Mexico Political System, Famous People, Animals and Plants

By | January 15, 2023

Mexico: Political System

According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, Mexico is a presidential federal government. At the head of the state is a president who is elected directly by the people every six years; re-election is not possible. He is endowed with far-reaching powers, he is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and appoints and dismisses the government. Legislative power is in the care of Congress. The Congress consists of the Senate with 64 members, the representatives of the individual states and the House of Representatives. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Mexico politics, and acronyms as well.

Each state, including the federal district, sends two senators. The 300 members of the House of Representatives are elected according to the relative majority and proportional representation. Bills must be submitted to both chambers.

The official name of the country is:

Estados Unidos de Mexico United States of Mexico

National anthem

In 1853 the then Mexican President General Marino Aristo announced a competition. Today’s hymn was selected on November 12th of the same year from among 15 other participants. On September 16, 1854, it was introduced as the national anthem at the Mexican independence celebrations.

In Spanish

Mexicanos al grito de guerrael acero aprestad y el bridón.

Y retiemble en sus centros la tierra,

al sonoro rugir del cañón.Ciña ¡oh Patria! tus sienes de oliva

de la paz el arcángel divino,

que en el cielo tu eterno destino

por el dedo de Dios se escribió.

Mas si osare un extraño enemigo

profanar con su planta tu suelo,

piensa ¡oh Patria querida! que el cielo

un soldado en cada hijo te dio.

In the English translation

Mexicanshold steel firmly in their hands to shouts of war, May

the earth

shake in its innermost part to the roar of

thunder from cannons.The divine Archangel wreaths your forehead

with the olive branches of peace, O Fatherland


Your eternal destiny was written in heaven

by the finger of God.

When a foreign enemy

desecrates your ground with his foot,

beloved fatherland, remember that

heaven has given you a

soldier with every son.

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by, the national flag symbolizes certain historical developments or special characteristics of a country. Today every country has its own national flag, which is often supplemented by numerous other flags inside.

  • Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Mexico.

Mexico: People you know


Luis Barragán (1902-1988)

The father of modern Mexican architecture pushed folkloric and traditional building methods to the side and instead put the bright colors in the foreground. His buildings often look like abstract works of art to the viewer. “Architecture is not only spatial, but also musical. This music is played with water. The importance of the wall is that it isolates it from the outside of the street. The street is aggressive, even hostile: walls create silence. In this silence one can playing with water as music. Afterwards this music surrounds us. “, said Barragán once. Barragán pioneered Mexican architecture, although he was never particularly productive. In his last thirty years he only created three buildings: Casa Galvez (1955), San Cristobal/Los Clubes (1967) and Casa Gilardi (1978).

Ricardo Legorreta (born 1931)

He took up the strict colors and bright colors of Barragán and continued them. For the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico, the architect created an architectural masterpiece with the construction of the Hotel Camino Real in Mexico City, further hotel buildings were to follow such as the Camino Real Cancun, the hotel pyramid Las Brisas in Ixtapa, etc.

Writer and poet

Mariano Azuela (1873-1952)

The writer fought in the Mexican Revolution and wrote the revolutionary novel “Los Abajos” (The Lawless).

Carlos Fuentes Macías (born 1928)

The Panama City-born writer and screenwriter is an important representative of contemporary Mexican literature. Fuentes has lived in Europe since 1990. In 2004 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Free University of Berlin.

Gabriel José García Márquez (1927-2014)

Márquez was born on March 6, 1927 in Aracataca, Colombia. He is one of the most popular writers in South America. His most famous works in Germany are probably Cien años de soledad (Hundred Years of Solitude) from 1967, which appeared in German in 1970, and El amor en los tiempos del cólera (Love in the times of cholera) from 1985 – in German from 1987. Many of his works have been filmed. In 1982 he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.

He died on April 17, 2014 in Mexico City

Octavio Paz (1914-1998)

was a Mexican lyric poet and diplomat. Octavio Paz has been honored with numerous prizes, including the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade (1984) and the Nobel Prize for Literature (1990). His most important works include Piedra de sol (sun stone) and Blanco (white).

Juan Rulfo (1917-1986)

The writer wrote only one collection of short stories, “El Llano en Lamas” (The Llano in Flames) (1953), and one novel “Pedro Páramo” (1955).

Paco Ignacio Taibo II (born 1949)

The Spanish-Mexican author is known for his crime novels, but is also considered a political author. He wrote a biography of Che Guevara.

Visual artist

Aurora Reyes Flores (1908-1985)

Flores was the first female representative of muralism.

Muralism (Mura = wall) means wall painting in public space that was created in Mexico in the 1920s.

Frida Kahlo (1907-1954)

At the age of 18, she was tied to the hospital bed for a long time in a tragic tram accident, and Frida Kahlo began to paint as an auto therapy. The first portraits were created. Three years later she met Diego Rivera and they married the following year. Among other things, the constant ups and downs of this marriage, the artist processed in her self-portraits. She wanted to express her Mexican identity in her paintings and often used techniques and themes from Mexican folk art. This was also reflected in her clothing. In 1938 and 1939, Kahlo had her first international successes with her pictures. She got a solo exhibition of 25 works in New York and the Louvre in Paris acquired a painting. From 1953, her condition deteriorated and she began to get lonely.

José Clemente Orozco (1883-1949)

Orozco is considered the founder of contemporary Mexican painting and one of the most important exponents of muralism. Together with David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera, he belongs to the big three of Mexico.

You can find numerous works by him in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museo de Arte Moderno in Mexico City, the Nagoya City Art Museum and the Palacio de Bellas Artes also in Mexico City.

Muralism (mura = wall) means wall paintings in public spaces that were created in Mexico in the 1920s

José Guadalupe Posada (1854-1913)

Posada was an engraver and caricaturist. Not least because of the creation of the character “La Catrina” he achieved international renown after his death.

Diego Rivera (1886-1957)

Rivera was born on December 8, 1886 in Guanjuato. He moved to Mexico City with his parents at the age of eight and began studying at the San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts. 1907-1921 he continued his studies in Europe. Paul Cézannes’ landscapes and the Cubist works of Pablo Picasso shaped his future work during this period. In 1920 he went to Italy to study the Renaissance. In 1921 he returned to Mexico and developed his own style in which he combined European and folkloric painting in his country. Rivera became the leading head of wall painting, the muralisimo. The murals he created in the years that followed made an important contribution to contemporary Latin American art. He painted monumental frescoes in and on many public buildings, such as in the National Palace, the Ministry of Education and the Palacio de Bellas Artes. In 1929 he married Frida Kahlo, the most important Mexican painter of the 20th century.

From the beginning of the thirties he got more orders in the USA, among others from the automobile manufacturer Ford in Detroit. In a mural he depicted the workers there like the cogwheel of a mighty machine. It is an irony of history that the painter, who was himself a member of the Communist Party of Mexico, worked for one of the largest industrial tycoons. In 1933 he was commissioned for the Rockefeller Center in New York, and he gave the mural the title “Man on the Way of the Cross, looking hopefully and with the large version to a new and better future”. After an argument with Rockefeller, who wanted the Russian communist leader Lenin to be painted over, Rivera returned to Mexico; the work he had begun was destroyed. Today a smaller version still exists in the Bellas Artes in Mexico City. He died on November 24, 1957, three years after his wife Frida Kahlo. Together with David Alfaro Siqueiros and José Clemente Orozco, he is one of Mexico’s big three

David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974)

Siqueiros was a painter and printmaker. Together with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco, he belongs to the big three of Mexico

Francesco Toledo (1940-2019)

Francisco Benjamin Lopez Toledo was born on July 17, 1940 in Juchitán de Zaragoza in the state of Oaxaca. He was considered one of the most important contemporary painters and sculptors in Mexico. He became particularly well known in 2015 with his exhibition Duelo (Mourning) on violence in his country. He died in September 2019 in Oaxaca de Juárez, the capital of the state of Oaxaca.


Salma Hayek (born 1966)

Hayek Salma Valgarma Hayek Jiménez-Pinault is a Mexican-American actress. Her father was from Lebanon while her mother was Mexican. She is involved in social and charitable projects and in early 2012

she was awarded the rank of knight of the French Legion of Honor.


is one of the most famous Mexican music groups. The band had enjoyed super-star status in Latin America for years, but only became known in Europe at the end of the 1990s for the song “Corazón espinado”, which was recorded on the album “Supernatural” that was shared with Carlos Santana.


The music of marijuana spread from Jalisco all over Mexico and then all over Latin America. Originally the mariachis were traveling musicians. A group consists of guitar and violins, trumpets and one or more singers. It was not until 1930 that the Mariachi groups began to wear the costume of the Charros, the riding rancheros. Pointed cowboy boots, a large, wide-brimmed sombrero, tight trousers with buckles studded on the sides and an equally beautifully decorated short vest-shaped jacket are part of the costume. Since the 30s of the twentieth century there have also been female mariachi groups, which are enjoying increasing popularity. The mariachis are the epitome of Mexican music in Europe and the rest of the world, although they are not typical for all of Mexico. The Mexicans claim

If you are visiting Mexico, you can find many mariachis in the Plaza Garibaldi in Mexico City, where the groups wait for engagements for weddings, funerals or even just for a serenade for a loved one.

Jorge A. Negrete Moreno (1911-1953)

Moreno was a Mexican folk singer and actor.

Silvestre Revueltas (1899-1940)

was a Mexican composer, violinist, and conductor.

Carlos Augusto Alves Santana (born 1947)

The musician and guitarist had a decisive influence on rock music through his style, Latin rock.

Café Tacuba

is a music group from Naucalpan, Mexico. In 1989 the popular band was founded, whose music is very electronic. But there are also hip-hop and ska influences. The group also uses elements of the music of the Mexican indigenous people. It is said that no two songs in the group are the same as new elements are constantly being added.

Politicians and rulers

Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born 1922)

Àlvarez, who was President of Mexico from 1970 to 1975, has been a member of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) since 1946. He also served as Minister of the Interior and in this function had a major responsibility in suppressing the student revolts.

Marcelo Ebrard (born 1959)

The Mexican politician has been head of government of the federal district of Mexico City since 2006. He is therefore also known colloquially as the Mayor of Mexico City.

Benito Juárez García (1806-1872)

García was President of Mexico from 1861 to 1872. He is considered one of the greatest reformers in Mexico. Benito Juárez was born in the state of Oaxaca to Zapotec parents. At the age of three he was orphaned and raised by priests. He studied law and worked briefly as a lawyer, later he turned to politics and became part of the Liberals. After Mexico’s defeat in the war against the United States in 1848, he belonged to the new generation of liberals, and eventually became their leader. In 1854 he deposed General Antonio López de Santa Anna, who had lost the war, and embarked on a radical program known as “La Reforma”. After the overthrow of General Santa Anna, he became Minister of Justice and passed reform laws on the separation of church and state, civil marriage, Freedom of religion and abolition of monasteries. He developed into an advocate for agrarian reform and was elected President of Mexico in 1858. Juárez wanted to stop repaying foreign debts for two years because the country was financially drained. France was one of the creditor countries. That gave Napoleon III. the pretext to intervene militarily in Mexico. The French intervention took place in which England and Spain also took part, but they soon withdrew. In 1862, Juárez, who was initially defeated by the military, passed a law that threatened all French helpers with the death penalty. With the help of the United States, Juarez drove the French out of the country in 1866. He continued his reform work until his death. Benito Juarez died of a heart attack in his official residence in 1872. Even today, Benito Juárez is one of the most revered President of Mexico, numerous street names and statues remind of him. A famous quote from him reads: “El respecto al derecho ajeno es la paz” (respect for the rights of others means peace).

María del Rosario Gloria Green Macías (born 1941)

This Mexican politician has held many political offices in the course of her career. She held positions as director of the Commission for the Future of Mexican-American Relations, as Executive Director of the UN Human Rights Commission, as State Secretary in the Foreign Office and was Foreign Minister of her country from 1998 to 2000. She has had a seat in the Senate since 2006.

Francisco Ignacio Madero (1873-1913)

This Mexican revolutionary and statesman served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. After rebellions broke out in some parts of the country, Madero was overthrown in early 1913 by General Victoriano Huerta, the commander in chief of the Mexican army. This now took over the presidency. On February 22, 1913, Madero was caught attempting to escape and was murdered.

Juan Ramón de la Fuente Ramírez (born 1951)

The Mexican doctor and politician was rector of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) before his political career. His many political offices also included that of the Secretario de Salud, i.e. the Minister of Health.

Cuauhtémoc Lázaro Cárdenas Solórzano (born 1934)

This later Mexican politician was born in Mexico City in 1934. He was governor of the state of Michoacán, head of government of the Distrito Federal de México and founder of the Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD).


Mario Moreno Reyes/Cantinflas (1911-1993)

a Mexican actor, singer, comedian, and producer. Charlie Chaplin once called Cantinflas “the funniest man in the world”. He has worked in more than 55 films, including 1956 as a passepartout in the film “Around the World in 80 Days” based on the novel by Jules Vernes.

Anthony (Rudolph Oaxaca) Quinn (1915-2001)

Quinn’s Mexican birth name was not Quinn, but Reyna, in German “Queen” and then renamed from the English “Queen” to “Quinn”. He spent his early childhood in Mexico until he illegally immigrated to the United States with his mother. He later studied architecture. He began his film career with supporting roles that he had to play for almost ten years. With one of them, the role in “Viva Zapata”, he earned his first Oscar in 1947. From this point on he rose to the leading role and played in Italy in the film La Strada – The song of the street the showman Zampano and later in Vincent van Gogh – A life full of passion the painter Gauguin. For this role he got his second Oscar.

A short selection of his films

1956: The Hunchback of Notre-Dame

1964 Alexis Sorbas

1966: The 25th Hour

1977: Jesus of Nazareth

1981: Satisfaction

1989: The Old Man and the Sea

1995: So Close to Heaven

2001: Avenging Angelo

Other known people

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811)

was a Mexican priest and a leader in the struggle against Spanish rule.

Francisco Villa (1878-1923)

His nickname was “Pancho. His original name was Doroteo Arango. He was a freedom fighter, robber, folk hero and revolutionary.

Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919)

was a leader in the Mexican Revolution. From 1911 he was elected head of the revolutionary movement in southern Mexico and won numerous victories against the federal troops with an army made up of Indians and landless farm workers. In 1919 he died while fighting in an ambush.

Mexico: animals



The agoutis (Dasyprocta) are a genus of rodents from the family of the agoutis and acouchis (Dasyproctidae). They have slender bodies and a thick and coarse coat that is usually dark orange or brownish in color.

They live in forests, dense bushland and savannahs, but also in fields and plantations. They are usually diurnal.

Their underside is white or yellowish. The animals reach a head-trunk length of 40 to 65 cm – with a weight between 1.5 to 4 kg.

As pure herbivores, agoutis feed on fruits, nuts and leaves. Stems or roots. In the Amazon region, they are almost the only animals that can open hard Brazil nuts with their teeth.

The following two types of the total of eleven types of agoutis occur in Mexico:

– Mexican agouti (Dasyprocta mexicana), which occurs only in southern Mexico

– Central American agouti (Dasyprocta punctata), which occurs from southern Mexico to Argentina.


Of the anteaters from the suborder Vermilingua there are four different species from three different genera.

Its long tubular snout is striking. They also have a thick coat and very strong claws on their front feet.

The different species reach a length between 20 to 140 cm – with a weight between 300 g and up to 50 kg for the great anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

The great anteater is exclusively a ground dweller and lives in savannah areas, while the pygmy anteater only lives on trees. The other two species live both on the ground and in trees.

They feed almost exclusively on ants and termites, which is where their name comes from. The animals mostly live as solitary animals in their own territories.

The females only give birth to one young at a time.

The following subspecies is native to Mexico:

– Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), the animal is also found in Costa Rica, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.

American black bear

The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a species of bear belonging to the genus Ursus and the bear family (Ursidae).

Their head-torso length varies between 1.5 to 1.8 m – with a shoulder height of around 90 cm. Its weight averages 100 kg, with clear deviations upwards and downwards. Despite its name, there are black-colored animals as well as those that are silver-gray or reddish-brown in color.

The animals are omnivores, but about three-quarters of their diet consists of fruits, berries, nuts or grasses and roots. In addition, the calves of deer and elk as well as dead mountain sheep, goats and red deer are on their menu.

And don’t forget ants, short-headed wasps, bees, termites and insect larvae.

In the north of their distribution area they also feed on these animals during the salmon migration.

The animals are found in Alaska, Canada in numerous US states and in Mexico in the area of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental mountain ranges

Howler monkeys

The howler monkeys (Alouatta) are a genus from the family of the spotted monkeys (Atelidae), which is found in Central and South America. There are a total of twelve different species of the genus Alouatta.

They got their name because of their loud screaming, which they utter mostly early in the morning.

Howler monkeys, with a head-trunk length of 60 to 90 cm, are among the largest monkeys on the American continent after the spider monkeys. Their tail is roughly the same length as their body.

Their weight is between 4 and 10 kg, with the males being noticeably larger and heavier than the females. Their coat color ranges from yellow-brown to red to black,

The animals are pure herbivores that feed mainly on leaves and less often on fruits and flowers.

The animals can be found from southern Mexico across the Amazon basin to northern Argentina.

In Mexico you can only find the following species of howler monkey

– Guatemala Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra), on the Yucatán Peninsula in eastern Mexico, in Belize and in Guatemala.

Big mouth of the rabbit

The bats belong to the flying group of mammals, some species of which are also represented in Mexico. One such species is the big mouth hare.

Its main food is fish, which it catches in flight with its claws from the water.

Green iguana

The green iguana (Iguana iguana) belongs to the iguanas family (Iguanidae) and to the genus Iguana. The animals reach a head-trunk length up to about 50 cm, together with the tail it becomes about 2 m long.

Despite its name, the animal is not completely green, but rather greyish-green or has a brown influence.

The diurnal animal lives mainly in trees, but is also a good swimmer. Its diet is purely vegetarian and consists mainly of leaves.

His meat The meat is offered as “green chicken” because it is reminiscent of chicken. A well-known dish is Sopa de Garrobo.

The animals live in Central America and northern South America as far as Florida.

It has also become at home in the Lesser Antilles.


Jaguars are the largest big cats on the American continent. In Mexico you can find it in the rainforests in the south of the Yucatán.

But since they are still hunted for their beautiful fur and their habitat is getting smaller and smaller, their population is endangered.

You can find a detailed, illustrated description of the animal here >>>


The coyote (Canis latrans) – also known as prairie wolf – belongs to the genus of wolves and jackals (Canis), to the tribe of real dogs (Canis) and to the family of dogs (Canidae).

The animals can be found from northern Canada and Alaska, in large parts of the USA and Mexico, via Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua to Costa Rica. They live in dense forests, but also on the prairie.

But animals are seen again and again in human settlement areas and even cities.

The head-trunk length of the coyote reaches about 110 cm, with a shoulder height of 50 cm on average. Its weight varies between 10 and 25 kg. Its fur varies from yellow-brown to gray-brown, while its throat and chest are whitish.

Their diet consists largely of rabbits and mice, and less often birds, snakes, foxes, possums and raccoons. Carrion also belongs on their menu.

Although it looks similar to the wolf, it is significantly smaller.

Long-tailed cat

The long-tailed cat (Leopardus wiedii) is also known as Margay, Bergozelot or Baumozelot. The animal belongs to the family of cats (Felidae).

With a head-body length between 45 and 80 cm and a tail with a length between 35 and 50 cm, the animal is slightly smaller than an ocelot.

Its weight fluctuates between 2.5 and 4 kg. The cat’s fur is yellow-brown with dark, ring-shaped spots arranged in stripes. Your head is short and rounded.

The long-tailed cat lives mainly in tropical and subtropical rainforests. Now and then you can find them on coffee or cocoa plantations.

Their diet consists of rodents, smaller primates, possums, squirrels and tree rodents, but also birds and their eggs, lizards and tree frogs.

They also eat hares, agoutis and pakas.

The long-tailed cat is found in Central and South America – east of the Andes – from northern Mexico to Uruguay and Argentina


The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a species of predator from the family of cats (Felidae) and the genus of the leopard cats (Leopardus).

The basic color of the fur on the upper side varies from greyish to yellowish-brown to orange, with the residents of rainforests tending to be orange or ocher, while the animals of the dry regions are mostly gray.

The underside of the animals is usually whitish in color. For this purpose, it is covered with black, strip-shaped, ring-like or rosette-like spots. The inside of the spots is slightly darker than the basic color of the fur.

Their head-body length varies from 55 to 100 cm – with a tail length between 30 to 45 cm. Their weight is between 11 and 16 kg.

They are nocturnal loners and feed on quill rats, New World mice and tree prickers, opossums, cottontail rabbits, but also coatis, howler monkeys, sloths, tamanduas and pintail deer. But birds and reptiles such as iguanas, turtles or snakes, amphibians and fish are also on their menu.

The cats are found from the south of the USA to northern Argentina.

It can also be found on the island of Trinidad.


The peccaries or peccaries belong to the family of the Tayassuidae. Its four species belong to three different genera.

– Bisampekari, Weißbartpekari (Tayassu pecari)

The Bisampekari or Weißbartpekari has a head-trunk length between 80 to 110 cm, a shoulder height between 45 to 60 cm – with a weight of 20 to 50 kg. Males and females are about the same size.

The animals can be found from southern Mexico via Central America and the northeast of South America to Argentina.

– Collar peccary (Pecari tajacu)

The 14 – 30 kg collar peccary has a body length of 75 to 100 cm, a shoulder height of 40 to 60 cm and a tail length of 1 to 5 cm. Males and females are about the same size.

Their distribution area extends from the southwest USA (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas) over Central and Central America, to the Río de la Plata in Argentina. The animals can also be found in Trinidad.

The habitats of the animals are primeval forests, savannas, grass steppes and semi-deserts, but they can also be found in the higher foothills of the Andes. The animals prefer steep river valleys and thickets


The Puma (Puma concolor) has a narrow body up to 130 cm long, a shoulder height of 65 cm and a strong, around 70 cm long tail with a black tip. It reaches a weight of 50 to 60 kg, whereby the females are about a third lighter. The animals living in the regions of the equator tend to be smaller than those in the far north or south.

Its dense and short fur varies in basic color according to the area of distribution and ranges from yellow-brown, reddish-brown to silver-gray. The chin and chest as well as the entire abdomen are always whitish, while the tip of the tail is dark in color. The animal is also known as the silver lion or mountain lion

It occurs in almost all of South and Central America, as well as in some US states. The animal is a pure carnivore and two-thirds of its prey include deer as well as elk, deer and reindeer, but also rats, ground squirrels, skunks, raccoons, beavers and possums as well as sheep, goats and cattle. You can find a detailed description of the animal at Goruma here >>


The solitary bobcats are very common. The animals achieve a medium & nbsp; Head-torso length between 70 and 120 cm. – at shoulder height & nbsp; between 35 and 40 cm. the females being a bit smaller. Their weight ranges from 8 to 14 kg.

The females are slightly smaller than the males.

Their coat color on the top of their bodies ranges from pale yellow to reddish brown.

In some animals there is almost no spotting, while other animals have clearly recognizable, dark brown to black points and lines.

The animals are found from southern Canada through the United States to the Mexican state of Oaxaca.


The genus of the tapirs (Tapirus) have – depending on the species – a head-trunk length of 100 to 250 cm, a body height of 75 to 120 cm and a weight of 110 to 320 kg.

The different kinds of animals live both in the Flat land as well as at heights up to about 3,600 m. They are loners and feed mainly on leaves, fruits, twigs and other parts of plants.

Their existence is considered threatened, which is particularly due to the destruction of their habitats.

There are five species of the genus Tapir (Tapirus), with the lowland, mountain and Kabomani tapir occurring in South America.

The Central American tapir can be found in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.

Reptiles (excluding snakes) – amphibians

Iguanas and geckos are also common.


Geckos (Gekkonidae) are a family in the order of the squamata. A total of 55 genera with around 1,000 different species are known.

The size of the different species varies between 1.6 cm and about 40 cm.

Most of the animals are nocturnal with a rather inconspicuous brownish or green color. An exception to this are the diurnal animals, the day geckos, which, in contrast to the nocturnal animals, are brightly colored.

Their main food consists of insects, i.e. flies, grasshoppers and crickets, although the larger specimens also eat scorpions or small rodents. They also like to mess with ripe fruits.

Thanks to their adaptability, the animals have spread in the temperate zones, in the deserts, but above all in the tropics.

Green iguana

The green iguana (Iguana iguana) belongs to the family of the iguanas (Iguanidae) and to the genus Iguana. The animals reach a head-trunk length up to about 50 cm, together with the tail it becomes about 2 m long.

Despite its name, the animal is not completely green, but rather grayish-green or has a strong brown influence. The diurnal animal lives mainly in trees, but is also a good swimmer. Its diet is purely vegetarian and consists mainly of leaves. Its meat is offered as “green chicken” because it is reminiscent of chicken. A well-known dish is the sopa de Garrobo.

The animal is found in Central America and northern South America. Some occurrences even in the US state of Florida and the Lesser Antilles


turtles Sea turtles are found on the country’s coastal beaches. With the exception of laying eggs on sandy beaches, they spend their entire lives in the water.

However, as lung breathers, they have to come to the surface of the water regularly in order to breathe; this may only be necessary after 7 hours when sleeping and after 40 minutes at the latest when doing activities. Their diet consists of cephalopods, crustaceans and jellyfish, but also plants.

Your front legs serve as a paddle for locomotion, while the rear legs serve as a kind of rudder.

The salt glands on the head ensure that they can excrete the salt absorbed with the seawater.

Sea turtles can grow up to 2 m tall and weigh up to 500 kg, with the wingspan of the forelegs reaching up to 3 m.

All are distinguished by an armor-like back shield and a toothless jaw.

The breeding process is not carried out by the animals but by the sun. It is very interesting that females develop from the eggs at temperatures above 29.9 degrees Celsius and males at lower temperatures.

– Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) – with a length between 120 to 210 cm, you can find this species in all subtropical and tropical waters

– Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) – with a length between 80 to 120 cm, you can find this in all subtropical and tropical waters Waters.

– Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) – with a length between 70 to 110 cm, you can find this in all subtropical and tropical waters.

– Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) – with a length between 55 to 95 cm. This sea turtle has two subspecies:

– Pacific hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa) – it occurs on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but has become very rare.

– Caribbean or Atlantic hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata), their largest occurrence is in Mexico, where they can be found in almost every coral reef


-eyed tree frog The red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) is the best-known representative of the red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis) from the family of griffin frogs (Phyllomedusinae).

The approximately 60 mm (males) to 80 mm (females) large frogs are nocturnal and spend the day high up in trees, where they hide on the underside of large leaves and attach to sleep. At dusk they climb to the ground where they hunt small invertebrates.

You can find the frog in Mexico (Yucatán), Colombia, Nicaragua and Panama


toad The Colorado toad (Bufo alvarius) – also known as the Sonoran net toad – belongs to the genus of real toads (Bufo), in the toad family (Bufonidae) and in the class of amphibians.

The toad reaches a body length between 10 and 20 cm, with the females being considerably larger and stronger than the males. On their backs, the animals are olive green to gray-brown in color – often with orange spots, which are usually more pronounced in females. The toad’s belly is light gray to cream-colored and covered with dark speckles. The body looks quite plump. The animals are found in northern Mexico as well as in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and California. They live up to heights of around 1,500 m in semi-deserts, steppes and comparable habitats, as well as on meadows and forest edges.

Meanwhile in the scene of big cities – especially in New York – their poison is inhaled with the help of water pipes. The following high is only brief, but very intense and starts immediately after the inhalation. The poisonous liquid is obtained by milking its poison glands and then drying them into a paste.

Snakes (non-toxic)

One of the harmless species is the black desert chain snake, which, as its name suggests, is completely black in color.

Idol snake

The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.

The prey is embraced and strangled or crushed by the contraction of the muscles.

There are six subspecies of the snake.

A detailed description of the snake can be found at Goruma here >>>


Pine Snake The Striped Pine Snake (Pituophis lineaticollis) is found in Guatemala and in the southeast of Mexico (Michoacán, Jalisco).

There are two subspecies of the snake

Black Mexico King Snake

The Black Mexico King Snake (Lampropeltis getula nigrita) is a subspecies of the Mexico King Snake (Lampropeltis getula). The snake is completely black – small white spots can only be present on the underside of the head.

The males can be up to 110 cm and the females even up to 120 cm long.

Venomous snakes – coral snakes

Around 20% of the species of snakes living in Mexico are poisonous. About 30 poisonous species live on Yucátan alone. These mainly include the rattlesnakes, coral snakes, the bushmaster, which is one of the largest venomous snakes, as well as various types of lance vipers.

General information on coral snakes

This mostly very pretty snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter) with its black and white or yellow and red rings occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.

They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America – with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions.

They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short.

The nocturnal snakes usually live hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles – more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.

Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses).

In addition, numerous species of snake have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum available, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected.

In order to inject its venom, the coral otter not only has to bite but also chew the venom into the prey, so to speak.

If the animal can be thrown away very quickly after a bite, it is to be expected that it has not yet completely injected its poison, therefore – despite its very strong poison – there are seldom deaths after bites by coral otters.

Arizona coral snake

The Arizona coral snake (Micruroides euryxanthus) is the only species from the genus Micruroides.

The red-yellow-black ringed snake occurs in the arid regions of southeast Arizona (USA) and western Mexico.

Balsa coral snake

The balsa coral snake (Micrurus laticollaris) is only native to Mexico (Michoacan, Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos, Puebla, Oaxaca)

Broad-ringed coral snake

The broad-ringed coral snake (Micrurus latifasciatis) is found in Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas) as well as in western Guatemala

Bogert’s coral snake

The Bogert’s coral snake (Micrurus bogerti) occurs only in parts of Mexico.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Brown`s Coral Snake

The Brown`s Coral Snake (Micrurus browni) is ringed in red and provided with yellow-black rings.

The snake occurs in southwest Mexico and there in Jaslisco, Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana. Also in the west of Guatemala and in Honduras.

There are three subspecies of the snake:

Diastema coral snake

The diastema coral snake (Micrurus diastema) occurs in the south of Mexico (Veracruz, Oaxaca, Yucatan, Chiapas), in

Belize, Guatemala and Honduras up to a height of around 1,700 m.

The snake has seven subspecies:

Elegant coral snake

The elegant coral snake (Micrurus elegans) can be found in Mexico (Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas) as well as in Guatemala.

There are two subspecies of the snake:

Spotted coral snake

The spotted coral snake (Micrurus bernadi) occurs in Mexico in western Hidalgo to the north of Puebla and in the northwest of Veracruz

Nayarit Coral

Snake The Nayarit Coral Snake (Micrurus proximans) is found in Mexico on the coast of the state of Nayarit

Cloud forest coral snake

The cloud forest coral snake (Micrurus nebularis) is only found in Mexico in the states of Oaxaca and Puebla

Oaxacan coral snake

The Oaxacan coral snake (Micrurus ephippifer) occurs in some regions of Mexico (Oaxaca, Sierra de Juarez and on the isthmus of Tehuantepec).

There are two subspecies of the snake.

Black-banded coral snake

The black-banded coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) – also known as the Central American coral snake – lives in Mexico in the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Yucatan).

They can also be found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama.

There are seven subspecies of the snake.

Texas coral snake

The Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener) is found in

Mexico (Coahuila, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Morelos, Nuevo León, Hidalgo, Tampico, in north Veracruz, Tamaulipas, central and east San Luis Potosí

in the USA comes in the southwest from Arkansas and Louisiana to West and Central Texas the subspecies Micrurus tener tener

. Four subspecies exist of the snake.

Tuxtlan Coral

Snake The Tuxtlan Coral Snake (Micrurus limbatus) is only found in Mexico in the Sierra de los Tuxtlas in the south of the state of Veracruz on the Mexican Gold Coast.

There are two subspecies of the snake.

Western Mexican coral snake

The Western Mexican coral snake (Micrurus distans) is found in Mexico in the southwest of Chihuahua, in the south of Sonora, in Sinaloa and in the south to the northwest of Nayarit.

There are four subspecies of the snake:

Zapotitlan Coral

Snake The Zapotitlan Coral Snake (Micrurus pachecogili) is found in Mexico in the states of Oaxaca and Puebla

Venomous snakes – rattlesnakes

General information about rattlesnakes

The genus Crotalus of rattlesnakes comprises 43 species. The genus belongs to the subfamily of pit vipers (Crotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).

They occur exclusively on the American continent.

The two largest species are the diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the Texas rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), which can be over 2 m long.

They have a tail rattle made of horn rings at the tail end, with which they can make rattling noises.

Their main poisonous components are proteases, which lead to the destruction of muscle tissue and result in severe necrosis and can even lead to the amputation of a bitten extremity.

They also have parts that have a damaging effect on blood cells. Probably the most dangerous rattlesnake is the tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), whose bite can be fatal if left untreated.

In the United States, rattlesnakes are found everywhere except for the states of Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, and Alaska.

The snake prefers dry and warm regions – often in deserts or steppes.

She avoids very humid areas such as tropical rainforests or higher altitudes in the Andes.

Angel rattlesnake

The Angel rattlesnake (Crotalus angelensis) occurs only in Mexico on the approximately 930 km² large and almost uninhabited “Isla Angel de la Guardia” in the Gulf of California.

The snake species has no subspecies.

Baja California rattlesnake (Crotalus enyo)

The snake occurs in Mexico on the Baja California. Here she lives in the dry and stony areas of the Baja desert, where cacti and other succulents (plants that store water) grow.

This rattlesnake has three subspecies:

Basilisk rattlesnake

The basilisk rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) occurs in western Mexico in Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Sonora, Zacatecas and Aguascalientes

. There are no subspecies of the snake.

Campbell`s rattlesnake

The Campbell`s rattlesnake (Crotalus campbelli) can be found in Mexico in Jalisco and Colima) up to heights of around 2,500 m.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Diamond rattlesnake

The diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) occurs in the United States of America, Arkansas, Arizona, California,

Oklahoma, Nevada and northern Mexico.

Double-spotted rattlesnake

The double-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei) occurs in the United States in southeastern Arizona.

In Mexico in Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, and Aguascalientes. The snake has two subspecies.

Rock rattlesnake

The rock rattlesnake or mountain rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus)

The snake is found in the US in the states of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas,

in Mexico in Chihuahua, San Luis Potosí, Durango, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Nuevo León, Aguascalientes, Tamaulipas, Sonora, Coahuila and Zacatecas.

The snake species has three subspecies.

Spotted rattlesnake

The spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii) occurs in the United States of America, Arizona, Nevada and California.

In Mexico you can find it on the Baja California and the offshore islands.

The snake has no subspecies

Horned rattlesnake

The horned rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), also known as the sidewinder rattlesnake, is found in the US states of Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah.

In Mexico she lives in Baja California and Sonora.

Three subspecies of the horned rattlesnake.

Decorated rattlesnake

The decorated rattlesnake (Crotalus ornatus) is found in Texas in the USA and in Mexico (in Chihuahua, and Nuevo León).

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Guerrero long-tailed rattlesnake

The Guerrero long-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus ericsmithi) occurs in southwest Mexico in the state of Guerrero, where, for example, Acapulca is located.

It has no subspecies.

Long-tailed Autlán lance viper

The long-tailed Autlán lance viper (Crotalus lannomi) occurs in Mexico in the states of Jalisco and Colima.

There are no subspecies of it.

Mexican small-headed rattlesnake

The Mexican small-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus intermedius) is found in some limited regions in southern Mexico.

The snake species with an average length of around 60 cm has three subspecies:

Mexican lance head rattlesnake

The Mexican lance head rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus) occurs in central Mexico at altitudes between 1,450 and 2,600 m.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus armstrongi)

The Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus armstrongi) occurs in Mexico in Jalisco and Nayarit.

It prefers grassy clearings near bodies of water. This snake, between 40 and 60 cm long, has been found up to a height of around 4,550 m.

This makes it one of the highest living snakes in the world.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Mexican dwarf rattlesnake

The Mexican dwarf rattlesnake (Crotalus ravus) is found in Mexico in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Hidalgo.

There are three subspecies of the snake species, which can reach a size of 50 cm to rarely 70 cm.

Mojave rattlesnake

The Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) is found in the US states of California (in the south), Nevada (in the south), Arizona, New Mexico (in the south) and in Texas (in the west).

In Mexico it comes in the states of Sonora (in the northwest), Chihuahua, Coahuila (in the west and south) as well as in Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Nuevo Leon (in the south), Tamaulipas (in the west), Puebla, Aguascalientes and Quéretaro in front.

There are two subspecies of the snake species:

Northwestern Neotropical Rattlesnake

The Northwestern Neotropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus culminatus) lives in Mexico and there in Michoacan, Oaxaca, Morelos and in the state of México of the same name.

The snake can (rarely) grow up to 1.70 m long.

The snake has no subspecies

Oregon rattlesnake

The Oregon rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus) is found in southwestern Canada.

In the USA it is in the states of Arizona, California, Oregon and in the state of Washington

. In Mexico it is found on the Baja California as well as in the states of Chihuahua and Coahuila

. There are six subspecies of this snake species.

Prairie rattlesnake, Hopi rattlesnake

The prairie rattlesnake, Hopi rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) occurs in southwestern Canada.

Also in the US states of Arizona, Washington, California, Oregon, Montana, South Dakota, New Mexico and Texas.

In Mexico you can find them in the north of Baja California and in the states of Chihuahua and Coahuila.

There are two subspecies of the snake species.

Queretaran Dusky Rattlesnake

The Queretaran Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus aquilus) occurs in the stony and hardly forested highlands of central Mexico up to heights of approx. 3,000 m.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Cross-banded mountain rattlesnake

The cross-banded mountain rattlesnake (Crotalus transversus) occurs in the Mexican states of Sierra Ajusco, Moreles and in the south of Mexico City.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Red diamond rattlesnake

The red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) is found in Mexico on the Baja California and in the southwest of the US state California.

There are four subspecies of the snake.

Santa Catalina rattlesnake

The Santa Catalina rattlesnake (Crotalus catalinensis) is found in Mexico on the island of Isla Santa Catalina in the Gulf of California. There are no subspecies of the snake

Black-tailed rattlesnake

The black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus) is found in the US in the states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas,

In Mexico it lives in Hidalgo, Aguascalientes, Quéretaro, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Morelos, Jalisco, Guanajuato, Nuevo León.

There are four subspecies of this type of snake.

Sinaloa long-tailed rattlesnake

The Sinaloa long-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus stejnegeri) is found in Mexico in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in western Durango and in the south of the state of Sinaloa at altitudes between 2,500 and 3,000 m.

There are no subspecies of this snake.

Southwestern spotted rattlesnake

The southwestern spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pyrrhus) is found in the US states of Arizona, California and Nevada. In Mexico it occurs in Sonora and Baja California.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake

The Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus morulus) is found in Mexico in Sierra Madre Oriental, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and Coahuila.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Tancitaro cross-banded mountain rattlesnake

The Tancitaro cross-banded mountain rattlesnake (Crotalus tancitarensis) occurs in southwest Mexico in the state of Michoacán at heights of up to 3,200 m.

The snake, between 30 and 40 cm long, has no subspecies.

Tancitaran Dusky Rattlesnake

The Tancitaran Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus pusillus) lives in Mexico in the states of Michoacan and Jalisco.

The snake reaches a length between 35 and a maximum of 70 cm.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Texas rattlesnake, western diamond rattlesnake

The Texas rattlesnake or western diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) occurs in the United States in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas.

In Mexico you can find them in Quéretaro, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Oaxaca, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi. There are no subspecies of the snake

Tiger rattlesnake

The tiger rattlesnake (Crotalus tigris) is found in the south and center of the US state of Arizona and in Mexico in the state of Sonora. The snake has no subspecies

Tlaloc rattlesnake

The Tlaloc rattlesnake (Crotalus tlaloc) is found in the Mexican states of Estado de México, Guerrero, Michoacán and Morelos. There are no subspecies of the snake.

Totonacan rattlesnake (Crotalus totonacus)

The Totonacan rattlesnake (Crotalus totonacus) occurs in the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, Quéretaro, Hidalgo and Nuevo León in the southeast of the country.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Western Dusky Rattlesnake

The Western Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) is found in Mexico from Veracruz to Jalisco and in the states of Michoacan, Morelos and Hidalgo.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Willard rattlesnake

The Willard rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi) is found in the US states of Arizona and New Mexico.

In Mexico it is found in the states of Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango

. There are five subspecies of the snake.

Yucatan Neutropical Rattlesnake

The Yucatan Neutropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus tzabcan) is found in Belize, Guatemala and on the Yucatan in Mexico.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Central American rattlesnake

The Central or Central American rattlesnake (Crotalus simus) is found in the south of Mexico as well as in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras.

There are no subspecies of this large, up to 1.80 m long snake

Venomous snakes – palm lance snakes

General information about palm

lance vipers The palm lance vipers belong to the genus Bothriechis, to the subfamily of pit vipers (Crotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).

The species of this snake genus have a length of about 60 to 80 cm – very rarely they reach a length of 1 m.

The palm lance vipers live exclusively in the trees of the tropical rainforest and are well adapted to the way of life in trees thanks to their long tail, which is optimized for grasping. Like all pit otters, they have pit organs on the sides of their heads between the nostrils and eyes, with which they can perceive thermal radiation (infrared radiation), which makes them good night hunters.

Their basic color is mostly green to greenish-yellow with light and dark speckles, whereby the very color-variable prehensile-tailed lanceolate is an exception.

Griffin-tailed palm-lance viper

The Griffin-tailed palm-lance viper (Bothriechis schlegelii) belongs to the genus of the palm-lance viper (Bothriechis).

The snake is found in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Guatemala palm lance viper

The Guatemala palm lance viper (Bothriechis aurifer) occurs in Guatemala and Chiapas in Mexico.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Rowley’s palm lance viper

Rowley’s palm lance viper (Bothriechis rowleyi) occurs only in Mexico in Oaxaca and Chiapas.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Two-colored palm lance viper (Bothriechis bicolor)

The snake is found in Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas) and Honduras.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Venomous snakes – genus Agkistrodon

Copper head

The copper head (Agkistrodon contortrix) has five subspecies.

The snake comes in the USA in Texas, in eastern and central Oklahoma, in eastern Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, in South and North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, in West Virginia, in southern Illinois, South Indiana and South Ohio as well as Iowa.

Also in Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, New York State, Connecticut and Massachusetts).

In Mexico, they are found in the northeast of Chihuahua and in the north of Coahui

Water moccasin otter

The water moccasin otter (Agkistrodon piscivorus) occurs in the following subspecies:

– Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti

– Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma

– Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus

The snake is only found in the USA and there in Texas, Southeast Okourioma Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Kansas, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South and North Carolina, West Tennessee, West Kentucky, South Illinois, Indiana, and Southeast Virginia.

Mexican moccasin snake

There are two different species with the same German name “Mexican moccasin snake”.

This Mexican moccasin snake (Agkistrodon bilineatus) occurs in Mexico in South Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Morelos, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas) and

in Guatemala, El Salvador, and West Honduras

Mexican moccasin snake

There are two different types with the same German name “Mexican moccasin snake”.

This Mexican moccasin snake (Agkistrodon russeolus) can be found in Mexico (Campeche, Yucatan, Quintana Roo) as well as in the north of Guatemala and Belize

Gloyds Moccasin Snake

The Gloyds Moccasin Snake (Agkistrodon howardgloydi) can be found in the north-west of Costa Rica, in Nicaragua and in southern Honduras

Mexican moccasin snake

The Mexican moccasin snake (Agkistrodon russeolus) belongs to the family of the vipers (Viperidae), to the sub-family of the pit vipers Crotalinae and to the genus of the triangular-headed adder (Agkistrodon).

There are no subspecies of the snake species.

It occurs in Mexico and there in Campeche, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, as well as in Belize and Guatemala.


Mexican moccasin snake The Mexican moccasin snake (Agkistrodon bilineatus) belongs to the family of the vipers (Viperidae), to the subfamily of the pit vipers Crotalinae and to the genus of the triangular-headed adder (Agkistrodon).

It occurs in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras.

There are no subspecies of the snake species

East Mexican moccasin snake

The East Mexican moccasin snake (Agkistrodon taylori) belongs to the family of the vipers (Viperidae), to the sub-family of the pit vipers Crotalinae and to the genus of the triangular-headed snake (Agkistrodon).

There are no subspecies of the snake species.

It occurs in Mexico and there in Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosi, Hidalgo and Veracruz

More venomous snakes

Prairie Massasauga

The prairie Massasauga (Sistrurus tergeminus) is found in the USA (Arizona, Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma)

and in Mexico in central Coahuila, southern Nuevo León, in northern Chihuahua, and in northeast Sonora

Die Snake has two subspecies:

– Sistrurus tergeminus edwardsii

– Sistrurus tergeminus tergeminus

Terciopelo lance viper

The Terciopelo lance viper (Bothrops asper) is also known as the rough-scaly lance viper.

They can be found in Mexico in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

More poisonous animals


The widespread tarantulas are actually poisonous, but their poison does not usually pose a threat to humans. The bite could, however, be quite painful.

Black widow

The black widow, on the other hand, is a completely different case. It can be dangerous not only to the male, which is eaten after copulation. The black widow owes its name to this fact and to its deep black color.

The red markings on the belly are also characteristic. Bite accidents are rare, but they can happen occasionally, especially in places where it’s dark and cool.

For example, especially in the case of outside toilets, the seats should be carefully examined first before you sit down on them. It is not uncommon for the black widow to stay in these places, as the smell of faeces attracts insects and thus their nutritional basis. The main symptom of a bite is sweating and general body ache. A sure indication is sweating of the skin at the bite site.


crusted lizard The reptilian scorpion-crusted lizard in western Mexico and the Gila-crusted lizard in the north of the country are also poisonous. Both are the only venomous species of lizard in the world.

Their poison is not fatal for humans, but a bite can cause vomiting, swelling of the affected area and high blood pressure.

Since the poison works very slowly, the lizard bites into its prey and won’t let go of it that quickly. It can be helpful to have a lighter or match on hand and hold it under the lizard’s lower jaw.


The world’s smallest bird, the hummingbird, is also found in Mexico. It is one of the smallest warm-blooded animals and not only can it stand in the air, but it is also the only bird that can fly backwards. Its low weight and the very fast flapping of the wings (approx. 80 beats/sec.) Contribute to these flying skills. Hummingbirds mainly feed on nectar to provide the energy they need for strenuous flying. Their very long beak is striking, which is a perfect adaptation to their diet, as the nectar required is usually deep in the calyx of the flower.

Numerous water birds breed on coasts, lakes and other bodies of water. They include flamingos, herons and rose spoonbills, as well as the brown pelican, which can be clearly recognized by the yellow headstock and the yellow patch on the chest during the breeding season.

Flamingos form a family of their own and are also widespread in Africa, western Asia, and southern France.

The up to 130 cm tall birds are immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by their thick, downwardly curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos. The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are. The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, as one leg is hidden in the warm plumage and thus less heat loss occurs. This feat is not strenuous for the flamingos (as well as for storks).

In the south of Mexico, where the temperatures tend to reach tropical heights, the brightly colored toucans as well as parrots, which are in no way inferior to them in their joy of color, and the macaws belonging to their order are at home.

Insects, spiders, arachnids

Numerous species of butterflies enrich the microcosm of Mexico. One of them is the monarch butterfly, which is actually native to Canada, but migrates to the south to winter. The butterfly catches the eye with its bright black, white and yellow markings, signaling that it is inedible. This is not a delusion, since it mainly feeds on the poisonous swallow root plant and accumulates the toxins. So birds would do better to leave him alone.

Another species of butterfly also deserves mention. The morpho butterfly from the butterfly family is one of the largest butterflies in the world with a wingspan of 8 – 20 cm. Its bright blue and metallic glittering wings are striking. It usually stays at the height of the treetops on rivers, but also in mountains. They feed by sucking the juice of rotting fruit.

Spiders and scorpions are particularly widespread in the dry areas. The spiders native here include the tarantula, which is not very dangerous for humans, and the highly poisonous black widow.

Mosquitoes, flies, wasps, bees and a number of ants and termite species can also be found here

Underwater world

At Baja California you can be an observer of very special animals from late December to spring. Every year, the protected gray whales come the long way from Alaska to the areas around the peninsula to hibernate, mate and give birth to their young.

Sea lions and dolphins are also part of the underwater fauna that is well worth exploring. Sharks, manta rays, lobsters and neon fish are only a small part of the great biodiversity. In addition to crabs, mussels and shrimp, many different types of fish such as tuna, swordfish, barracudas, sardines, as well as various species of rays and numerous colorful reef fish live in the shallow coastal waters.

Different types of shark are also at home here. And between May and September you can see the huge and peaceful whale sharks north of Cancun – a special experience for divers.

Mexico: plants


Numerous mixed forests of pines, oaks and conifers can be found at higher elevations in the country.

Precious woods such as the mahogany or the widely used zapote tree, also known as the sapotilla or pear apple tree, grow in southern Mexico.

In the south of the country, in the Tierra Caliente, palm trees and mangrove swamps dominate the landscape.

These unique areas, which form their own biotope, are, however, severely endangered by clearing.


Everyone knows it, but hardly anyone knows how it is actually made: chewing gum. What is produced by machine today used to be (and still exists among primitive peoples) of “chicle”, the natural rubber of the Zapote tree, which is native to Mexico and was also discovered here by the Maya. This tree is used for more than just chewing fun.

Its fruits, so-called manila fruits, porridge apples or sapotilla apples, are very tasty and are often offered for sale in markets. The wood of the tree is also valuable because it is considered to be very resistant and is often used in furniture construction.

The agave is a very versatile plant. A national drink, pulque, is made from their sap, and the leaf fibers of individual species are also used to produce hemp.

Agricultural crops such as corn and beans are grown at altitudes between 1,830 m and 2,745 m. Sugar cane, cotton and coffee grow a little deeper in the Tierra Templada. Other widely used crops are bananas and tropical fruits, tobacco, cocoa, and vanilla.

Medicinal plants

The nopal cactus is of great importance in traditional medicine. Its main property is the lowering of sugar and cholesterol levels. He is also awarded the ability to relieve pain, stabilize the cardiovascular system and treat gastric complaints.

Poisonous plants

The poinsettia, which is well known in this country and is particularly popular in winter, originally comes from Mexico. Since the plant belongs to the milkweed family, all parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the milky sap. However, there were considerable differences in the severity of toxicity between the various species. In general, one can say that wild species are considerably more poisonous than their bred counterparts.

The American agave has yellow-edged, fleshy and prickly leaves in which the plant stores water and nutrients. It only blooms in old age, but then with inflorescences up to 4 m high. The plant is slightly poisonous and contact can cause skin irritation and conjunctivitis.

More plants

When you think of Mexico, the first thing that probably comes to mind is the cactus. There is a reason for this, because cacti are the symbol of Mexico, whereby the columnar cacti are in the foreground here. These very slow growing plants can reach an impressive height of 15 to 20 m at a proud age of 250 years. In Mexico, 2/3 of the total of approx. 6000 cactus species are represented. A large cactus steppe is located in the actually rather hostile areas of Baja California. The nopal cactus, ball cacti and numerous other types of cacti also thrive here. Further north is the distribution area of the thorn bushes, yucca palms and mesquite plants.

Another plant typical of the country, the agave, is also native to the dry zone. The thick-fleshed leaves and the short, compressed trunk are characteristic. These properties serve on the one hand to store water and on the other hand to minimize water loss and thus represent the perfect adaptation to the dry climate.

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