Greenland Political System, Famous People, Animals and Plants

By | January 15, 2023

Greenland: Political System

Greenland is an autonomous region within the constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary-democratic system of government Denmark.

Greenland is divided into three parts of the country, North Greenland (Avannaa), East Greenland (Tunu) and West Greenland (Kitaa).

These in turn are divided into 18 municipalities, which are quite different in size. Accordingly, the seats are distributed between 3-17 in the Municipal Council.

Greenland and the EU

Although the Greenlanders voted against joining the EC in a referendum in 1972, they had to join together with Denmark.

For a country that is almost 90% inhabited by the Inuit, who traditionally live from fishing, it was an unbearable situation to have to submit to the restrictions of the EC, especially with regard to fishing quotas.

After Greenland had been granted more autonomy by Denmark (Autonomy Statute or Greenland Home Rules of 1979, hjemmestyrelove), Greenland broke away from the then EC on February 1, 1985 after a referendum.

Greenland is a region within the constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary-democratic system of government Denmark. Therefore the head of state is the Danish queen or the Danish king.

At the head of the state is the prime minister, who, like the government, Hjemmestyre, is elected every 4 years by parliament, Landesting.

Domestically, the Greenlanders have the option of adopting Danish laws due to their autonomy.

Foreign policy and defense are largely taken over by Denmark, with the exception of representation in bodies in other Inuit regions.

Two directly elected MPs represent Greenland in the Danish Parliament.

The country is striving for further autonomy. If you want to be kept up-to-date with current politics, read the official website of the Greenland Home Rules directly:

Greenland is a member of the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council is a supraregional organization made up of the eight countries Canada, USA, Russia, Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Denmark (Greenland) and Norway as well as representatives of the arctic ethnic groups. The chair changes every two years.

National anthem

The national anthem of Greenland was written by Henrik Lund (1875-1948) and set to music by Jonathan Petersen (1891-1960).

In the original language

In the original language In the English translation
Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravitNunarput, utoqqarsuanngoravit niaqqut ulissimavoqq qiinik.

Qitornatit kissumiaannarpatit tunillugit sineriavit piinik.

Akullequtaastut merletutut ilinni perotugut tamaani

kalaallinik imminik taajumavugut niaqquit ataqqinartup saani.

Atortillugillu tamaasa pisit ingerlaniarusuleqaagut,

nutarterlugillu noqitsigisatit siumut, siumut piumaqaagut.

Inersimalersut ingerlanerat tungaalitsiterusuleqaarput, oqaatsit “aviisit” qanoq kingunerat atussasoq erinigileqaarput.

Taqilluni naami atunngiveqaaq, kalaallit siumut makigitsi.

Our country, you grew so old, your head is covered with white hair.You held us, your children, in your lap and gave us the wealth of your coasts.As middle children of the family we flourished here, Kalaallit,

we want to call ourselves that in the face of your proud and honorable head.

With a burning longing we develop what you give us, renew it,

remove your obstacles on our striving forwards, forwards.

The journey of mature societies is our ardently pursued goal. We want to preserve the impression of speech and writing.

Humility is not the course, Kalaallit, wake up and be proud!

A dignified life is our goal, take a valiant stand.

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by, the national flag of Greenland was designed by Greenlander Nikolaj Thue Søren Hans Christiansen, born in 1940, and was officially adopted on June 21, 1985. The flag shows the sun, half sunken behind the horizon, which is reflected in the sea. The colors indicate the centuries-old bond with Denmark.

  • Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Greenland.

Greenland: Known People

Visual artist

  • Aka Hoegh, b. 1947, is currently the most famous painter and sculptor in Greenland.
  • Nikolaj Thue Søren Hans Christiansen, born on February 25, 1940 in Maamorilik, is a Greenlandic artist and politician. He designed the Greenland flag
  • Christian Rosig, b. 1944, is a contemporary sculptor who makes carvings.


  • Ole Kristiansen, b. 1965, is a contemporary musician.
  • Rasmus Lyberth, b. 1951, is a contemporary musician.

Natural scientist

  • Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen(June 7, 1879 to December 21, 1933) was a well-known Greenland polar explorer and anthropologist. He was born in Jakobshavn.From the beginning of the 19th century he researched the Inuit culture.He works with Leni Riefenstahl on her film SOS Eisberg.He died of food poisoning after eating the Greenlandic specialty kivioq, rotten seal meat.
  • Fridjof Nansen(10.10.1861 to 13.5.1913). The Norwegian successfully crossed Greenland on skis in 1888. In 1893 he made the unsuccessful attempt to reach the North Pole by allowing himself to be captured and drifted by the pack ice on the ship “Farm”. The Norwegian polar explorer received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1922.

Writer and poet

  • Mathias Storck(1883-1957), writer.
  • Otto Sundgreen(1914-1999), writer.

Theologians, clergymen and philosophers

  • Samuel Petrus Kleinschmidtwas born in Lichtenau, today’s Alluitsoq, in 1814. He made the first translation of the Bible into Greenlandic.

Greenland: animals


One of the native mammals is undoubtedly the polar bear, which is also the largest land carnivore on Greenland. It grows up to 3 m long, 1.50 m high and weighs 500 kg. In order to be able to defy the weather conditions on Greenland, it has a 10 cm thick layer of fat that protects it from freezing in the water and a waterproof fur that is able to produce heat itself.

The polar bear is an omnivore, but it specializes in seals, which it waits for at water holes and then carries them onto the ice with a blow of the paw. In summer it also feeds on birds, smaller mammals, as well as grass, moss and berries. The preferred habitat are ice floes near the coast and islands. However, it is protected and can only be hunted in Alaska, Canada and Greenland for personal use.

Also stoats, the Greenland collar Lemming, the North American arctic hare, musk ox, reindeer, arctic foxes and polar wolf are native.

The muskox have their ancestors in the highlands of Central Asia and are not only native to Northeast Greenland but also to Canada. The herd animal is an even-toed ungulate and has a buffalo-like appearance.

The males are up to 2.50 m long, 1.45 m high and weigh between 300 and 400 kg. The females are slightly smaller and lighter. The horns pointing backwards are found in both sexes. A typical characteristic is the hump over the shoulder and a pronounced mane.

And even if they don’t look like it, musk ox are relatives of goats or sheep.

A thick pad of fat protects the animals from the cold.

A very important animal for the Greenlanders is the 2 m long and 1.25 m high reindeer from the deer family. Clothing is made from its very dense fur, which consists of air-filled hair. He also serves as a meat supplier. The reindeer is the only species of deer in which both males and females have antlers. Its main diet includes lichens, which it exposes from the snow with its wide hooves. But they also eat leaves, bark and grass. In addition to Greenland, it is also found in the tundras of Northern Eurasia and Canada.


According to topschoolsintheusa, birds are most prominent in Greenland. There are around 200 different species, around 52 of which nest on the island. The largest birds of prey are the white-tailed eagle and the snowy owl. The latter are only found as breeding birds in the arctic regions. The crepuscular and nocturnal owl is 59-64 cm tall and has a wingspan of 150-160 cm, with the females being slightly larger than the males. They can be easily distinguished from the snow-white males by their speckled plumage. It prefers open terrain as a habitat, where it hunts for lemmings and other voles. The snowy owl is the only owl that is able to store body fat and is under hunting protection in Greenland.

Other common species are auks, seagulls, cormorants, gyrfalcons, ravens, and ptarmigan.

Reptiles and amphibians

Since both reptiles and amphibians are cold-blooded animals, they were unable to establish themselves in Greenland.


There are around 700 different types of insects, with mosquitoes being particularly noticeable and extremely annoying.

Underwater world

In addition to walruses, ringed seals, hats and seals, marine mammals also include whales such as humpback, blue, fin, white, bowhead, pilot, sperm and minke whales.

The bubble-shaped bead attachment, which leads from the forehead to the nostril, is characteristic of the folding cap and also gives it its name. When aroused, e.g. during mating or as a threatening gesture, it swells enormously. The males reach a body length of 2.5 m and a weight of 300 kg, the females are slightly smaller and correspondingly lighter. The solitary animals always stay in the immediate vicinity of the water and avoid coasts and pack ice. The young animals were hunted for a long time because of their bluish fur. With age, they turn blue to dark gray.

The most common fish species are the cod, cod and redfish.

Greenland: plants

The plant communities are different depending on the region. There are wooded areas with birch and tall willow bushes as well as arctic willows, heather and mosses. The greatest variety of plants can be found in the southern zone, where vegetables are also grown. The juniper, rhododendron and various herbs and lichens thrive here. In total there are around 500 different plant species on Greenland, including 5 orchid species. The national flower of Greenland is the large-flowered fireweed.

Toxic plants

Also known as golden Alpenrose or Rosenbaum known Rhododendron is because of the flowers, leaves, fruits and diterpenes contained in the nectar highly poisonous.

The plant, which belongs to the heather family, causes stomach irritation and symptoms of paralysis to vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, cramps and in very severe cases even death from respiratory paralysis.

The rhododendron, which comes from North America, has its origin in Asia, which is also the main distribution area.

Greenland Politics