Egypt: Political System
According to CANCERMATTERS.NET, Egypt is a presidential republic. The bicameral parliament consists firstly of the “Council of the People” with 454 members, of which 444 are elected every five years and 10 are appointed by the head of state, and secondly the “Shura” as an advisory body with 210 members, of which 57 are appointed by the head of state. The direct election of the head of state designated by parliament takes place every 6 years. Mubarak resigned on February 11, 2011 after 18 days of partly violent protests. His successor was the member of the Muslim Brotherhood Mohammed Morsi, who received a majority of the votes in a democratic election on June 30, 2012 with 51.7%. But after millions of Egyptians demonstrated against him, he was deposed by the military on July 3, 2013 and placed under house arrest. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Egypt politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|Arab Republic of Egypt Gumhuriyyat Misr al-Arabiyya|
Biladi, Biladi, Biladi has been the national anthem of Egypt since 1979. The lyrics and the melody are by Sayed Darwish (1892-1932).
|In English||In the English translation|
|RefrainMy homeland, my homeland, my homeland
My love and my heart are for thee.
(repeat previous two lines)Egypt! O mother of all lands,
My hope and my ambition,
How can one count
The blessings of the Nile for mankind?refrainEgypt! Most precious jewel,
Shining on the brow of eternity!
O my homeland, be forever free,
safe from every foe!refrainEgypt! Noble are your children,
loyal, and guardians of thy soil.
In war and peace
We give our lives for thy sake.refrain
|Refrainhomeland, homeland, homeland,
homeland, homeland, homeland,
my heart beats lovingly for you.Egypt! Oh mother of all lands,
my hope and my aspiration,
no one can measure
The blessings of the Nile for the peoplerefrainEgypt! Most beautiful jewel, you
shine for eternity.
Oh my homeland, you are forever
protected from all harm!refrainEgypt! Your children are noble,
faithful keepers of the ground.
In war and peace
we give our life for your sake.refrain
The national flag (Landesflagge) was introduced on May 4, 1984. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:
– Red symbolizes the revolution in Egypt
– White symbolizes its bright future
– Black reminds of the dark days before the revolution
The state emblem of Egypt – Saladin’s eagle (1137-1193) – in the white stripe of the flag has the name of the state “Arab Republic” in its claws.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Egypt.
At the instigation of France, a “Union for the Mediterranean” – or Mediterranean Union for short – was founded in Paris on July 13th between the EU and the countries shown in the figure. This union is a loose association of the countries shown in the figure and has agreed on the following projects:
- Energy, medium-sized and educational project
- Keeping the Mediterranean clean
- Establishment of transnational waterways and highways
- Establishment of a common disaster control
The final declaration formulated the political goal of creating a Middle East free from weapons of mass destruction. In addition, the member states committed themselves to “strengthening democracy and political pluralism”. Furthermore, every form of terrorism as well as attempts to associate a religion or culture with terrorism were condemned.
Egypt: important people
George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon (1866-1923)
He was an English aristocrat and famous financier of Howard Carter, who discovered the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in 1922;
Carnarvon always stayed at the Winter Palace Hotel when he traveled to Luxor
Howard Carter (1874-1939)
Carter was a British archaeologist and Egyptologist who found the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings in 1922.
Mohammed el-Baradei (born 1942)
He was the successor of Hans Blix as General Director for Foreign Affairs at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna on December 1, 1997. In 2001 he was confirmed in office against opposition from the United States. He and the IAEA each received half of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize. With this, the Nobel Prize Committee recognized his personal commitment and that of the organization against the misuse of nuclear energy for military purposes and for ensuring maximum safety standards in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Umm Kalthum (1904 to 1975)
The singer was considered the “most important Arab voice of the 20th century”.
Mahmoud Fayad (1926-2002)
He won Olympic gold in weightlifting in the featherweight class in London in 1948
Karam Ibrahim (born 1979)
wrestler and Olympic champion 2004 in Athens in Greco-Roman style in light heavyweight
Naguib Mahfuz (1912 – 2006)
Mahfuz is considered one of the most important modern writers in Egypt. He wrote numerous novels, short stories, prose as well as screenplays and plays.
The book “The Children of Our Quarter” from 1959 was on the Egyptian index for a long time. Mahfuz is the only Arab writer to have received the Nobel Prize for Literature (1988).
Anwar Ahmed Misbah (1913-1998)
He won a gold medal in the lightweight weightlifter at the 1936 Berlin Olympics
Ibrahim Mustafa (1904.1968)
The wrestler Mustafa was Olympic champion in the Greco-Roman style in the light heavyweight division in 1928 at the Olympic Games in Amsterdam
Muhammad Husni Mubarak (born 1928)
Mubarak was President of the “Arab Republic of Egypt” from October 14, 1981 to February 11, 2011.
He had to resign as a result of the protests during the 2010/11 Arab Spring. At the beginning of June 2012 he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
El Sayed Nosseir (1905-1977)
Noussair won the gold medal in weightlifting in the lightweight class in Amsterdam in 1928
Samir Khalil Samir (born 1938)
Islamic scholar and Catholic theologian from Cairo
Ibrahim Shams (1917-2001)
Shams won a gold medal in weightlifting in the lightweight class at the 1948 London Olympics
Omar Sharif (1932-2015)
Omar Sharif was born on April 10, 1932 in Alexandria, Egypt, as the son of a family from a Lebanese-Syrian wood merchant family.
He was discovered in a cafe in Cairo in 1953 and began his acting career with a role in the Egyptian film “Deadly Revenge” by Youssef Chahine.
His international career, which made him one of the most popular actors worldwide, began around nine years later in 1962 with the film “Lawrence of Arabia”.
His most famous roles were:
– the role of Sherif Ali Ibn El Kharisch in the film “Lawrence of Arabia” from 1962 together with Peter O’Toole as TE Lawrence
– the main role in the film “Doctor Zhivago from 1965”
– the role of Captain Alex Brunel in the film “18 hours to eternity” together with Anthony Hopkins as John McCleod
– the role of Nick Arnstein in the US-American film “Funny Girl” from 1968 together with Barbra Streisand and in the same role in the second part of 1975.
– the role of Major Gray in the film “The Night of the Generals” from 1966, among others. together with Peter O’Toole as Lieutenant General Dance
– the role of Jitro in the film “The Ten Commandments” from 2006.
He lived in Paris and Cairo and died on July 10, 2015 in Cairo of complications from a heart attack.
Khadr El Touny (1915-1956)
He won Olympic gold in weightlifting in the middleweight class at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.
He was electrocuted at his home in Helwan, Egypt, in 1956.
List of pharaohs
Thinite period (2925 to 2685 BC)
1st Dynasty, 2925-2780 BC.
- Hor-Aha (Menes)The Pharaoh Menes is considered to be the founder of the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. After he conquered the area up to the Nile Delta from Upper Egypt and thus united both empires, he wore the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt as a sign of the ruler over the entire country.
- Hor Den
2nd dynasty, 2780 to 2686 BC Chr.
Old Kingdom (2686 to 2181 BC)
3rd Dynasty, 2682 to 2613 BC Chr.
- Sanacht, 2686 to 2668 B.C.
- Djoser, 2668 to 2649 BC.Djoser’s tomb, the step pyramid built by Imhotep in Saqqara, is the earliest monumental structure of its kind in Egypt.
- Sechemchet, 2649 to 2643 BC.
- Chaba, 2643 to 2637 BC.
- Huni, 2637 to 2613 BC.
4th Dynasty, 2613 to 2498 BC Chr.
- Sneferu, 2633 to 2583 B.C.he is the builder of the so-called Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid in Dahshur, about 30 km south of Giza. How often scientists are at odds with regard to the years of birth and years of death is exemplified by this pharaoh: according to John Haywood he died in 2551 BC, according to Rainer Staelmann in 2583 and according to Thomas Schneider in 2620, the information about the year of his birth varies accordingly.
- Cheops, 2589 to 2566 BC.Builder of the Great Pyramid in Giza. This pyramid is one of the only remaining “Seven Wonders of the World”.
- Djedefre, 2566 to 2558 BC.
- Chephren, 2558 to 2532 BC.
- Mykerinos, 2532 to 2504 BC.
- Sheepseskaf, 2504 to 2500 BC.
5th Dynasty, 2498 to 2345 BC Chr.
- Userkaf, 2498 to 2491 BC.
- Sahure, 2491 to 2477 B.C.
- Neferirkare, 2477 to 2467 B.C.
- Schepseskare, 2467 to 2460 BC.
- Neferefre, 2460 to 2453 B.C.
- Niuserre, 2453 to 2422 BC.
- Menkauhor, 2422 to 2414 BC.
- Djedkare, 2414 to 2375 BC.
- Unas, 2375 to 2345 BC.
6th Dynasty, 2345 to 2181 BC Chr.
- Teti, 2345 to 2333 BC.
- Pepi I, 2332 to 2283 BC
- Merenre, 2283 to 2278 BC.
- Pepi II, 2278 to 2184 BC
First Intermediate Period (2181 to 2040 BC)
7th and 8th dynasties, 2181 to 2161 BC Chr.
- Qakare Ibi
9th and 10th dynasties, 2160 to 2040 BC Chr.
- Meriibre Cheti
- Nebkaure Akhtoy
11th dynasty, 2134 to 1991 BC Chr.
- Antef I., 2134 to 2117 BC.
- Antef II., 2117 to 2069 B.C.
- Antef III. , 2069 to 2060 B.C.
- Menuhotep I., 2060 to 2010 BC.
- Menuhotep II., 2010 to 1998 BC.Menuhotep II reunited both parts of Egypt and thus enabled the establishment of the Middle Kingdom.
- Menuhotep III., 1997 to 1991 BC.
Middle Kingdom (2040 to 1782 BC)
12th Dynasty, 1991 to 1782 BC.
- Amenemhet I, 1991 to 1962 BC.
- Senwosret I., 1971 to 1926 BC.
- Amenemhet II, 1929 to 1895 BC.
- Senwosret II., 1897 to 1878 BC.
- Amenemhet III. , 1842 to 1797 BC.
- Amenemhet IV., 1798 to 1786 BC.
- Queen Sobeknofru, 1785 to 1782 BC.
Second Intermediate Period (1782 to 1570 BC)
13th and 14th Dynasties, 1783 to 1650 BC.
- Ugaf, 1782 to 1778 BC.
- Ameni Antef IV.
- Hor, around 1760 BC.
- Sobekhotep II
- Sobekhotep III.
- Neferhotep I.
- Sobekhotep IV.
- Neferhotep II
15th and 16th Dynasty (Hyksos), 1663 to 1555 BC Chr.
- Apopi I.
- Apopi II.
17th Dynasty, 1663 to 1570 BC Chr.
- Sobekemsaf I.
- Sobekemsaf II.
- Antef VII.
- Ta-a I., around 1633 BC.
- Ta-a II., Around 1574 BC.Ta-a II was King of Thebes, he began to recapture the empire and fell in battle.
- Kamose, 1573 to 1570 BC.Kamose continued the fight of his father Ta-a II.
New Kingdom (1570 to 1070 BC)
18th Dynasty, 1570 to 1293 BC Chr.
- Ahmose I, 1570 to 1546 BC.The brother of Kamose succeeded in driving the Hyksos out of Egypt for good. He thus laid the foundation for the emergence of the New Kingdom. Then he subjugated the land of Kush (Nubia).
- Amenhotep I, 1551 to 1524 B.C.The son of Ahmose ruled Egypt during a renewed cultural and economic heyday. The Ebers papyri (medical records) and the inscription of an Amenemhet about the construction of a water clock were made during this period. Amenhotep I and his mother were worshiped as a local patron god during the Ramesside period.
- Thutmose I, 1524 to 1518 BC.The Pharaoh subjugated the Nubians and expanded the Egyptian Empire to what is now Syria and the Euphrates.
- Thutmose II., 1518 to 1504 BC.
- Thutmose III. , 1504 to 1450 BC.
- Hatshepsut, 1498 to 1483 B.C.The first Egyptian female pharaoh, who was often portrayed as a man with a beard, ruled for about 22 years and enabled the country to prosper during this relatively peaceful period.
- Amenhotep II, 1453 to 1419 BC.
- Thutmose IV., 1419 to 1386 BC.
- Amenhotep III. , 1386 to 1349 BC.
- Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), 1350 to 1334 BC.The Pharaoh, known under the name Akhenaten, first introduced a monotheistic religion in Egypt with the cult of Aton. By the way, his wife was Nefertiti, whose uniquely beautiful bust (made around 1340 BC) is in the Neues Museum in Berlin.
- Semenchkare, 1336 to 1334 BC.
- Tutankhamun, 1334 to 1325 BC.Akhenaten’s son became Pharaoh at the age of 9. Under pressure from the ruling caste of officials and priests, he was forced to renounce the cult of Aton, which his father had introduced, and to reintroduce the cult of Amunc. He died at the age of about 20 under circumstances that have not yet been clarified.
- Aja, 1325 to 1321 BC.
- Haremhab, 1321 to 1293 B.C.
19th Dynasty, 1293 to 1185 BC Chr.
- Ramses I, 1293 to 1291 BC.The founder of the 19th dynasty was primarily a military leader. In addition, he continued to consolidate the cult of amunculus and left behind an orderly government apparatus with loyal officials.
- Seti I, 1291 to 1278 BC.The son of Ramses I conquered Palestine, among others.
- Ramses II, 1279 to 1212 BC BC.This pharaoh, also known as Ramses the Great, lived from around 1298 BC. until 1213 BC BC and was one of the most important rulers of ancient Egypt. Thanks to his diplomatic skills, he achieved almost fifty years of peace with the neighboring peoples, which enabled the country to enjoy a unique economic and cultural boom.
- Merenptah, 1212 to 1202 BC Chr.
- Amenmesse, 1202 to 1199 BC Chr.
- Seti II, 1199 to 1193 BC Chr.
- Siptah, 1193 to 1187 BC Chr.
- Queen Tausret, 1187 to 1185 BC Chr.
20th Dynasty, 1185-1070 BC Chr.
- Sethnacht, 1185 to 1182 BC Chr.
- Ramses III. , 1182 to 1151 BC Chr.
- Ramses IV, 1151 to 1145 BC Chr.
- Ramses V, 1145 to 1141 BC Chr.
- Ramses VI. , 1141 to 1133 BC Chr.
- Ramses VII and Ramses VIII, 1133 to 1126 BC.
- Ramses IX. , 1126 to 1108 BC.
- Ramses X., 1108 to 1098 BC Chr.
- Ramses XI. , 1098 to 1070 BC Chr.
Third Intermediate Period (1069-525 BC)
High Priest (Southern Reich, Thebes), 1080 to 945 BC Chr.
- Herihor, 1080 to 1074 BC.
- Pianchi, 1074 to 1070 B.C.
- Pinodjem I, 1070 to 1032 BC.
- Masaharta, 1054 to 1046 BC.
- Mencheperre, 1045 to 992 B.C.
- Smendes II., 992 to 990 BC.
- Pinodjem II., 990 to 969 BC.
- Pinodjem III. , 969 to 945 B.C.
21st Dynasty (Northern Reich, Tanis), 1069 to 945 BC Chr.
- Smendes I, 1069 to 1043 BC.
- Amenemnisu, 1043 to 1039 BC.
- Psusennes I, 1039 to 991 BC.
- Amenemope, 993 to 984 B.C.
- Osorkon, 984 to 978 BC.
- Siamun, 978 to 959 B.C.
- Psusennes II, 959 to 945 BC.
22nd Dynasty, 945 to 710 BC BC and 23rd Dynasty, 818 to 715 BC BC, Libyan kings in Tanis
- Scheschonq I, 945 to 924 BC Chr.
- Osorkon I., 924 to 889 BC Chr.
- Scheschonq II., Around 890 BC Chr.
- Takelot I, 889 to 874 BC Chr.
- Osorkon II., 874 to 850 BC Chr.
- Takelot II., 850 to 825 BC Chr.
- Scheschonq III. , 825 to 773 BC Chr.
- Pami, 773 to 767 BC Chr.
- Scheschonq V, 767 to 730 BC Chr.
- Osorkon IV, 730 to 715 BC Chr.
23rd Dynasty (Leontopolis, parallel to the 22nd Dynasty), 818 to 715 BC.
- Pedibastet, 818 to 793 BC Chr.
- Scheschonq IV., 793 to 787 BC Chr.
- Osorkon III. , 787 to 759 BC Chr.
- Takelot III. , 764 to 757 BC Chr.
- Rudamin, 757 to 754 BC Chr.
- Iuput, 754 to 715 BC Chr.
24th dynasty in Sais, 727 to 715 BC Chr.
- Beacon renef
25th Dynasty, 747 to 656 BC BC (Nubian kings)
- Pianchi, 747 to 716 B.C.
- Shabaka, 716 to 702 BC Chr.
- Shebitku, 702 to 690 BC Chr.
- Taharqa, 690 to 664 BC Chr.
- Tanotamun, 664 to 656 BC Chr.
26th Dynasty, 664-525 BC Chr.
- Psamtik I, 664 to 610 BC Chr.Psamtik I. founded the 26th Pharaonic Dynasty, Lower Egypt after he freed with the help of Greek mercenaries of the Nubian domination Upper and Lower Egypt united again. Under his rule, the country experienced another heyday. His efforts to reorganize the state internally, however, met with strong resistance from the families of officials and priests.
- Necho, 610 to 595 BC Chr.
- Psamtik II., 595 to 589 BC Chr.
- Uhahibre, 589-570 BC Chr.
- Ahmose II, 570 to 526 BC Chr.
- Psamtik III, 526 to 525 BC Chr.
Late Period (525 to 332 BC)
27th Dynasty (1st Persian period), 525 to 404 BC Chr.
- Cambyses II, 525 to 522 BC Chr.
- Darius I, 521 to 486 BC Chr.
- Xerxes I, 485 to 465 BC Chr.
- Artaxerxes I, 465 to 424 BC Chr.
- Darius II, 423 to 404 BC Chr.
28th Dynasty, Sais
- Amyrtaios, 404 to 399 BC Chr.
29th Dynasty, 399 to 380
- Nefaarud I, 399 to 393 BC Chr.
- Hakor, 393 to 380 BC Chr.
30th Dynasty, 380 to 343 BC Chr.
- Nachtnebef, 380 to 362 BC Chr.
- Djedhor, 362 to 360 BC Chr.
- Nachthorehbit, 360 to 343 BC Chr.
31st Dynasty (2nd Persian period), 342 to 332 BC Chr.
- Artaxerxes, 343 to 338 BC Chr.
- Arses, 338 to 336 BC Chr.
- Darius III , 336 to 332 BC Chr.
Greek era, 332 BC. Chr. To 395 AD
- Alexander the Great, 332 to 323 BC Chr.
- Philippos Arrhidaios, 323-316 BC Chr.
- Alexander IV, 316 to 305 BC Chr.
- Ptolemy I to XII, 304 to 51 BC Chr.
- Berenike IV., 58 to 55 BC Chr.
- Cleopatra VII., 51 to 30 BC Chr.The last queen of the Egyptian Ptolemaic Empire was of Greek origin and became under the protection of Caesar’s rule over Egypt, which they secured by a liaison with the Roman Mark Antony after his death. In the year 30 BC After Octavian’s victory over Mark Antony, she committed suicide in Alexandria. According to legend, with the help of a uraeus snake.
- Ptolemy XV , 36-30 BC Chr.
Mammals Native wildlife species are very rare in Egypt because of the dry climate.
In the desert areas you will mainly meet camels, which are still an important means of transport despite the widespread use of cars.
Gazelles are hardly to be seen today, only now and then the Dorcas gazelle in the Libyan desert, which is now classified as vulnerable, and the white gazelles, which are supposed to still exist in the southwest of Wadi Rayan.
Of scientific interest are the cheetahs, which also live in the Libyan Desert, which differ genetically from other populations in Africa.
Somewhat smaller desert animals, however, are hares and the gerbils. The latter have adapted particularly well to the dry climate with the rather sparse water conditions, because their urine is about four times as concentrated as that of humans, which keeps water loss within limits.
In the Nile Delta, especially in the mountains along the Red Sea, there are other mammals such as hyenas, jackals, mongooses as well as wild asses and wild boars.
Occasionally you can also meet the increasingly rare sand and desert foxes, better known as fenneks.
Much more common, however, are red foxes that have come to terms with humans and their waste by feeding on that waste.
Almost exterminated in Egypt, but now successfully resettled, are the Nile crocodiles, most of which can only be admired at Lake Nasser on the Upper Nile. African softshell turtles
also live here and along the Nile and in the Nile delta there are still some of the last specimens of the Egyptian tortoise, which can be recognized by their characteristic trunk-like head. Other reptiles such as the thorn-tailed dragons, the desert monitor and other lizard species are most likely to be found between stones or in other shady places. The local dice snake
(Natrix tessellata) is a non-poisonous snake.
The horned viper occurs mainly in scree and rocky landscapes as well as in oases. A bite that was intended as an attack results in both external and internal bleeding and, without treatment, a life-threatening situation can arise.
The bite of a sand rattle otter, Egyptian sand rattle otter, horned viper, Nubian spitting cobra can also have fatal consequences. The snakes are diurnal and can be spotted quite often.
The Egyptian cobra (uraeus snake), with which Cleopatra may have committed suicide, feels at home in rural areas on the Nile.
The consequences of a poison bite begin with swelling of the affected area and can lead to neck stiffness, visual disturbances, vomiting and paralysis without treatment and even to respiratory or cardiac arrest.
But not only snakes are dangerous animals in Egypt, scorpions are also widespread. The approximately 10 cm tall yellow Mediterranean scorpion is not only very aggressive, but also highly poisonous. It can be recognized by its beige to slightly yellow-orange color. The Sahara thick-tailed scorpion is one of the most dangerous scorpions in the world. Since it is active at night, it usually hides under stones or burrows in the sand during the day. Sturdy footwear is therefore essential in order not to accidentally step on the animal and thus unintentionally irritate it. A prick leads to severe pain and the affected area becomes numb. In severe cases, respiratory paralysis can lead to death.
Other poisonous creatures can be found in the water. Stonefish live here at depths of up to 30 m, which are very difficult to spot due to their excellent camouflage. They are littered with spines, the back spines contain a neurotoxin, which is very toxic. If you step on the fish, the poison is injected into the body. This leads to nerve paralysis with water formation under the skin, cardiac arrhythmias up to cardiac arrest, peripheral vasodilatation and often to respiratory arrest.
There are several cases where encountering a stonefish has resulted in death. As a first aid measure you should remove the sting, clean the wound and then immerse the injured area in hot water.
This method has proven itself as it has a pain-relieving effect and prevents or inhibits the spread of the poison. In any case, however, additional medical help must be sought.
The birds are particularly numerous in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley. There are spoonbills, pelicans and flamingos. The latter form a family of their own and are common throughout Africa, western Asia, and southern France. The up to 130 cm tall birds are immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by their thick, downward-curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos.
The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are. The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, since one leg is hidden in the warm plumage and thus less heat loss occurs. This feat is not strenuous for the flamingos (as well as for storks).
In addition to the bearded and Egyptian vulture, birds of prey also include gliding hairs, Lanner and desert falcons as well as numerous species of eagles. The kestrel is particularly widespread. It is approx. 34 cm long and has a wingspan of approx. 75 cm. The kestrel nests in rock caves, on bushes and in trees. In addition to insects and reptiles, it also eats smaller mammals and bird species. The kestrel is widespread in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The ibis, on the other hand, used to be revered as a sacred bird, is now rare. Characteristic are the almost completely white plumage and the featherless, black head.
Birds that are particularly typical of the banks of the Nile are sparrows, crows and various species of heron such as the silver and little egret. The cattle egret, which also occurs here, is not only beautiful, but also useful, because it frees cattle from vermin. Repeated hops, limikolen (wading birds), which also include the plover and the snipe, are also part of the local avifauna. Other water birds areWild geese and ducks, lapwing and wagtail.
There is a low risk of malaria due to the Anopheles mosquito in the El Faiyûm oasis and in the Nile oasis.
The Red Sea is a paradise for divers, turtles, sharks, dragon fish, rays and numerous other types of fish cavort here. The very poisonous stonefish is found in the Red Sea as well as in the Indian Ocean. You have to be particularly careful at depths of up to 30 m. Over 100 different fish species also live in the Nile and in the lakes of the delta region.
The desert areas in Egypt are almost without vegetation, you only come across acacias and tamarisks in isolated places.
The latter are 1-3 m high bushes or up to 10 m high trees with very long roots that reach into the groundwater. They can also thrive on salt and limestone soils, as they are able to excrete the salt again via glands on the leaves. They are particularly popular as shade providers.
The date palm is the most widespread; it can be found both along the banks of the Nile and in the oases. On the banks of the Nile, it is in good proximity to the few native tree species such as the sycamore fig, carob trees andNile acacias, which, like the tamarisk, have very deep roots.
The date palm is not only the most common tree, but also one that can be used in a variety of ways. In addition to the fruits, the trunk also plays an important role, for example it is used as a support or as a beam for ceilings. Baskets are woven from the fronds and cages and furniture are made, and the fruit stalks serve as brooms
The papyrus bush can certainly be added to the useful plantscount, even if it was used much more frequently in the past than it is today, and above all more frequently. Today it only appears in the south of the country. The papyrus is a perennial, grassy plant from the sour grass family. It becomes 1 – 3 m high and has a woody, aromatic and creeping rhizome. The leaves are fine, grass-like and are arranged in a crest at the end of the stem. In the past, different parts of plants were used to make headbands, sandals, boxes, boats and ropes. The dried roots were used as heating material and the pulp of the stem was boiled and eaten. The best known is certainly the production of papyrus, a writable material, from the pulp of the plant. Papyrus is considered to be the forerunner of today’s paper. The smoothed and pressed network of fibers was mainly used by the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans.
The alluvial soils represent an important region for growing vegetables, and vines are also planted here.
Despite its toxicity, the colocinth was used by the ancient Egyptians as a laxative and abortion agent. Today the active ingredients obtained from the ripe, dried and peeled fruits are used in homeopathy for headache and body aches as well as for colic and cramps.
The desert is home to some plants that protect themselves from predators due to their toxicity. This also includes the colocinth, which belongs to the cucurbit family. In itself, the entire plant is poisonous, but the small pumpkin-like berries, to which the coloquint owes its nickname such as desert gourd or coloquint gourd, have the highest levels of toxicity. The ingredients irritate the intestinal mucosa and lead to cramps, nausea with vomiting as well as dizziness and visual disturbances.
Only a few of the plants in Egypt are indigenous, most of them were once brought from other countries, including various fruit trees such as banana trees, pomegranate and orange trees, cypresses, mimosas, eucalyptus, the royal palm, rubber trees, hibiscus and bougainvilleae.
While the desert steppe is dominated by hard grasses and thorn bushes, various flowers such as the lotus, roses and jasmine thrive on alluvial soil.
Other typical plants in Egypt are the bamboo cane and reeds. Sea lavender (also known as sea lavender) and the saltpeter bush are particularly salt-resistant plants and therefore also grow on the edge of salt lakes or in brackish water.