barefoot diva” because she performed without shoes and stockings. The musician has sung with Peter Maffay, among others, and with her lyrical songs conveys not only love of life but also sadness and melancholy.
Gelson Fernandes (born 1986)
was born in 1966 in the Cape Verdean capital Praia of today’s Switzerland. He is a football player who currently plays for AS Saint-Étienne and the Swiss national football team. For the latter, he was able to score the leading and winning goal for Switzerland against Spain at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa.
Corsino António Fortes (born 1933)
The Cape Verdean writer, born in São Vicente, later became the ambassador to Lisbon.
Manuel António de Sousa Lopes (1907-2005)
Lopes, a Cape Verdean novelist, poet and essayist, is also considered the founder of his country’s literature. Manuel Lopes, born in Mindelo on São Vicente in 1907, worked together with Baltasar Lobes as a journalist for the Claridade newspaper from 1936 to 1960. His work Os Flagelados do Vento Leste was filmed in 1987 by António Faria.
Sergio Frusoni (1901-1975)
This Cape Verdean poet from Cape Verde began his career in the bistro O Café Sport, where he presented his works to an enthusiastic audience. In the 1960s he directed the theater company Theatro do Castilho.
Ovídio de Sousa Martins (1928-1999)
The important Cape Verdean poet was born in Mindelo in 1928. He died in Lisbon in 1999.
João Cleofas Martins (1901-1970)
The Cape Verdean photographer and author was born in Brava in 1901, but spent most of his life in Mindelo on São Vicente. He was one of the few writers in his country who openly criticized the government of the Second Republic of Portugal.
Ovídio de Sousa Martins (1928-1999)
The famous Cape Verdean poet and journalist had to flee into exile in the Netherlands, where he spent many years because he had campaigned for the independence of his country from Portugal.
Vasco Martins (born 1956)
The musician and composer, who was actually born in Quéluz, Portugal, currently lives in Calhau, Cape Verdean. He is currently one of the few Cape Verdean musicians who can make a living from their music.
José Maria Pereira Neves (born 1960)
José Nerves has been the Prime Minister of Cape Verde since February 2001. In the parliamentary elections of 2006 he was re-elected for a further 5 years.
Tito Paris (born 1963) Born in 1963
in Mindelo on São Vicente, Tito Paris is a Cape Verdean singer and musician. He is one of the most popular and well-known musicians in his country.
Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires (born 1934)
The politician, who was born in São Filipe on Fogo in 1934, has been President of Cape Verde since 2001. In 2006 he was voted out of office.
Onésimo Silveira (born 1935)
The politician and writer Onésimo Silveira was born in Mindelo in 1935 and was mayor of his native city during his career.
Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho Veiga (born 1949)
The Cape Verdean politician was Prime Minister of his country from 1991 to 2000. In 2006 he lost his presidency against Pires.
Cape Verde: animals
Since there has never been a land bridge between the islands and the African mainland, the only mammal before Cape Verde was settled was the bat species, the great gray eared bat. Since then, mice and rats have been imported by ship, and the vervet monkey, a species of monkey from the order of the master animals, has been imported from West Africa. It can be 90-130 cm long, with 50-70 cm on the tail. The name “monkey” is a modification of the Indian word “markata”, which means “monkey”. This resident of semi-open savanna-like habitats is now seriously threatened with extinction. You can also meet wild rabbits on the islands.
Apart from four species of sea turtles, all of which are under international conservation, geckos and skinks, there are practically no other reptiles on the islands.
One of the geckos is the nocturnal Cape Verdean giant gecko, which occurs on the islands of Branco and Razo. It can weigh up to 50 kg and is therefore a poor climber. It can be found in the caves of shearwaters and frigate petrels.
Another type of gecko is the only 3 cm large Bouvier half-toe gecko with a tail length of 2.5 cm. It is one of the smallest living reptile species.
The brown-colored Vaillant skink, which can be up to 30 cm long, is one of the predominantly vegetarian skinks. It is the largest living Cape Verde lizard that belongs to the smooth lizard family. Their orange-colored tip of the snout is striking.
There are 157 species of birds in Cape Verde, of which only about 41 are native. The 14 endemic breeding bird species (only occurring in Cape Verde) include the Cape Verde reed warbler, the Cape Verde red kite, the Cape Verde buzzard, the Cape Verde sailor and the razo lark. The bird species adapted to dry habitats such as desert and thorn bush savannah include the racing bird, lark species and the brown-headed raven.
In wetter areas, for example, the Wellenastrild and the Graukopffliest live. The latter is a relative of the kingfisher and is called Passarinha by the locals. It feeds on skinks, mice and grasshoppers. It can only be found on the islands of Brava, Fogo and Santiago.
In the seezugewandten cliff one finds large colonies of sea birds such as shearwaters, petrels, Brauntölpen, Rotschnabeltropikvögeln and endangered Prachtfregattvögeln.
Thirteen-toed gulls and black-headed gulls are less common on the islands. Migratory birds make up the majority of the bird species on Cape Verde. These include, for example, the whimbrel, the stilt and common sandpiper, the spoonbill and various plovers and sandpipers. Birds of prey such as the buzzard, peregrine falcon, osprey and Egyptian vulture can be seen particularly well on Santo Antao. Since 1996 a total of 47% of Cape Verde’s birds have been on the Red List.
The world of fish and marine life is very diverse. There are catch fish such as tuna, blue marlins, bream, mackerel, moray eels as well as squid, crabs, many species of snails and mussels and lobster. All of these sea creatures serve as a food source for the locals. To the tropical fish species include parrotfish, snapper, holocentrinae, barracuda, puffer fish, porcupine fish, West African Angelfish and surgeon fish. There are also tiger, nurse and hammerhead sharks, large devil rays, dolphins, whales such as humpback, gray, sword and sperm whales as well as gorgonians (corals), sand tigers and cave lobsters.
There are no snakes in Cape Verde.
There are 490 species of beetles in Cape Verde, 30% of which are endemic. Cockroaches are very common. Butterflies are also numerous. The most common species are knight butterflies, swallowtails, monarchs, bluebells, whites, eye butterflies and the painted lady. The world of spiders, most of which live on Santo Antao, is also very diverse. Almost all spider species are very shy, so that you can rarely see them. The banana spider and the relatively large, yellow-black drawn zebra spider are very noticeable.
There are almost no dangerous animals on Cape Verde. The brown widow spider is poisonous but harmless to humans. The scolopender, which belongs to the family of arthropods, can become uncomfortable for humans. This ground-dwelling, crepuscular or nocturnal centipede has a flat build and can grow up to 30 cm long and 2.5 cm thick. You can find it under stones, roots and in crevices. Its bite is not fatal, but it can be very painful. The puffer fish (fugu) is also poisonous which is mostly found on coral reefs. He has a compact, round body shape and a skin without scales. It only becomes dangerous if you prepare it incorrectly yourself. However, since it is not offered in markets, it does not pose any great danger.
Cape Verde: plants
The climate on Cape Verde is very unfavorable for most plants, as the rainy season often does not take place for years. Therefore, a flora that is not very rich in species has developed. There is no closed forest cover on any of the islands.
Before the first colonization, there were around 250 plant species, the number of which was increased to 850 species by introduced plants. Of these, 90 species are known to be endemic today, i.e. they only occur on Cape Verde. These include the Cape Verde milkweed found on Santo Antao and the cruciferous bush that grows in Caldeira. The adder head and the phoenix palm are also endemic to the South Islands. Since the surface formations of the islands are very different, their vegetation is also different. For example, on the desert-like east islands of Sal, Boavista and Maio, more drought-resistant plants such as grasses and Sahel species can be foundand there are few trees. The mountainous islands, on the other hand, have the option of obtaining water through the condensation of the trade wind precipitation. There is a more diverse vegetation and also reforestation areas, such as the pine forest of Pico da Cruz. Eucalyptus and acacia species are also artificially planted to stop erosion and improve the island’s water balance.
Salt -tolerant, herbaceous species such as thorn trees, but also acacias, groups of phoenix palms and tamarisks can be found on the coastal areas. The latter are 1-3 m high, sandstorm-resistant shrubs with very long roots that reach into the groundwater. So they can also thrive on salt and limestone soils.
At the mouth of water-bearing valleys, the vegetation is a bit lush. There are growing coconut – and date palms, figs, laurel family, Tamariskenbüsche as well as isolated life thriving Lantanaarten. These are evergreen shrubs with rough, spicy-smelling leaves.
In the green valleys you can see the bright red flowers of the canna (flower cane), which belongs to the cane family. The plant has bulbous, thickened root stems and leaves that sit on hollow stems, which is also what gave it its name. The flower colors of the canna can vary widely between yellow and red. Furthermore, you can also see some purple flowering jacaranda trees as well as bougainvillea. Lavandula and Artemisia species grow on the windward slopes of the mountain valleys, which are also known as “feather bush vegetation “.
On Brava, Santo Antao and Sao Nicolau, where a dense forest of dragon trees used to be was found, these extraordinary trees, which are now under nature protection, only grow sporadically. They belong to the agave family and can be up to 400 years old and 20 m tall. In old age they get an extremely thick, light brown to gray trunk. Two different stories tell how the dragon tree got its name. One says that damaged or broken shoots usually sprout again (which is actually the case), just as the dragon grows two heads back if you cut off one head. Following the other story, the colorless, resinous excretion, which escapes when the trunk is injured and turns dark red in the air, is reminiscent of the “dragon’s blood”.
The national flower of Cape Verde is the blue-violet blooming Cape Verde bellflower. It grows mainly on rocky slopes at higher altitudes.
Banana, mango and citrus trees grow in the moister, year-round green valleys. Sugar cane is grown on Santiago as well as corn and beans. An important export was the physic nut, an oil seed bush that can grow up to 3 m high. Oil was extracted from the almond-shaped fruits and used to make soaps, lubricating oil and candles. Today this is no longer the case and the plant can only be found growing in the wild. The bombadeira grows in dry zones, a 3 m high shrub with white-purple flowers. The seeds of its round fruits are used to fill pillows. The dried leaves of the Fourerea agave are used as fuel and for wickerwork.
There are countless types of tea on Cape Verde that not only taste good, but also have healing properties. In the past, the milk from Gestiba plants was dripped onto rotten teeth, causing them to detach from the gums and fall out.
The characteristic white and sticky milky sap of Cape Verde milkweed is, like the whole plant, highly poisonous. When drunk, it causes swelling and blistering. If it gets into the eye, it can lead to corneal or conjunctivitis. The ripe berries of the Lantana species are just as poisonous.
Most of the plants in Cape Verde are introduced species. The most important are, for example, the jacaranda trees from South America, which bloom from October to November, and the Brazilian bougainvillea, a climbing plant.