India Political System, Famous People, Animals and Plants

By | January 15, 2023

India: Political System

According to EQUZHOU.NET, India is a parliamentary democracy with a federal structure. The constitution, which came into force on January 26, 1950, defines India as a sovereign democratic republic. The legislative power is exercised by the parliament, which consists of two chambers, the Lok Sabha (People’s Chamber or Lower House) and the Rajya Sabha (State Chamber or Upper House). The 543 members of the Lok Sabha are elected every five years in the constituencies according to a simple majority. The President is the head of state and the executive officer. He is elected for five years by a body made up of members of parliament and the Vidhan Sabhas. His role is similar to that of the German President, he mainly has a representative function. The prime minister has the most powerful position, who – usually the leader of the strongest political group – is appointed by the President. This appoints the members of the government, the cabinet ministers, the state ministers and the deputy ministers, who together form the Council of Ministers. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about India politics, and acronyms as well.

The official name of the country is:

Republic of India

National anthem

Based on flag descriptions by, the national anthem of India was written by Rabindranath Tagore.

  • Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in India.

In Bengali it reads:

Jana Gana ManaAdhinayaka jaya hey,

Bharata bhagyavidhata.

Punjaba, Sindhu, Gujarata, Maratha,

Dravida, Utkala, Banga,

Vindhya, Himachala, Yamuna, Ganga,

Uchchala jaladhi taranga

Tava shubha naamey jaagey,

Tava shubha aashis maagey,

Gahe tava jayagatha.

Jana gana mangaladhayak jaya hey

Bharat bhagyavidhata.

Jaya hey, Jaya hey, Jaya hey,

Jaya jaya jaya jaya hey!

And in the English translation:

Ruler of the spirit of the masses, you win!India’s directors of destiny,

In Panjab, Sindhu, Gujarat, Maratha,

Dravida, Utkal and Bengal,

over the Vindhya Mountains, the Himalayas, through the Jamuna, the Ganges,

over the high webs of the ocean,

May your great name awaken.

They ask your blessings,

they sing your victory song.

Luck of the masses, victory you!

India’s fate

guide you win! Win yourself! Win yourself!

Win, win, win, win you!

India: writers and poets

  • Amaru or Amaruka, (approx. 6th – 8th centuries) is an Indian poet and, along with Kalidasa and Bhartrihari, is the main representative of Indian Sanskrit poetry and a great master of erotic poetry.
  • Mulk Raj Anand(1905-2004) was an Indian novelist, short story writer and art critic.
  • Kabir(1440-1518) was an Indian mystic who advocated the ideal of a united humanity.
  • Kalidasawas an Indian poet who lived around the year 400 during the time of the Gupta Empire. He is described as one of the nine “jewels” at the court of Vikramaditya.
  • Dominic Francis Moraes(1938-2004) was an Indian writer, poet and journalist. He was one of the leading Indian writers in the 20th century.
  • Salman Rushdie(born 1947 in India) is a British writer of Indian origin. He is one of the most important representatives of contemporary literature. Rushdie writes in English.
  • Goswami Tulsidas(1532 – 1623) was an Indian poet and philosopher.
  • Suzanna Arundhati Roy(born 1961) is a writer, political activist and one of India’s most famous globalization critics.
  • MT Vasudevan Nair(born 1933), worked as a writer, screenwriter and director. He wrote stories and short stories and documented the situation of the people of Kerala, a south-west Indian state, after the independence of India.
  • Ootupulackal Velukkuty Vijayan(1930-2005), was an Indian writer and cartoonist. His most important literary works include ‘Gurusagaram’ (‘The Eternity of Grace’), ‘Pravachakante Vazhi’ (‘The Path of the Prophet’) and ‘Thalamurakal’ (‘Generations’).
  • Vayalar Ramavarma(1928-1975), was a modern Indian poet. His poetry is influenced by revolutionary ideals. He also wrote texts for Indian film songs, which are still popular and well-known among the population today.


  • Caraka (1st/2nd century) was an Indian doctor. He is said to have been the author of the Caraka Samhita.
  • Sushruta or Susruta (3rd century) Indian doctor who was also simply called ‘The Surgeon’. Very early on, he performed numerous operations on the human body, including minor skin grafts. The book Susruta Samhita probably from the 4th century AD was also translated into German.
  • Madan Kataria, (born 1956) is an Indian doctor and the founder of Laughter Yoga and the “Dr. Madan Kataria’s School of Laughter Yoga” and the “Laughter Club International”.
  • Swami Sivananda (1887-1963), was an Indian doctor and yoga master.
  • Jivaka Kumar Bhaccha, was a respected Indian doctor in the times of the Buddha, who was particularly familiar with herbal medicine, healing with minerals and the art of massage. He is revered as the father of medicine.
  • Dinshah Ghadiali (1873 – 1966), in addition to his work as a doctor, founded the 12-color chromo therapy

Architects and builders

  • Charles Correa (born 1930) is an architect and urban planner; his architecture is considered to be a connecting element between traditional-spiritual architecture and Western cultural understanding.

Visual artist

  • Raja Ravi Varma(1848 – 1906) grew up in Kilimanoor Palace and began painting the walls of the palace with charcoal at the age of seven. After training with various painters, including the British artist Theodor Jenson, he won the ‘Vienna exhibition’ in 1873 and gained international renown. His pictures are mainly based on Hindu stories and characters.
  • Sanjay Sikder(born 1971) is an Indian artist who studied at the State Art Academy in Calcutta and then obtained a master’s degree in graphic design in Berlin in 2003. Today he lives and works in Berlin and also offers painting courses.


  • Tansen (around 1500 to 1589), is one of the most important names in the history of Hindustan music. He had a decisive influence on today’s North Indian art music. He was employed as the court musician of the Mughal emperor Akbar.
  • Zakir Hussain (born 1951) is considered the most prominent living tabla player. In addition to the tabla, Hussain also plays other Indian percussion instruments such as dhol, kho, duggi, dholak and nal.
  • Ravi Shankar (born 1920) is an Indian sitar player and composer. He founded the Indian National Orchestra in 1949, the Kinnara School of Music in Bombay in 1962 and a branch in Los Angeles in 1967.
  • Ustad Ali Akbar Khan (born 1922) is an Indian musician and composer. He has been teaching Indian classical music at universities in the US and Europe since the 1950s. He composed the score for Bernando Bertolucci’s film ‘Little Buddha’ from 1993.
  • Gary Boyle (born 1941) is a jazz rock and fusion guitarist who played in various bands such as Steampacket, Isotope, BrianAuger, Stomu Yamashta and Rod Stewart in the 70s and 80s.
  • Hazrat Inayat Khan (1882-1927) was an Indian musician and Sufi master. Sufi is a teaching of Islamic mysticism of the unity of all being. In 1910 Hazrat Inayat Khan left India to spread his teachings in the United States and Europe. Even today there are followers of Sufism worldwide.
  • Trilok Gurtu (born 1951) is an Indian percussionist and singer who has become famous as a mediator between Indian and Western musical traditions.
  • Zubin Mehta (born 1936) is an Indian conductor. He received his first musical training from his father Mehli Mehta, the founder of the ‘Bombay Symphony Orchestra’. Zubin Mehta has conducted numerous world-renowned orchestras including the New York Philharmonic Orchestra.

Natural scientist

  • George Sudarshan (born 1931) works as a physicist in the field of quantum physics. In 2005 he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics.
  • Madhava (1350 – 1425), was a mathematician and founded in the 14th/ 15th centuries. The Kerala School of Mathematic. He is considered the founder of mathematical analysis.
  • Omar Chayyam (1048 – 1123) was a Persian mathematician and astronomer, as well as a respected philosopher and poet.
  • Aryabhata I (476-550) was an important Indian mathematician and astronomer. Born in Ashmaka, he later lived in Kusumapura, which later Bhaskara I (629) identified as Patilputra, today’s Patna.
  • Homi Jehangir Bhabha (1909-1966) was an Indian physicist. His main focus was nuclear physics. In 1955 he headed the Geneva nuclear conference as president. In addition, from 1954 he chaired the Indian Atomic Energy Commission.
  • Panini was an Indian Sanskrit grammarian who probably lived in the 5th or 4th century BC and is believed to have taught at the famous University of Taxila.
  • Raja Ramanna (1925-2004) was a physicist. He was particularly fascinated by nuclear power and therefore specialized in the field of nuclear energy. For more than a decade he was director of the Bhaba Atomic Research Center (BARC). In 1972 he received an order from the Indian government to build an experimental bomb. In 1974, Raja Ramanna was involved in testing the first Indian atomic bomb in the Tharr desert. In 1990 and 1997 he was elected to the Upper House of the Indian Parliament.
  • Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan (1887-1920) was a famous Indian mathematician. He did research mainly in the field of number theory. Many of his discoveries and statements could later be proven.
  • Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (1919-1971) was an Indian physicist. He is considered the father of the Indian space program and made a decisive contribution to the development of rocket and satellite technology in his country.

Politicians and rulers

  • Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar(1542-1605) was the Islamic Mughal Mughal of India from 1556-1605, and one of the greatest rulers of this country alongside Ashoka.
  • Ashokawas a ruler of the ancient Indian Maurya dynasty and ruled around 268 BC. BC – 233 BC Chr.
  • Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir(1618-1707) was the Mughal Mughal of India between his seizure of power in 1658 and his death in 1707.
  • Prince Khurram Shah Jahan(1592 – 1666) was the Mughal Mughal of India between 1627/28 and his son Aurangzeb was ousted from power.
  • Mumtaz Mahal(1593 – 1631) was the wife of Prince Khurram, whom she married in 1612 at the age of 19. She was his main wife and died giving birth to their 14th child. Her tomb, the Taj Mahal, is a token of her husband’s love.
  • Z ? Hir ad-Dïn Muhammad B ? Bur(1483 – 1530) was Emperor of India and the founder of the Mughal Empire.
  • Abdul Kalam(born 1931) has been the incumbent President of the Federal Republic of India since 2002.
  • Manmohan Singh(born 1932) has been Prime Minister of India since May 2004. He studied economics at Punjab University and Cambridge, and later received his doctorate from Oxford University. Before serving as Prime Minister, he was India’s Finance Minister from 1991 to 1996.
  • Kocheril Raman Narayanan(born 1920) is an Indian politician and was President of India from 1997 to 2002.
  • Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi(1917-1984) was Prime Minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 to 1984. She died in an assassination attempt in 1984.
  • Mahatma Gandhi(1869-1948) was a pacifist, human rights activist and spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement, which in 1947 brought about the end of British colonial rule over India with the concept of nonviolent resistance he developed. The Sanskrit name of honor Mahátma (“Great Soul”) comes from the Indian philosopher and Nobel Prize winner for literature Rabindranath Tagore. Gandhi was also a great opponent of child marriage, possibly especially because he was married himself at the age of 13.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru(1889-1964) was an Indian politician and from 1947 to 1964 the first Prime Minister of India.
  • Kunwar NatwarSingh (born 1931) was Indian Foreign Minister from 2004 to 2005. In 2005 he was the first foreign minister in 15 years to visit neighboring Pakistan.
  • Sonia Gandhi(born 1946) is an Indian politician and president of the Indian Congress Party. Born in Italy, she was the wife of the murdered Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and had chances of this position herself, which she, however, renounced.
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee(born 1924) is an Indian politician. He was Prime Minister of India from 1998 to 2004.
  • Feroze Gandhi(1912-1980) was an Indian politician and journalist. He married Indira Gandhi in 1942.
  • Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao(1921-2004) was an Indian politician and the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India.
  • Phoolan Devi(1963-2001), is known as an Indian bandit queen and politician. After she went to justice in 1983, she was pardoned because of her cancer. In 1996 and 1999, she won a seat in the Indian Parliament as a representative of a lower-caste party. She died as a result of an assassination attempt.
  • Rajiv Gandhi(1944-1991) was Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989. Like his mother Indira Gandhi, who was Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and 1980 to 1984, he died in an assassination attempt.
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel(1875-1950) was an Indian statesman. He was the senior leader of the Congress Party after Mahatma Gandhi. Under his leadership, the Congress Party won 100% of the vote in the 1937 election.

Actors, directors

  • Ismail Merchant (1936-2005) was an Indo-British film producer. In 1960 he produced his first film: The Creation of Woman. In 1961, Merchant began working with the American director James Ivory, with whom he worked and lived until his death. During this time, almost 50 joint films were made, which received a total of six Oscars.
  • Gemini Ganesan (1919-2005) was an Indian actor. He starred in more than 200 films. He often shone in the role of the romantic hero. Hence his nickname ‘Kadhal Mannan’ (King of Romance).
  • Kabir Bedi (born 1946) is an Indian actor. He became known, among other things, through film roles in Sandokan, Octopussy (James Bond series), Monkey King – A warrior between the worlds, The Hero, Taj Mahal. An Eternal Love Story
  • Sabu, actually Sabu Dastagir (1924-1963) was an Indian actor. He achieved worldwide fame in 1942 for his role as Mowgli in the Jungle Book. Numerous other roles in British and American films followed. He was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
  • Amitabh Bachchan (born 1942), also known as Big B, is an Indian actor. He has received several Indian film awards.
  • Abhishek Bachchan (born 1976) is an Indian actor and son of Amitabh and Jaya Bachchan, who followed his parents as an actor in Bollywood.
  • Amrish Puri (1932-2005) was a Indian film actor. In the movie Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom by Steven Spielberg, he played the villain Mola Ram.
  • Mani Ratnam (born 1956) is one of the leading Indian film directors within the Indian film industry.
  • Mira Nair (born 1957), Indian film director, lives in New York. Her debut feature film Salaam Bombay won the Cannes Film Festival directing award and was also nominated for an Oscar.
  • Yash Chopra (born 1932) is one of the most important film directors and producers in Bollywood. Films with kitschy dream worlds brought him great success.
  • Aamir Khan (born 1965) is one of the most famous actors in Bollywood. He comes from a family where many are in the film business. For his role in the film Lagaan, he was nominated for an Oscar in the category ‘Best Foreign Language Film’ in 2002.
  • Akshay Kumar (born in 1967 as Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia) is an Indian actor working in Bollywood. He also appears as a singer and dancer in stage shows and tours around the world with other actors.
  • Hrithik Nagrath Roshan (born 1974) is a Bollywood actor who, in addition to his film roles, also appears in stage shows.
  • John Abraham (born 1973) is an Indian actor and model. After an advertising campaign for the Indian fashion label ‘Provogue’, he is one of the highest paid Indian supermodels.
  • Rahul Bose (born 1967) is an Indian actor, writer and director. At the age of 26 he gave up his advertising career and began as an actor and director. His films differ from typical Boolywood productions because of their not only commercial but also artistic demands.
  • Saif Ali Khan (born 1970) is an Indian actor working in Bollywood. However, he was known even before he started his own career in the film business: his parents are the world-famous cricketer Mansoor Ali Khan and the actress Sharmila Tagore.
  • Salman Khan (born 1965) is a very popular Indian actor. Many members of his family also work in the film industry. His father is a screenwriter and two of his brothers are actors. However, none of them are as successful as he is.
  • Shah Rukh Khan (born 1965) is currently the most successful Indian Bollywood actor. He has received a number of film awards in India over the past 12 years.

Other, Nobel Prize

  • Rakesh Sharma (born 1949) became the first Indian citizen in 1984 to be in space.
  • Vijay Amritraj (born 1953) is a Tamil Indian tennis player, film actor, and entrepreneur.
  • Vandana Shiva (born 1952) is an Indian philosopher, ecologist, civil rights activist and feminist. She won the Alternative Nobel Prize in 1993.
  • Amartya Sen (born 1933) is Professor of Economics at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.In 1998 he received the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on welfare economics and the theory of economic development.
  • According to legends, Sissa ibn Dahir (4th century) is considered to be the inventor of the game of chess.
  • Kailash Satyarthi(born 1954) He has campaigned for children’s rights – e.g. against child labor – since the 1990s.Together with Malala Yousufzai from Pakistan, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014


  • Kumar Ram Narain Karthikeyan(born 1977) is a Formula 1 racing driver for Nissan.
  • Viswanathan Anand(born 1969) is one of the world’s best chess players and since 2007 the 15th sole chess world champion. On October 29, 2008, he defended his title in Bonn against the Russian Vladimir Kramnik, who was the 14th world chess champion from 2000 to 2007 after defeating Kasparov.
  • Feroze Khan(1904-2005) was a Pakistani hockey player. As a member of the Indian national team, he was Olympic champion at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam.
  • Karnam Malleswari(born 1975) is an Indian weightlifter. She was the first Indian woman to win a medal in the Olympics.
  • Leander Adrian Paes(born 1971) is an Indian tennis player. Leander Paes is the former number 1 in the doubles world rankings and is still considered one of the best players in tennis doubles.
  • Mahesh Bhupathi(born 1974) is an Indian tennis player. Mahesh Bhupahti has been a world class player in tennis doubles for years, he has won 36 tournaments on the ATP Tour in doubles and several Mixed Grand Slam titles to date.
  • Prakash Padukone(born 1955) is an Indian badminton player. After retiring as an active player in 1991, he coached the Indian national badminton team in 1993 and 1996.
  • Ramesh Krishnan(born 1961) is an Indian tennis player who was ranked 23rd in the world in 1985.

Theologians and philosophers

  • Prince Gautama Siddharta (born 560 BC), is considered the founder of Buddhism.
  • Adi Shankara called Shankaracharya (around 788-820) was a religious teacher and philosopher of Hinduism. He systematized the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta.
  • Śrï Aurobindo (1872-1950) was an Indian philosopher, Hindu mystic and guru.
  • Guru Nanak (1469-1538) was an Indian saint and religious founder.
  • Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895 – 1986) was a 19th and 20th century philosopher. The saying “Truth is a pathless land” shaped his philosophy.
  • Mahavira was the founder of the Indian religion Jainism, which emerged around the same time as Buddhism.
  • Nisargadatta Maharaj also called Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (1897-1981) was enlightened and master of spirituality. He is best known for his book ‘I Am That’, which has been translated into many languages.
  • Rajneesh Chandra Mohan (1931-1990), better known in the 1970s as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh and later as Osho, was the founder and leader of the Osho Rajneesh Movement (Sanyassins), a controversial new religious movement in India and at times in Europe and the United States of America.
  • Prabhupada Abhay Charan Bhaktivedanta Swami (1896-1977) was a commentator and translator of well-known Sanskrit works (holy scriptures of Hinduism), as well as spiritual master and founder of ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness).
  • Sai Baba (ca.1838-1918) was a fakir who worked in Shirdi near Bombay (Maharashtra). He tried to unite Muslims and Hindus and to overcome their differences.
  • Sathya Sai Baba (born 1929) is a popular but controversial Indian guru. He has disciples all over the world, including the United States, Australia, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Their number is estimated at ten million. He describes himself as a reincarnation of the Indian saint Shirdi Sai Baba.
  • Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) was a Hindu monk and scholar and a disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahansa.

India: plants


In the arid regions on the Pakistani border, palms are one of the few tree species that can withstand the drought conditions that prevail here.

The south-eastern Ganges plains, on the other hand, are a lot greener. The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta has one of the world’s largest mangrove swamps, as well as sal trees and dense forests on the lower slopes. Dhok and khair trees grow in the Van Vihar Conservation Area in Uttar Pradesh. One can observe very different vegetation in the Himalayas.

In addition to cedars and spruces, you can also find oak and chestnut trees in the eastern Himalayas.

In addition to sandalwood trees and casuarines, teak trees are among the valuable precious woods in India. Typical trees are the sacred pipal trees, Ashoka trees and the banyan trees. The pipal tree is also known as the buddha tree because, according to legend, Buddha was enlightened under such a tree.

The banyan treeis a botanical specialty and is one of the largest living organisms in the world. It is also known as the strangler fig or Bengal fig. He is a hemiepiphyte, which means that the rhizome (root stock) of this plant rises up on tree trunks, but roots in the ground. By being anchored in the ground, the plant is supplied with nutrients and the aerial roots become thicker and lignified. Over time, they develop into trunks, some of which are enormous in diameter. When the roots touch, they fuse, creating a dense network around the host tree. In this way, its main vessels are pinched off and it dies. Banyan trees are fast-growing and can reach a size of over 30 m. What is more impressive, however, is its scope. The largest banyan tree has a diameter of 300 m and is in Calcutta. The tree is sacred to many peoples because it is regarded as the seat of spirits.

The frangipani, which can often be found in front of temples, is also considered sacred. It is a plant that is also widespread in Central America. They come in the form of large bushes or small trees. It belongs to the dog poison family and stands out for its pink-white and intensely fragrant flowers. Their very long (up to 30 cm), pointed and dark green leaves are also striking. In all of Asia, the Frangipani is considered a temple or sacrificial plant and is a symbol of immortality.

Other trees are tamarind and jamun plum trees. The flowering trees such as the blue flowering jacaranda and the white flowering magnolia tree are particularly beautiful to look at.

One of the most popular ornamental trees is the rain tree, which can grow up to 30 m high. It owes its name to the cicadas that live in its treetop, which protect themselves from sunlight with a foam-like substance. To do this, they pierce plant cells and absorb the plant sap. They then excrete water in such large quantities that it drips from the trees and pools of water form underneath.

Other plants

In the arid regions on the Pakistani border there is little vegetation, mostly only steppe grasses and the resistant bamboo thrive here.

Among the rare plants include lady’s slipper orchids. In these orchids, the central petal of the flower differs from the other petals both in color and in shape. It has the shape of a lady’s slipper, which gives the plant its name. Night hyacinths and jasmine also grow

in India


There is a lot of cultivation in the northern regions of India. These include wheat, rice, sugar cane and jute plants. The bast fibers of the jute plant are used to make sacks, carpets and strong yarn. The cultivation of cotton and millet takes place on the Deccan. In the northeastern states, bamboo is used to make paper.

The Assam and Darjeeling teas, for which India is famous, are grown on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, in Bengal and in northeastern India.

Spice gardens with pepper, cinnamon, cardamom and ginger have been created on the tropical southwest coast.

The most versatile crop is the coconut palm. The coconut oil is processed into soaps and candles, ropes for mats, sacks, carpets and brushes are made from the wood fibers, souvenirs and cutlery are made from the bowl and the palm fronds are used as house covers. The coconut palm is also used in the manufacture of cosmetics and furniture.

The pulp of the fruit of the Palmyra (a type of palm), which grows particularly frequently in the southeast, is processed into puree, diluted into lemonade or baked into flour.

The white wood of the sandalwood tree is often processed into incense sticks and smoked to protect against evil spirits.

The plosso tree, also called Flame of the Forest, has bright red and yellow flowers similar to the flamboyant, which are used to make yellow paint, while the bark of the tree is used to make blue paint.

Medicinal plants

The essential oils of the sandalwood tree from the family of the sandalaceae have an antibacterial and antispasmodic effect. They are often used for bladder, kidney or respiratory diseases. However, side effects such as itchy skin and mild nausea can occur. The tree grows up to 10 m tall and reaches a circumference of 1-2 m. The sandalwood tree grows mainly in the East Indies and is considered sacred because it is said to keep away evil spirits.

Cardamom belongs to the ginger family and is native to Sri Lanka and southern India. The seeds used in medicine and as a spice are contained in an elongated capsule. The essential oil from the seeds is said to have an antibacterial effect. The actual healing effect, however, lies in the promotion of digestion by stimulating gastric juice and bile secretion. Therefore, cardamom is often given for digestive problems such as gas and bloating.

Areca nuts are fruits of the up to 30 m high betel palm and are wrapped in the leaves of the betel pepper together with lime and slowly chewed. The dye contained in the fruits stains the saliva red and, with permanent use, the teeth black. The beggar nuts are said to have a slightly intoxicating, stimulating and euphoric effect. They also stimulate the flow of saliva, have a laxative and diuretic effect and are supposed to suppress the feeling of hunger. However, they are also carcinogenic when consumed over a long period of time.

Poisonous plants

Long-term chewing of areca nuts stimulates the oral mucosa and can lead to the formation of benign tumors and ultimately also carcinomas. Allegedly, 8-10 g of the nuts are also said to be fatal by causing cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest.

Be careful with the frangipani, as it contains a poisonous milky juice.

Introduced plants

The flamboyant comes from Madagascar and is also known as the flame tree due to its bright red flowers. The 60 cm long, flattened, brown fruit pods are also striking. This tree is popular to plant on streets and in parks.



Most of the mammals can only be observed today in the numerous national parks. Persian lions live exclusively in the Gir National Park in Gujarat.

Sloths, wild boars, leopards and chitale can be found in the Jaisamand Sanctuary.

Chitale are axis deer that are found in India, in southern Nepal, in Sri Lanka and in Croatia. The approximately 80 cm tall animals have a spotted red-brown fur and a white belly and legs. They prefer open terrain and avoid dense forests. They were introduced to the southern United States, Hawaii, South America and the Andamans.

Numerous species of monkeys such as Hanuman and hat monkeys can be seen in the Madumalai Wildlife Sanctuary.

The Dekkan red dogs, panthers, gaure, axis and sambar deer as well as the giant king squirrel, which can grow up to 50 cm, also live here.

With a length of 3 m and a height of almost 2 m, the Gaur is the largest of all wild cattle.

It has a dark brown to black fur and feeds on grass and bamboo shoots, among other things. In the domesticated form, the Gaur is called Gayal.

In the Ranthambore National Park one can encounter Nilgau antelopes. They are about 1.40 m tall and the males have small, forward-curved horns. The sexes also differ in color: while the males have a gray-blue coloration and a white spot on the throat, the females are brownish.

Armadillos, hyenas, jackals and hares live in Simlipal National Park. Bengal tigers are very rare and can only be found in India in the Sunderbans Tiger Reserve.

With a length of 2.5 to 3 m and a height of 1 m, they are considered the second largest subspecies and are also known as the king tiger.

The famous white tigers are only found in this species. The nocturnal animal feeds on deer, gauren, wild boar and monkeys.

The Indian wild buffalo and the Indian rhinoceros were threatened with extinction, but it was possible to settle individual animals in national parks so that the populations could increase. The Indian rhinoceros lives in the north-eastern forests around Kaziranga.

The animals are still threatened today, as is the Indian wolf, which can be seen in the Darrah Conservation Area and in the Desert National Park.

Sloths, desert foxes and cats also live here.

Elephants are also mainly found in the national parks and protected areas, but there are numerous working elephants that can be found at temples, lumberjack camps and wildlife parks.

The langur monkeys are common throughout India, as are the rhesus monkeys in northern India. The Nilgiris langur is endemic (only found in India) and lives mainly in evergreen forests. The Kashmiri deer (hanguls) can only be found in Kashmir. India’s rarest animal is the Manipur Lyre Deer, of which there are only a few specimens left in the Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur.

Isabel brown bears live below the tree line on the mountain slopes of the Himalayas and small pandas, also known as cat bears, live in northeast India. The 64 cm tall animals have a long, bushy fur, which is copper-red at the top and dark to black at the bottom. The 50 cm long tail is reddish-yellow and cross-curled. In addition, the little panda has white spots on its face, which is very reminiscent of a raccoon. Its diet mainly includes grasses, roots, fruits, berries and of course bamboo. Insects and young birds are also rarely on the menu.

Another bear native to India is the sloth bear, which can grow up to 60 cm high. It is characterized by the V-shaped white mark on the chest and the elongated lower lip that gave the bear its name.

Critically endangered are the Black Bucks, a species of antelope in the Charpar Black Buck Sanctuary. The German name of this antelope is Hirschziegenantilope.

Hanuman monkeys These animals belong to the genus of the Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus) within the family of the vervet monkeys (Cercopithecidae). They are cultural followers and are considered sacred in India. They got their name after Hanuman – an Indian god in monkey form.

The animals reach a length of between 40 to 80 cm, with a tail up to 110 cm long. Your weight is a little under 25 kg. The fur of the animals is colored gray on the upper side, while the underside is whitish or orange-yellow.

Her hairless face is black or purple and impresses with its pronounced bulges above the eyes.

Their diet consists of plants and insects. The females give birth to a young every two years.

In some cities they have become almost a nuisance, but are still being fed by the people.


sheep Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), despite their name, do not belong to the sheep class, but rather to the goat-like ones. Together with the dwarf blue sheep they form the genus (blue sheep = pseudois).

The animals are between 120 to 170 cm long and a shoulder height of 75 to 90 cm – with a 10 to 20 cm long tail. Their weight varies between 40 to 80 kg, with the males being heavier than the females.

The horns of the males reach a length of over 80 cm, while those of the females are only 20 cm long. The animals live in the Himalayan region as well as in a number of mountain ranges of Tibet, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia.

Their habitat is predominantly at altitudes between 3,000 and 6,000 m. Their diet consists of grasses, herbs, mosses and other parts of plants.

After a gestation period of around 160 days, the females usually give birth to only one young – rarely two.

Life expectancy in freedom is 12 to 15 years. One of the most dangerous enemies is the snow leopard, which lives in the same habitat as the blue sheep.

The animals are classified as not endangered by the IUCN


Pfeifhase do not look much like the well-known field hares, in the past they were even regarded as rodents. There are around 30 species of the pigeon hares (Ochotona) genus.

The animal is on average 20 cm long – with a spread of 15 to about 25 cm. Their weight can reach approx. 200 g. In addition to Asia, the animals are also found in America.

The animals get their name from the high-pitched whistling tones with which they warn each other in case of danger.

The food of the animals, which can be found at altitudes up to almost 6,000 m, consists of grasses, herbs or plant stems. The female gives birth to up to 12 cubs two to three times a year.


Crocodiles are not uncommon in India. The saltwater crocodile is at home on the Andaman Islands, in West Bengal’s Sunderbans and in Bhitar Kanika in Orissa. It is the largest living crocodile, with the longest animal ever measured being 6.2 m long. Its distribution area includes the coasts of Thailand, Sri Lanka, Burma and Cambodia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Bismarck Islands, the Solomon Islands and Australia. This crocodile has been protected since the late 1970s.

The gharial is the only member of the gharial family. The most characteristic feature is the long and pointed snout with a bulbous attachment at the end of the snout in the male. The crocodile reaches a length of 6.50 m and is well specialized in fishing. But it also feeds on turtles, birds and small mammals.

As the name suggests, the endangered marsh crocodile is found in the swamps of India. There are numerous lizards on the rocks of Rajasthan as well as geckos on the walls of houses and also turtles such as the endangered hybrid turtle and leatherback turtle near the coast. Unlike other turtles, the leatherback turtle’s shell is covered with a rubber-like skin.

The sea turtle makes its nests in sandy coasts. There are such nests on the Atlantic coast in North America, in the coasts of the Caribbean and Central America, as well as in South America, Africa and the coasts of the Indian Ocean. However, the stock is endangered by fishing as the animals get caught in the nets. The eggs are coveted as a delicacy and are taken directly from the nests on the beach, which endangers the populations.

Snakes (not poisonous)

Out of a total of 230 species of snakes, 55 are non-poisonous. This includes India s largest snake, the Tiger Python.

Poisonous animals

Particularly noteworthy are the cobras that occur almost everywhere, the king cobras, kraits or the chain vipers and sand razors.

Scorpios are also not uncommon in India.

Actual tarantula, tiger tarantula

tarantulas such as the actual tarantula and tiger tarantula are common, but their poison is only a real danger for allergy sufferers and its effect is similar to a wasp sting.


The Poecilotheria belongs to the tarantulas. The species of this genus are common in India and are also known as ornamental tarantulas. The animals are not very aggressive and a bite is their last option. Their venom is stronger than that of other species of tarantulas, but generally not fatal.

However, pain and swelling may occur.

Platelet sea snake

The very poisonous platelet sea snake (Pelamis platura) lives in the waters of the country.


India s national bird is the peacock. The most notable and well-known feature are the enormously elongated and magnificently colored upper tail-coverts of the male, which are provided with eye drawings. They are spread out and erected during courtship and serve to impress the female. They prefer the dense jungle on hilly terrain and are quite shy.

Other numerous bird species include migratory birds such as the hornbill and parakeets.

Kingfishers, herons, egrets, spoonbills, teals and flamingos cavort near the water. The latter form a family of their own and are also common in Africa, Spain and southern France. The up to 130 cm tall birds are immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by their thick, downward-curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos. The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are.

The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, since one leg is hidden in the warm plumage and thus less heat loss occurs. This feat is not strenuous for the flamingos (as well as for storks).

Birds of prey in India include vultures and the Brahmin consecration. The striped goose or Indian goose has a striking and interesting color that lives up to its name. At the back of the head she has two black-brown stripes, one of which runs from one eye to the other and the other is a little deeper in the neck. The plumage of the 70-75 large striped goose is silvery-gray in its basic tone. The breeding areas are located on lakes, swamps, bog areas and in high steppes. However, these animals are endangered by shooting down and robbing eggs.

Owls, woodpeckers, cuckoos, herons, storks and cranes are particularly common.

Underwater world

In India there are only dolphins in the Ganges. The 2-3 m long Ganges dolphin is gray-black in color, with the back being darker. It occurs in the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra.

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