Mali: political system
According to CANCERMATTERS.NET, the state of Mali is a presidential republic. The parliament (the national assembly) consists of 147 members and is elected every 5 years. The head of state is also directly elected every 5 years; there is the possibility of one re-election.
But after Gaddafi was overthrown in Libya, heavily armed Malians – especially Tuaregs – who had served in the army of Libya returned to Mali in 2012. In addition, the country’s president, Amadou Touré, who has been in power since 2002, was overthrown by the military on March 21, 2012. As a result of this development, the Tuaregs, supported by radical Islamists, conquered the entire north and thus dominated about two-thirds of the country. In the meantime they have proclaimed their own state called “Azaward”, which, however, has not yet been recognized by any other state. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Mali politics, and acronyms as well. The official name of the country is:
|République du Mali Republic of Mali
The national anthem of Mali is Pour l’Afrique et pour toi, Mali. The anthem was introduced in 1962. Seydou Badian Kouyaté, then Minister for Agriculture, wrote the lyrics, the melody is from Banzoumana Sissoko. In addition to the French text, there is also a Bambara version.
|In the English translation
|A ton appel, Mali,Pour ta prospérité
Fidèle à ton destin
Nous serons tous unis,
Un peuple, un but, une foi.Pour une Afrique unie
Si l’ennemi découvre son front
Au dedans ou au dehors
Debout sur les remparts
Nous sommes résolus de mourir.Refrain
Pour l’Afrique et pour toi, Mali,
Notre drapeau sera liberté.
Pour l’Afrique et pour toi Mali
Notre combat sera unité.Ô Mali d’aujourd’hui
Ô Mali de demain
Les champs fleurissent d’espérance
Les coeurs vibrent de confiance
Debout villes et campagnes
Debout femmes, jeunes et vieuxPour la patrie en marche
Vers l’avenir radieux
Pour notre dignité
Renforçons bien nos rangs
Pour le salut public
Forgeons le bien commun
Ensemble au coude à coude
Faisons le sentier du bonheur.
La voie est dure très dure
Qui mène au bonheur commun
Courage et devouement
Vigilence à tout moment
Vérité des temps anciens
Vérité de tous les jours
Le bonheur par le labeur
Fera le Mali de demain.
L’Afrique se lève enfin
Saluons ce jour nouveau
Saluons la liberté
Marchons vers l’unité
Soutient notre combat
Fidèle à notre serment
De faire l’Afrique unie
Ensemble debout mes frères
Tous au rendez-vous de l’honneur.
|Following your call, Mali,for your prosperity,
true to your fate,
we are all united,
one people, one goal, one belief.For a united Africa,
when the enemy lifts his head,
inside or outside,
standing on the ramparts,
we are ready to die.Refrain
For Africa and for you, Mali,
our flag will be freedom.
For Africa and for you, Mali
Our struggle will be unity.O Mali of today
O Mali of tomorrow
The fields bloom with hope
The hearts quiver with trustUp, cities and fields
Up, women, young and old
For the fatherland march
into the bright future
For our dignity
Strengthen our ranks
For the public good
Forge common happiness
Together side by side
Let’s walk the path of happiness.
The way is hard, very hard That
leads to common happiness
Courage and devotion
Vigilance at all times
Truth of the old times
Truth of all times
Happiness through work
Builds the Mali of tomorrow.
Africa is finally rising.
Greet this new day.
March towards unity.
Carry out our struggle.
Faithful to our pledge to
Africa to unite
, my brothers
all together, to the meeting place of honor.
The national flag (Landesflagge) was officially introduced on March 1, 1961. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:
– Green represents the nature of the country
– Yellow stands for natural resources and purity
– Red stands for the blood that was shed in the struggle for independence.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Mali.
Mali: Well-known people
Aoua Kéita (1912-1980)
The activist and writer from Mali worked for the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain from 1946 and later founded the Collective Female Trade Union Movement. In 1959 she was elected to parliament.
Modibo Keïta (1915-1977)
The President of Mali from 1960 to 1968, born in Bamako in 1915, proclaimed the Republic of Mali in 1960. He became its first president. Keïta pursued a socialist policy and campaigned for the unity of the African states. Meanwhile, Keïta had political opponents locked up. After a military coup against him, he was ousted. He died in 1977 under misterious circumstances, which caused unrest in the country.
Salif Keïta (born 1946)
The athlete, who was born in Bamako in 1946, is one of the most successful footballers in his country. Since 2005 he has served as President of the Fédération Malienne de Football.
Alpha Oumar Konaré (born 1946)
Konaré, President of Mali from 1992 to 2002 and a renowned historian and archaeologist, spoke out against the death penalty (Bagnadigung ex-President Moussa Traoré), peacefully settled the conflict with the Tuareg and brought it back the African Cup of Nations in 2002 to Mali.
Jean Amadou Tigana (born 1955)
The former French football player and current coach celebrated his greatest successes at the Girondins Bordeaux. In addition, Tigana, who was called the “man with the three lungs” because of his physical condition, played for the French national team.
Oumou Sangaré (born 1968)
Oumou Sangaré plays Wassoulou, a type of music that is derived from traditional hunting songs and is accompanied by a calabash. Sangaré’s album Moussoulou was a huge success in West Africa.
Soumaila Coulibaly (born 1978)
This Malian soccer player, who had already kicked for SC Freiburg and Borussia Mönchengladbach, went to FSV Frankfurt for the 2009/2010 season. After quarrels with coach Hans-Jürgen Boysen, the club dissolved the contract at Coulibaly’s own request. Coulibaly is also active for the Malian national soccer team.
Boubacar Diarra (born 1979)
The Malian soccer player, born in 1979, moved to the Chinese first division club Liaoning Hongyun in March 2010.
Mamady Sidibe (born 1979)
The Malian soccer player, who has played for the English club Stoke City since 2005, was seriously injured with a knife during a qualifying match for the Mali national team against Togo after rioting among the spectators.
Seydou Keita (born 1980)
The Malian soccer player, born in 1980, currently plays for FC Barcelona in the Spanish Primera División.
Hunting, cutting down trees, overgrazing and armed conflict with Islamic terrorists have made many mammals extinct in Mali.
Of the large mammal species, there are still some antelope species, buffalo, giraffes, leopards. Lions and hippos as well as some elephants, baboons, monkeys and mane jumpers and in the southwest still chimpanzees.
The two national parks of Mali are not only interesting because of their fauna and flora, but also because of their fascinating landscapes.
Bafing National Park
The Bafing National Park is located in the south of Mali and takes its name from the river of the same name that flows through the entire park area. This park is best known for its diverse flora. But you can also find different species of monkeys here, including the now rare chimpanzees.
Boucle du Baoule National Park
The Boucle du Baoule National Park is located in the western half of Mali and was declared a national reserve in the 1950s.
It covers an area of around 8,000 km² of land. This park is also particularly fascinating due to its scenic diversity. Here you can admire gallery forests, bamboo forests and palm groves.
At the numerous lakes of the national park you can admire giraffes, elephants, buffalo, lions, leopards and hippos. There are also several different species of antelope here. The park is also known for its prehistoric rocks and tombs.
Reptiles (without snakes)
Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)
You can find a detailed description of the Nile crocodile here >>>
The Uromastyx are a genus of lizards from the subfamily of the thorn-tailed dragons (Uromasticinae) and belongs to the iguanas and consists of a total of 15 species. The genus is found in Mali, Egypt, Ethiopia, Algeria, Djibouti, Eritrea, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Somalia, Sudan and Tunisia. Outside of Africa, the animals still live in all countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as in a narrow strip on the north coast of the Persian Gulf to the city of Bandar Abbas in Iran.
The Varane (Varanus) belong to the genus Varanus in the family Varanidae in the order of the squamata. The genus Varanus includes 80 different species. Monitor lizards vary greatly in size. The smallest monitor lizard – the short-tailed monitor lizard (Varanua brevicauda) is around 23 cm tall, with a weight of approx. 15. In contrast, the largest monitor lizard – the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) – has a maximum length of up to approx. 3 m for one Weight of over 70 kg. In Mali you can find the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), the steppe monitor (Varanus exanthematicus and the desert monitor (Varanus griseus)),
West African crocodile
The West African crocodiles (Crocodylus suchus) reach a length between 1.50 to approx. 2.50 m – rarely more than 3 m. They are less aggressive than the Nile crocodiles, for example, and rarely attack people.
In addition to Mali, this species of crocodile can also be found in the following countries: Equatorial Guinea, Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Cameroon, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Chad, Togo and the Central African Republic.
The most important and dangerous snakes that can be found in Mali are classified as an alpine table:
African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus). This snake is non-toxic.
African spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis).
The snake is only found in the south of the country.
A detailed description of the African spitting cobra can be found here >>>
Boomslang (Dipholidus typus)
You can find a detailed description of Boomslang here >>>
Rock python (Python sebae)
A detailed description of the rock python can be found here >>>
Common or common puff adder (Bitis arietans)
A detailed description of this puff adder can be found here >>>
Striped house snake (Boaedon lineatus). This snake is non-toxic.
Horned viper (Cerastes cerastes)
A detailed description of the horned viper can be found here >>>
Ball python (Python regius)
A detailed description of the ball python can be found here >>>
Mali cobra (Naja katiensis)
The Mali cobra can be found in Mali in the following African countries:
Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Cameroon, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo
Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)
A detailed description of the Black Mamba can be found here >>>
Black and white cobra (Naja melanoleuca)
A detailed description of the black and white cobra, also known as the white lipped cobra, can be found here >>>
Senegal cobra (Naja senegalensis).
In addition to Mali, this venomous snake occurs in the following countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal.
Uraeus snake (Naja haje)
A detailed description of the Uraeus snake, also known as the Egyptian cobra, can be found here >>>
Birds come in many species, including ribbon finches, guinea fowl, weaver birds and the purple turaco. In winter, many migratory birds from Europe come to the Niger, which flows through the country over a length of around 1,700 km. The Mali amaranth, a species of finch, also lives in Niger. The ostriches and the Nubian sable are among others at risk.
Numerous fish live in the two rivers Niger and Senegal, with the up to 2 m large Nile perch (Lates niloticus) – also known as Victoria perch – plays an important role.
Termites and swarms of locusts live in the Sahel zone and can destroy entire crops.
Numerous mosquitoes, wasps, bees and flies also live here.
Vectors of disease
Aedes, Culex, black flies
Mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex or black flies are carriers of filariasis. You can find a comprehensive description of filariasis here >>>.
Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which is responsible for the transmission of malaria. There is a high risk of malaria across the country, including in the cities and all year round. About 85% of the infections occur with the very dangerous malaria tropica, the rest with malaria tertiana.
You can find a comprehensive description of malaria here >>>.
Yellow fever mosquito
The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), also known as the dengue mosquito or Egyptian tiger mosquito, is the carrier of the yellow fever virus. The country and especially the regions south of the northern 15th parallel are considered to be yellow fever infection areas. You can find a comprehensive description of yellow fever here >>>.
The guinea worm is responsible for the guinea worm infection. It occurs among other things in drinking water and in contaminated water points. A comprehensive description of the Guinea worm infection can be found here >>>.
leeches Couple leeches occur in fresh water and are responsible for schistosomiasis.
You can find a comprehensive description of schistosomiasis here >>>.
The butterfly mosquito is the carrier of the Kala-Azar (visceral leishmaniasis).
A comprehensive description of Kala-Azar can be found here >>>.
The tsetse flies are carriers of sleeping sickness. You can find a comprehensive description of sleeping sickness here >>>.
Unfortunately, numerous forests in Mali were also cut down or cleared to make room for agricultural land or settlements. In addition, the north consists of desert or an almost treeless landscape.
Therefore there are only a manageable number of plants in mali. The two national parks in the country are an exception.
Bafing National Park
The Bafing National Park is located in the south of Mali and takes its name from the river of the same name that flows through the entire park area. This park is best known for its diverse flora.
Boucle du Baoule National Park
The Boucle du Baoule National Park is located in the western half of Mali and was declared a national reserve in the 1950s. It covers an area of around 8,000 km² of land. This park is also particularly fascinating due to its scenic diversity. Here you can admire gallery forests, bamboo forests and palm groves.
In the north
The north of the country is covered by the Sahara and therefore there are few plants here, including various grasses, bushes grasses and, in wadis, acacias. In the northern Sahel zone, in addition to acacias, you can also find the bushes of Leptadenia pyrotechnica or the toothbrush tree, which is traditionally used for teeth cleaning. In the thorn tree savannah you will find various grasses as well as acacias and desert date trees. Since bushes and trees alternate with almost plant-free regions, this landscape appears similar to a tiger skin, which is why it is also known as the tiger skin bush landscape
In the south
In the south of Mali there are still dry forests that shed their leaves during the dry season, which then grow back in the rainy season. You can find kapok trees, shea trees, baobabs and ana trees. In the less rainy regions you can find various grasses, such as Hyparrhenia and Andropogon species. Since the baobab tree is special, it will be shown in more detail.
Baobab trees The baobab trees – also known as baobabs – are not only a real eye-catcher for nature lovers.
The baobab trees (Adansonia) are a genus from the subfamily of the wool tree family (Bombacoideae) in the family of the mallow family (Malvaceae). They reach a height between 5 and 30 m.
Baobab trees store water in the trunk and also get by with relatively little water, so that it can withstand the African heat well. This tree species also grows in Madagascar and Australia. However, it does not exist in rainy areas.
The baobabs are large and often bizarre growing deciduous trees. They are characterized by a relatively short, extremely thick trunk and the tree crown consists of strong, often misshapen appearing branches that form a widely spreading crown. In the unleaved state, the crown of branches is reminiscent of a root system, which has contributed to the legend that the baobab tree is a tree planted upside down. The gray-brown to gray bark is between 5 to 10 cm thick and is hard on the outside and fibrous on the inside. Therefore, the trees can withstand smaller bush fires quite well.
The sweet fruits are used as fruit or for the production of fruit juices and confectionery, and precious oil is extracted from the seeds. Ropes, ropes, straps, strings for musical instruments, baskets, nets and fishing lines are made from the fibers of the bark. The dried bark is used, among other things, as a remedy for fever.