Sudan is a country in Africa according to homosociety. Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, sits at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles. Karthum’s tourist attractions include the Omdurman Camel Market, the Arabic Souk and the National Museum. Archaeological sites of interest are in Bajrawiya, Naga and Meroe. Home to numerous wildlife species, Dinder National Park on the border with Ethiopia is one of the largest in the world. Another sight of Sudan is the Red Sea with its clear water, many different types of fish and offshore coral reefs. Sudan borders Egypt, the Red Sea, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, Chad and Libya. Tourism has only recently developed here, and outside of Khartoum communication and tourism facilities are limited. There are also travel restrictions for large parts of the country due to violent unrest.
Arriving by plane
There are no direct flights to Sudan from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Sudan Airways (SD), the national airline of Sudan, connects Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Cairo (Egypt), Jeddah and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), among others, with Khartoum. Turkish Airlines (TK) flies from Frankfurt/M., Vienna and Zurich via Istanbul to Khartoum; Ethiopian Airlines (ET) takes off from Frankfurt/M. and Vienna a route via Addis Ababa; the flight from Frankfurt/M. to Addis Ababa is also offered by Lufthansa (LH); Austrian Airlines (OS) also flies from Vienna to Addis Ababa. In addition, Lufthansa (LH) from Frankfurt/M. and Austrian Airlines (OS) from Vienna in cooperation with Egypt Air (MS) offer flights via Cairo to Khartoum. Feeder flights to Frankfurt/M.
Frankfurt/M. – Khartoum: 12 hrs; Vienna – Khartoum: 12 hrs 30 mins; Zurich – Khartoum: 12 hrs 10 mins (Journey times vary based on length of stay.)
US$20, transit travelers are exempt for stays of up to 24 hours.
Arrival by car
By land, Sudan can be reached from Ethiopia via the Metemma/Gallabat border crossing; Travelers should inquire in advance whether this is open. From Egypt you cross the border into Sudan at Aswan/Wadi Halfa. The borders with Eritrea and Chad are closed. Longer closures must be expected at any time on the borders with Libya and the Central African Republic. The border areas with Libya, Egypt and Chad are insecure; there are repeated skirmishes with rebels and gangs of smugglers. Current information on the security situation at the border crossings is available from the Foreign Offices. Documents: The German driving license is sufficient. In addition to Austrian and Swiss driving licenses, an international driving license is required. Travelers also need a Carnet de Passage to enter the country by car.
Arrival by train
There are no cross-border rail connections to Sudan.
Arrival by ship
The country’s two ports are Port Sudan and Suakin on the Red Sea. There is a risk of piracy off the coasts of Sudan.
A car ferry operated by Nile Valley River Transport operates once a week on the Nile between Aswan (Egypt) and Wadi Halfa (journey time: min. 18 hours).
Traveling by plane
Sudan Airways (SD) operates domestic flights between Khartoum and El-Fasher, Geneina, Nyala and Port Sudan. Other domestic routes are served by Tarco Aviation (3T) and Badr Airlines (J4).
Traveling by car/bus
The Sudanese road network has a total length of around 50,000 km. When driving overland, the risk of accidents is high due to the risky driving of locals, lack of markings and poor roads. Night driving should be avoided if possible.
Right-hand traffic/left-hand traffic
Condition of the roads
The main routes, such as from Khartoum to Port Sudan in the east, Wadi Halfa in the north and to the Ethiopian border are paved. Otherwise the condition of the roads is rather bad. In the north of the country, various roads are often closed during the rainy season, from July to September. It is advisable to carry spares with you when traveling overland and to ensure that the vehicle is in good condition.
Car hire is available in Khartoum at the airport and in the city, as well as in other major cities; even with a driver. Sometimes hotels also arrange rental cars. Drivers must be at least 18 years old.
Taxis can be found at taxi ranks but can also be hailed on the street. Not all taxis have meters. If there is no taximeter, the fare should be agreed before the start of the journey.
Buses run among others between Khartoum, Kassala, Port Sudan and Gedarif, departing from the market places. Trucks are also used to transport people; they are cheaper but also less comfortable than buses.
Traffic regulations: – Alcohol limit: 0.0 ‰, absolute ban on alcohol; – Seat belts are compulsory in the front and rear seats; – Telephoning is only permitted with a hands-free system; – Lights should be on all day; – Helmets are compulsory for motorcyclists. Speed limits: – in built-up areas: 50 km/h; – on rural roads: 90 km/h; – on trunk roads: 110 km/h; – on motorways: 130 km/h.
The ADAC foreign emergency call offers ADAC members and holders of ADAC foreign health and accident insurance comprehensive assistance in the event of vehicle breakdowns, traffic accidents, loss of documents and money, and medical emergencies. The emergency number is available around the clock; in the event of damage to the vehicle: Tel. +49 (0)89 22 22 22, in the event of illness: +49 (0)89 76 76 76. In the event of breakdowns or accidents with the rental car, the car rental company should be contacted first.
The German driving license is sufficient. In addition to the Austrian and Swiss driver’s license, the international driver’s license is required. Travelers entering the country by car also need a Carnet de Passage, proof of funds and a certificate from the Sudanese embassy that the vehicle is roadworthy.
Traveling in the city
To get around Khartoum you have a choice of the numerous minibuses, metered and non-metered taxis, three-wheeler taxis known as “Bajajs” or “Rakshas” and the ferries that operate on the Nile. Private minibuses (Bakassi or Boksi) also ply the streets of Khartoum and other major cities. They have no fixed stops and can be stopped by hand signals.
Locally on the way by train
Sudan has an extensive rail network 5,500 kilometers long, but it is in very poor condition. The only remaining regular connection is between Khartoum and Wadi Halfa (journey time: approx. 36 hours). It is advisable to travel in first class, since second and third class are usually overcrowded.
Traveling by ship
River steamers operate between the cities on the Nile, but for the most part they are not recommended for tourists. The schedule depends on the water level. It is advisable to take food and water with you. Important river ports are Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule and Wadi Halfa.