Chile: political system
According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, the official name of the country is:
|República de Chile|
After the barbaric dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet (born 1915), who ousted and killed the freely elected President Salvador Allende (1908-1973) by means of a coup on September 11, 1973, the country is now a democratic and stable system. Pinochet’s dictatorship ended, at least formally, in 1988. Up to tens of thousands of people fell victim to it, some of them under horrific circumstances. The dictatorship formally ended with a referendum in which around 55% of the people voted against Pinochet’s further term in office. This was followed by free elections in 1989, which ended with a victory for Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, who then became president of the country. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Chile politics, and acronyms as well.
Chile is a presidential republic. This means that the president, who is directly elected by the people every 6 years, is also the head of government. The legislative power consists of 2 chambers, the parliament and the senate. The 120 members of parliament are elected by the people every 4 years.
The national anthem of Chile is the “Puro, Chile”. It was written by Eusebio Lilo and the melody is by Ramón Carnicer. It is common to sing only the 5th verse and the chorus.
|In Spanish||In the English translation|
|Puro, Chile, es tu cielo azulado,Puras brisas te cruzan también,
y tu campo de flores bordado
Es la copia feliz del Edén.
Majestuosa es la blanca montaña
Que te dio por baluarte el Señor,
Y ese mar que tranquilo te baña
Te Promete futuro esplendor.Refrain
Dulce Patria, recibe los votos
Con que Chile en tus aras juró
Que o la tumba serás des los libres
O el asilo contra la Opresión.
O el asilo contra la opresión
|Pure shines, Chile, your sky, the blue,pure breeze blows steadily through you,
and at the sight of the blooming floodplain,
Eden seems to see us on earth.
The snow-covered Andes,
which God bequeathed you as a bulwark, are
majestic, and your sea, whose waves gently break,
is a promise of future splendor.Refrain
Teure Heimat, listen to the vows that
Chile made you at the altar.
When his grave chooses you the free one,
or you take refuge from the despot.
Or take refuge from the despot.
Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national flag (national flag) of Chile was introduced on October 18, 1817.
The meaning of the colors is as follows:
– Blue stands for the sky and the Pacific Ocean
– White for the snow of the Andes
– Red for the Copihue flower or the blood of the heroes of the War of Independence
– The white star symbolizes freedom, while its five Spikes stand for the five first provinces of Chile.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Chile.
|In English||In the English translation|
|Oh Uganda! may God uphold thee,We lay our future in thy hand;
United, free for liberty
together we’ll always stand.
Oh Uganda! the land of freedom,
Our love and labor we give;
And with neighbors all
At our country’s call
In peace and friendship we’ll live.
Oh Uganda! the land that feeds us,
By sun and fertile soil grown;
For our own dear land,
We’ll always stand,
The Pearl of Africa’s Crown.
|Oh, Uganda, may God keep you,We put our future in your hand,
United, ready for freedom
Together we will always stand.
Oh Uganda! Land of freedom,
we give our love and our work
and with all our neighbors
we will live on the call of our land
peacefully and amicably.
Oh Uganda! The land that nourishes us
Grown by sun and fertile soil;
For our beloved land,
we will always stand up,
The pearl of Africa’s crown.
Chile: Known People
Isabel Allende (born August 2, 1942)
Writer and journalist. She is the niece of the former Chilean President Salvador Allende (1908-1973) who was assassinated on September 11, 1973 by General Pinochet in the course of a military coup. One of your best-known works is “The Haunted House” from 1982 by Salvador Allende Gossens (born July 26, 1908 in Valparaíso; murdered September 11, 1973 in Santiago de Chile).
Allende was the democratically elected socialist president of Chile from 1970 to 1973. In the course of a military coup led by General Pinochet, he was ousted in 1973 and murdered shortly afterwards. In the course of the following years tens of thousands of people were murdered and cruelly tortured, and many had no choice but to leave the country. Pinochet has never been brought to justice.
Michelle Bachelet (born 1951 in Santiago de Chile)
became the first woman and a socialist to become President of Chile on March 11, 2006. Her father was Air Force General Alberto Bachelet, who was murdered by the Pinochet regime. She fled to the GDR after the Pinochet putsch, but returned to Chile in 1979.
Roberto Bolaño, (born April 28, 1953 in Santiago de Chile, died July 15, 2003)
José Miguel Carrera (1785 – 1821)
The independence fighter and national hero José Miguel Carrera Verdugo became the first president of Chile in 1812. In 1821 he was executed in Argentina
Manuel Contreras (1929-2015)
Juan Manuel Guillermo Contreras Sepúlveda was born on May 4, 1929 in Santiago de Chile.
As head of the Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia (DINA) – the secret police under General Augusto Pinochet – between 1973 and 1977 he was responsible for kidnappings, cruel torture, the disappearance of people and numerous murders. He was sentenced to a total of 526 years in prison in 59 final court judgments. His first conviction came on November 12, 1993, when a Chilean court sentenced him to seven years in prison for the murder of politician and diplomat Orlando Letelier (1932-1976).
His victims were mainly members of the communist and socialist parties and the revolutionary left movement (MIR). According to a report from September 19, 2000, the CIA had actively supported Contreras with the approval of the then US government in the context of Operation Condor.
It was typical of this type of political criminal that he, too, had always denied any involvement in any crime and always blamed others.
Contreras died on August 7, 2015 in the military hospital in Santiago de Chile of complications from diabetes and colon cancer.
His death was extensively celebrated in front of the hospital and in the city.
Fernando González (born 1980)
Tennis player Fernando Francisco González Ciuffardi has won several ATP titles to date.
Ricardo Lagos (born 1938)
The politician Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar was President of Chile from 2000 to March 2006.
Peter Lehmann (born 1943 in Santiago de Chile)
actor and theater maker. He is the son of German immigrants Roberto Matta (1911 – 2002) Roberto Antonio Sebastian Matta Echauren was a surrealist painter.
Pablo Neruda b. July 12, 1904 in Parral, Chile; died September 23, 1973 in Chile)
Writer and winner of the 1971 Nobel Prize for Literature. His real name was Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto.
He took his pseudonym Pablo Neruda in honor of the Czech socio-critical and patriotic poet Jan Neruda (1834-1891) to Victor Jara (born September 23, 1932 in Lonquénin near Santiago de Chile; murdered September 16, 1973 by Juntamilitary) Musician. Before he was shot, both hands and arms had been broken so that he could never play the guitar again Violeta del Cármen Parra Sandoval (1917-1967)
Violetta Parra was a folklore musician and also a visual artist. She grew up with nine siblings in a poor but musical family – her father was a music teacher and her mother sang traditional Chilean folk songs.
In 1938 she married. Her two children from this marriage – Isabel Parra and Ángel Parra – later played an important role in her musical work.
After the war she toured Poland, the Soviet Union and Western Europe and stayed for around two years in France, where she recorded her first long-playing records with folk songs and self-composed songs. Back in Chile, she began to do pottery, blacksmith work and embroider sackcloth. Her end was tragic because on February 5th, 1967, she committed suicide – probably because of an unhappy love and financial problems.
Augusto Pinochet (Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte) (born 1915 in Valparaiso died 2006)
Pinochet had been appointed commander in chief of the armed forces under the freely elected socialist president Salvador Allende shortly before his coup. In a coup supported by the CIA, he overthrew and murdered Allende on September 11, 1973, after which he established an unprecedented terror regime in the country. It was not until March 11, 1990 that the Pinochet regime ended with the free election of Patricio Aylwin as president.
Pinochet was never held responsible for his outrageous crimes and has never looked back. But the problem ended biologically in 2006.
Paul Schäfer (born December 4, 1921 in Bonn, died April 24, 2010 in Santiago de Chile)
Schäfer was a school failure and later worked as a medic in the Wehrmacht. In Germany he founded in 1956 together with the preacher Hugo Baar in Heide in Siegburg the “Private Sociale mission.” – a sect
After the prosecutor’s office in Germany had investigation for child abuse, he fled with a number of members of the sect to Chile.
Here He founded the strictly shielded Colonia Dignidad sect on an area of around 30,000 hectares = 300 km² in 1961.
At the time of the Pinochet dictatorship, the sect area became a base for the “Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia” (DINA) secret service Shepherd under.
It was not until May 2006 that he was found guilty of 25 child abuse charges in Chile and sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment and payments of $ 1.5 million to eleven youths.
Schäfer died on April 24, 2010 in Santiago de Chile prison.
The 33 miners rescued
On October 13, around 5:00 a.m. CEST, the first of the buried miners, 31-year-old Florencio Ávalos Silva, came back to the surface of the earth from a depth of around 622 m with the help of an escape capsule. The last person rescued was Luis Urzúa Iribarren, who came to light around 3:00 a.m. CEST. The 33 miners had been buried in the San Josè gold and copper mine in the Atacama Desert for 69 and 70 days, respectively. With the help of special drills, a rescue shaft could be drilled down to them. They were then transported individually up through this shaft with the help of a special capsule. All in all, it took around an hour to rescue one person, and later only 40 minutes. The President of Ciles, Sebastian Piñera, was there when the rescue began. Since there was a Bolivian among the rescued pals – he was the fourth rescued – the President of Bolivia, Evo Morales, also came to the Atacama Desert. In view of this most spectacular rescue of buried miners, the whole country burst into jubilation, while almost the whole world – sometimes “life” – took part. After their liberation, they were taken to the hospital in the city of Copiapó, which has 130,000 residents. The rescued 33 miners:
Florencio Ávalos, 31 years old. He was the first to be freed.
Mario Sepúlveda Espinia, 40 years old. He was the second rescued and was the “spokesman” for the buddies.
Juan Andres Illanes, 51 years.
Carlos Mamani Solís, 23 years old and, as a Bolivian, the only non-Chilean in the mine.
Jimmy Sánchez, at 19 he was the youngest.
Osman Araya, 30 years old
Renán Ávalos Silva, 29 years old
Mario Gómez, he was the oldest at 63 years old
Ariel Ticona Yañez, 29 years old, became a father during the “imprisonment”, his daughter is called Esperanza (hope).
Edison Peña, 34 years old, he jogged about 10 km in the tunnel every day.
Víctor Zamora, 33 years old, wrote poetry underground.
Raúl Bustos Ibáñez, 40 years.
Claudio Yáñez, 34 years old, he wants to marry his partner after the rescue.
Víctor Segovia, 48 years old, wrote a diary.
Jorge Galleguillos, 56 years old
José Henríquez González, 54 years old
Samuel Ávalos Acuña, 43 years old
Claudio Acuña Cortés, 34 years old
Franklin Lobos Ramírez, 53 years old
Yonni Barrios Rojas, 50 years old, he worked as a nurse. His wife and also his lover awaited him upstairs.
Alex Vega, 31 years old
Richard Villarroel Godoy, 27 years old
Daniel Herrera Campos, 27 years old
José Ojeda Vidal, 46 years old
Luis Urzúa Iribarren, 54 years old, he was the shift supervisor dr boss of the buddies and was the last person rescued from the mine
Carlos Barrios Contreras, 30 years
Omar Reygada, 56 years
Juan Carlos Aguilar Gaete, 49 years
Carlos Bugueño Alfaro, 27 years
Pedro Cortéz Contreras, 25 years
Pablo Rojas Villacorta, 45 years
Darío Segovia Rojo, 48 years
Esteban Rojas Carrizo, 44 years
Chile is around 4,275 km long and stretches from the southern tip of America to the 1,200 km long Atacama Desert in the north of the country.
However, Chile measures only 90 km at its narrowest point and 440 km at its widest point.
Accordingly, the animals presented are usually only found in certain parts of the country, for example llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas, all of which belong to the camel family, can be found in the plateaus.
The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a South American wild camel with a shoulder height of 120 cm. Its woolly and dense fur is light brown on the top and white on the underside. It lives at altitudes of up to 4000 m and is always exposed to dangers from the local pumas, Andean condors and Andean jackals.
The animals can also be found in the Torres del Paine National Park.
Other mammals are magellan foxes and chinchillas, which are rarely found.
The nocturnal long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) lives in dry areas.
It is approx. 40 – 42 cm tall, with 15 cm on the tail.
It was hunted mercilessly for its precious, silky fur, and today its populations have been greatly reduced and it is threatened with extinction. The pudu and the huemul are also threatened with extinction.
Pudus (Pudu) are a genus of the deer family (Cervidae), of which there are two species. With a shoulder height between 25 to about 40 cm, they are the smallest deer in the world. In Chile, in western Patagonia, the species South Pudu (Pudu puda) is found.
The northern pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) lives in the Andes of Colombia, Peru and Ecuador – it does not occur in Chile.
They have a rough, dense, brown-black fur, a small tail, and the males have small unbranched antlers about 8 cm long. The diet consists of leaves, bark, fruits and flowers.
Their habitat is exclusively the humid temperate forests, which mainly consist of pseudo-and southern beeches.
Pudus are at risk from human hunting and clearing of forests.
The Huemul is also called the southern Andean deer and can be seen next to the Andean condor on the Chilean coat of arms. The most noticeable feature is its long ears.
It is critically endangered as there are only around 2,000 specimens left.
armadillos The bristle armadillos inhabit a relatively small area in central South America – in southern Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina in the north of Chile.
Chilean Hermit Spider
The Chilean Hermit Spider (Loxosceles laeta) is native to South America, and there mainly in Chile.
In Spanish it is called Araña de Rincón, which refers to its occurrence in dark corners, e.g. B. in cupboards. The females grow to 7 to 15 mm, while the males grow to 6 to 12 mm.
The spiders are reddish brown, orange or yellowish in color and have six eyes and eight legs. They are poisonous and a bite can be life threatening. In any case, severe tissue necrosis is very common.
A natural enemy of them are the tiger spiders (Scytodes globula), which are particularly common in rural households.
Red chile tarantula
The red chile tarantula is slightly poisonous, but it is still not safe for people who are allergic to the venom of tarantulas.
A bite from the black widow (Latrodectus mactans) should not be underestimated. However, it is often not noticed immediately because it can usually be felt like a pinprick. But the neurotoxin (nerve poison) injected by the spider begins after half an hour at the earliest with involuntary neuromuscular jerks, which lead to cramp-like abdominal pain and after one to three hours to increasing muscle pain, which if left untreated can last for days.
Local swelling and reddening appear on the bite wound.
spider There is also the poisonous spider “Araña del Trigo” (wheat spider), which can be easily recognized by a yellowish spot on the abdomen.
The crocodiles (Crocodylia) are an order that is divided into the following three families:
– Real crocodiles (Crocodylidae)
– Alligators (Alligatoridae)
– Gavials (Gavialidae)
These three families are divided into 9 genera with a total of 25 species.
The local crocodiles are nowhere near as large as, for example, the Australian saltwater crocodiles (estuarine crocodiles) or the Nile crocodiles. Nevertheless, one should keep a suitable distance from them and under no circumstances bathe in the rivers in which the animals can occur.
You can find a description of the crocodiles at Goruma here >>>
turtles Sea turtles are found on the country’s coastal beaches. With the exception of laying eggs on sandy beaches, they spend their entire lives in the water.
However, as lung breathers, they have to come to the surface of the water regularly to breathe, which may only be necessary after 7 hours when sleeping and after 40 minutes at the latest when doing activities.
Their diet consists of cephalopods, crustaceans and jellyfish, but also plants.
Your front legs serve as paddles for photo movement, while the rear legs serve as a kind of rudder.
The salt glands on the head ensure that they can excrete the salt absorbed with the seawater.
All are characterized by an armor-like back shield and a toothless jaw with strong chewing ridges.
– Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)
– Green turtle (Chelonia mydas)
– Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta)
– Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
This sea turtle has the following two subspecies:
– Pacific hawksbill sea turtle (Caretibochelys)
– Hawksbill sea turtle imbricata imbricata)
The breeding process is not carried out by the animals but by the sun.
It is very interesting that at temperatures above 29.9 degrees Celsius, the eggs develop into females and below that males.
In addition to some non-poisonous snake species in Chile, there are also the following slightly to moderately poisonous snakes.
Chilean green shrub snake
The Chilean green shrub snake – Chilean Green Racer (Philodryas chamissonis) – is considered to be only slightly poisonous. Nevertheless, local pain, swelling and bleeding occur at the bite site after a bite.
The snakes can be found from Copiago in the north to Valdivia in the south of the country.
Schmidt’s green shrub snake
The Schmidt’s green shrub snake – Schmidt’s green racer (Philodryas tachymenoides) is not too poisonous, but local pain, swelling and bleeding still occur at the bite site. The swelling and pain may spread.
The snakes live in the north of Chile
Seagulls, jots (vultures) can be seen along the entire coast and guano birds on the north coast. Other birds are wild ducks, owls, eagles and condors at heights of 3000 – 4000 m above sea level.
The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) can be seen next to the Huemul on the Chilean coat of arms.
It belongs to the New World vulture family and lives on cliffs and mountains at heights of 3500 m.
The males reach a length of 120 cm and a wingspan of 320 cm. The females, on the other hand, are smaller and lighter. One can distinguish the females from the males not only by their height but also by the color of their eyes, since their eyes are red and those of the males are gray.
The Andean condor is mostly black in color with a downy white ruff, but is naked and dark red on the neck and head.
He has an excellent sense of smell, which is rather unusual for birds, reaches top speeds of 55 km/h and can live to be over 65 years old.
His food consists of carrion dying animals or animals killed by predators, which he then eats directly at the place of discovery.
Another very special bird is the rhea (Rhea americana), which belongs to the order of ratites.
With a top height of 130-150 cm, a back height of approx. 100 cm and a weight of 20-25 kg, it is the largest bird in the New World. In addition to long strong feet, it has soft plumage and, for a flightless bird, surprisingly long wings with a length of about 250 cm.
Thanks to these properties, it can escape speeds of 50 km/h and quickly and unexpectedly change direction by alternating the right or left wing.
You can find it in the pampas (open, wide grasslands of South America), but also on the edge of the forest and areas with bushes. It feeds on grasses and herbs of all kinds, but also fruits and seeds as well as grasshoppers, frogs, lizards and smaller rodents are on the menu.
There are also guano cormorants, mockingbirds, chile wigeons, parrots, hummingbirds, coots and finches and of course numerous sea birds such as the Patagonian and Dominican gulls.
Rabe Geier (Coagyps atratus) have a size of between 55 and 75 cm, cm at a wing span 135-160.
Their weight varies between 1 and 2 kg. The plumage is glossy black while the head and neck are gray bare. The animals can be found at altitudes of approx. 2,700 m. In addition to carrion, their diet also consists of live prey.
Truthahngeier (Carthates aura) reach a size of between 45 to 55 cm with a wingspan of between 180 cm to 200 micrometers.
Their weight varies between about 0.8 and 2 kg. Their plumage is brown-black, which is shiny on the back.
The head is red and bare. The birds feed mainly on fresh carrion.
You can also find oystercatchers, curlews, ducks, flamingos, geese, ibises, hummingbirds, pelicans and swallows.
In addition to numerous smaller fish, you can find killer whales (orcas) and dolphins here.
Also sea lions, seals and otters.
Juan Fernandez fur seal
The Juan Fernandez fur seal from the ear seal family is an endemic mammal. It can only be found on the islands of Alejandro Selking, Robinson Crusoe, San Felix and San Ambrosio. The adult males are over 2 m long, the females are slightly smaller. A special feature are its externally visible auricles.
The fur seal was hunted because of its fur, known as the “seal”, and must be protected today.
penguin , Magellan penguin The Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) and the Magellan penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) are well worth seeing.
Both penguins belong to the genus of the African penguins (Spheniscus).
The animals reach a size of about 60 cm and are otherwise difficult to distinguish from one another.
The Humboldt penguin occurs on the Pacific coast of northern Chile and Peru.
The Magellanic penguin can be found on the rocky coasts of the Falkland Islands, in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and also in the south of Brazil.
Mosquitoes, flies, fleas, bed bugs, lice and ants can be found in Chile – like almost everywhere else.
But you should protect yourself well against the Aedes mosquitoes, as they transmit dengue fever.
They are particularly common on Easter Island and in the north of the country.
Chile is around 4,275 km long and stretches from the southern tip of America to the 1,200 km long Atacama Desert.
However, Chile measures only 90 km at its narrowest point and 440 km at its widest point.
Accordingly, the plants presented are usually only found in certain parts of the country.
In total there are about 5,000 different species of plants in Chile, half of which are endemic (only found in Chile).
As mentioned, the vegetation is very different in the different climatic areas. In the north you can find cacti, dwarf shrubs, acacias and the yareta, an endemic cushion plant from the umbelliferae family. It is rock-hard, grows very slowly (1mm per year) and forms large lumps. The Yareta is a hermaphrodite (hermaphrodite) and forms pink to lavender colored flowers.
Deciduous forests dominated by southern beeches are characteristic of central Chile. Larchs, pines, cypresses and araucarias are also represented. The latter is also known as the Andean fir. It is an evergreen coniferous plant, which prefers elevated locations and can be up to 30 m high and 700 years old in the Andes.
The araucaria has very sharp and hard needles that are several centimeters long. This tree also grows
in Germany, but here it is nowhere near as large as in its home country.
The national flower, the copihue, also grows in central Chile. It is a climbing plant that is close to the lily family. What is striking about this liana are the pendulous, pink-colored and elongated bell flowers that are pollinated by hummingbirds. The leaves are deep green, shiny, leathery and have a pointed oval shape.
To the south of Valdivia there are remains of the Valdivian rainforest with laurels, magnolias, colorful flowering lianas and various herbaceous plants. Coniferous forests with araucarias and Chilean river cedar are predominant at altitudes of 500 to 1800 m. The coigüe, a deciduous tree that does not shed its leaves but stores water in them, is also widespread in the south.
Cacti, thorn bushes and other hard grass plants grow on the coast of Chile.
A very special tree in Chile is the Alerce, also known as the Patagonian cypress. It can grow up to 50 m in size and has a knot-free zone of 25 m. These trees grow very slowly (increase in height 6.6 cm per year) and can live up to 3,600 years. The reddish wood of the evergreen Alerce is one of the best woods in the world, because it is hard, firm, low vibrating, weatherproof and easy to work with. Therefore, due to the increased deforestation, only a few trees are left and every living tree has been declared a natural monument. Felling the Alerce is strictly prohibited.
The main crops in Chile are oats, wheat, potatoes, barley, rice, beans and oil plants. The yareta can also be useful as it is used as fuel. The fruits of the araucarias, the pinones, are edible and the Chilean palm, a very thick-stemmed pinnate palm, has almost been eradicated because a honey-like juice is tapped from its pulp. This is used as a sweetener or fermented into “palm wine”.
The bark and berries of the otherwise poisonous barberry are used for fever and stomach, liver and heart ailments. Quebracho (bitter bark), an evergreen tree that can grow up to 20 m high, also has healing properties. It is easy to recognize because it has the growth of a weeping willow. The bark is used after it has been peeled from the tree and then dried. It is used for breathing difficulties, febrile illnesses, liver disorders and for potency weakness.
The Boldo, an evergreen shrub or tree from the Monimiaceae family, grows on the coastal region of Chile and can reach heights of up to 6 m. It has white or yellow flowers that give off an intense fragrance and small yellowish berries. The dried leaves are used, which have an antispasmodic effect on the stomach and promote the secretion of bile and gastric juice.
The wild rose called Rosa Mosqueta grows in the Andes and southern Chile. A nutmeg oil is extracted from its seeds, which has many uses. The oil regulates the skin, reduces water loss, regulates the function of the sebum and has an anti-inflammatory effect. It can also reduce the formation of wrinkles and lighten pigment spots in the case of premature skin aging. It is also the base oil for preventing stretch marks.
In Chile located is the angel trumpet, is a very toxic, up to 5 m high tree-like shrub. This plant has softly hairy leaves and flowers between June and January. The pendulous flowers are up to 25 cm long and can be white, yellow, orange or red. All parts of the plant are poisonous because they contain tropane alkaloids. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, flushing of the face, difficulty swallowing, visual disturbances and heart problems. The barberry from the sea buckthorn family is also poisonous. You can recognize them by their yellow-orange flowers, dark-gray-green leaves and small, red, elongated berries. Everything about this plant is poisonous except for the bark and the berries, which are also used in medicinal medicine.