Nicaragua: Political System
According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, Nicaragua is a presidential republic. At the head of the state is a president who is directly elected by the people every five years. You can be re-elected as often as you like. The parliament is a unicameral system with 92 seats. The executive is held by the president. The right to vote is from 16 years. Enrique Bolaños Geyer has been head of government since January 2002. In the November 2006 election, the former Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega was re-elected President of the country with 39% of the votes cast. His main rival candidate, Eduardo Montealrgre, received 29% of the vote. A second ballot would only have been necessary if Ortega had remained below 35% of the vote. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Nicaragua politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|República de Nicaragua
Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the hymn “Salve a ti, Nicaragua” was composed in 1918 by Luis Abraham Delgadillo. A new text was added in 1939 and comes from Salomón Ibarra Mayorga.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Nicaragua.
In spanish language
|Salve a ti, Nicaragua! En tu sueloya no ruge la voz del cañón
ni se tiñe con sangre de hermanos
tu glorioso pendón bicolor.Glasses hermosa la paz en tu cielo
nada empañe tu gloria inmortal
que el trabajo es tu digno laurel
y el honor es tu enseña triunfal.
|Hail Nicaragua!No longer does the voice of the cannon thunder on your ground,
nor does the blood of brothers
stain your glorious two-tone banner.The peace shines wonderfully in your sky
nothing tarnishes your immortal glory,
the work is your worthy laurel
and the honor is your triumphant flag.
Luis Enrique Mejía López/Luis Enrique (born 1962) Born
on September 28, 1962 in Nicaragua
Luis Enrique is a singer and composer.
He comes from an artistic family that is highly valued in Nicaragua. For a long time he was a folklore singer until he emigrated to Miami in the USA. In 1987 he brought out his first record “Amor de Medianoche” there. Since the album did not show the desired success, he moved to Puerto Rico, where five albums were created in a very short time and he achieved a breakthrough. Because of its charisma it is called “El Principe de la Salsa”. In addition to his career as a salsero, he also made a name for himself as a percussionist. Among other things, he took part in the piece “María” by Ricky Martín. From the mid-1990s he was drawn towards pop, but only with moderate success. He then turned back to salsa, which he mixed with ballads and pop elements. Luís Enrique distanced himself from the ”
Rigoberto López Pérez (1929-1956)
Rigoberto López Pérez was born on May 13, 1929 in Leon, Nicaragua. He was was a Nicaraguan poet. But he became known in 1956 for his assassination attempt on President Anastasio Somoza García.
On September 21, 1956, Pérez went to an electoral convention in the Casa de Obreroin León, where Anastasio Somoza García wanted to run for re-election. Here he managed to fire five shots at Samoza and seriously injured him. The members of Somoza’s bodyguard shot Lopéz Pérez immediately after the attack.
Samoza died of his injuries on September 29th in a US military hospital in the Panama Canal Zone, to which he was flown after the attack.
Anastasio Somoza García (1896-1956)
Anastasio Somoza García was born on February 1, 1896 in San Marcos, Nicaragua. He was a dictatorial ruling president of Nicaragua from 1937 to 1947 and from 1950 to 1956.
During a visit to León he was shot by the poet Rigoberto López Pérez on September 21, 1956 and died on September 29, 1956 in a US military hospital in the Panama Canal Zone, to which he was flown after the attack, from his gunshot wounds
Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1922-1967)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle was born on November 18, 1922 in León, Nicaragua. He was President of Nicaragua from 1956 to 1963.
He died on April 13, 1967 in Managua, Nicaragua, of a heart attack. He originally found his final resting place in Managua next to his father. But in 1979 the coffin was taken to Miami, Florida when the Somoza family escaped. Here he now rests in the Caballero Rivero Woodlawn Park North Cemetery and Mausoleum next to his younger brother Anastasio his father.
Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1925-1980)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle was born on December 5, 1925 in León, Nicaragua.
Anastasio Somoza was the second son of Anastasio Somoza Garcia. In 1946 he graduated from the Westpoint Military Academy and in the following years was appointed Chief of the National Guard by his father. After the death of his father, who had previously been a coup for president of Nicaragua, his older brother followed in office until he was elected president himself in 1967; however, under a law limited until 1972 that prohibited direct re-election. In December 1972 an earthquake almost completely destroyed the capital Managua, in which 10,000 people lost their lives. Anastasio Somozo, as head of the National Guard, advanced to become the country’s ruler. He and his family profited from it by usurping land, banks and the construction industry for themselves during this time. Later it was discovered that the Somoza family had embezzled millions of dollars from the aid mail. Despite all this, Somoza was re-elected president in 1974, and under his rule the criticism of the opposition and the general support of the Sandinista in the country increased. Finally, in 1979, the Sandinista toppled Anastasio Somoza, who then fled to Miami (Florida). On September 17, 1980, he was assassinated by Sandinista agents in Paraguay.
Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 1945)
Daniel Ortega Saavedra was born on November 11, 1945. He was President of Nicaragua from 1985 to 1990. He was one of the Comandantes of the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN) who overthrew the Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle on July 19, 1979. In the November 2006 election he was re-elected President of the country.
In the meantime, Ortega has acted as a politician on the ring and is also strongly committed to religious beliefs.
Writer and poet
Ernesto Cordenal ( (born 1925)
Ernesto Cardenal Martínez was born in Granada, Nicaragua on January 20, 1925. He is a suspended Catholic priest because he was a well-known proponent of liberation theology and a socialist politician and poet who alongside Rubén Darío is considered to be one of the most important poets in Nicaragua
Between 1979 and 1987 he was a member of the Ortega government as minister of culture. In 1980 he received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade and in 2014 the Theodor Wanner Prize for the Dialogue of Cultures.
Rubén Darío (1867-1916)
Rubén Darío was born on January 18, 1867 in Metapa, Nicaragua.
The writer and diplomat Darío is considered to be the founder of modernism in Latin America. His works were particularly influenced by the poets Paul Verlaine and Jean Moréas or by Victor Hugo.
He died on February 6, 1916 in León, Nicaragua.
Sergio Ramírez (born 1942)
Sergio Ramírez was born on August 5, 1942 in Masatepe. He was a writer and politician.
Between 1973 and 1975 Ramírez lived on a scholarship in Berlin. After the overthrow of the dictatorship in Nicaragua, he first became a member of the government junta and vice-president from 1984-1990. Due to differences of opinion with the then Sandinista President Daniel Ortega, he founded his own party in 1995 because he did not want to support what he saw as a dogmatic course. Ramírez writes novels, short stories and poems, for his novel “Margarita, está linda la mar” he received the Spanish Premio Alfaguara.
- Mask dance (Baile de máscaras) 1997)
- Margarita, está linda la mar (1998)
- Adios Muchachos- A Memory of the Sandinista Revolution (2001)
- Forgive and Forget – Stories (2004)
About 35% of the area of Nicaragua is covered by rainforest, tropical dry forest, pine forest, savanna-like grasslands and extensive mangrove swamps. The rainforest can be found in the mountain region from a height of 1,000 m and also in the craters of extinct volcanoes.
Nicaragua borders two seas and has mountains and large lakes (Lake Nicaragua), which leads to great biodiversity. The flora and fauna in the Bosawás nature reserve in the northeast and in the Indio Maíz nature reserve in the southeast of the country are particularly diverse.
There are around 185 different types of mammals. In the Bosawás nature reserve there are jaguars, pumas and the Central American tapir, which are described in more detail in this article. Deer, coyotes, and peccaries live in the drier areas of the country, such as the Pacific coast.
Various species of monkeys live in the forests of Nicaragua, including howler monkeys and capuchin monkeys, as well as foxes, ocelots, deer, raccoons, weasels, wild boars and – rather rarely – jaguars and pumas. Most of the animals living here are presented in more detail below
The most important farm animals include cattle, zebus, pigs, horses, turkeys and chickens.
Among the local monkeys, the Geoffrey spider monkey, the white-shouldered capuchin monkey and the coat howler monkey are particularly noteworthy.
– Geoffroy spider monkey
The Geoffroy spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) is a species of monkey from the family of spider monkeys (Atelidae). It was named in honor of the French zoologist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844).
Like all spider monkeys, the animals have long and thin arms and legs and a long tail. The males have a head-trunk length between 40 to 65 cm and the females between 30 to 45 cm. The tail measures 70 to 85 cm long in the males and 65 to 75 cm long in the females and acts as a prehensile tail.
The males are slightly heavier than the 6 to 8 kg females with a weight of 7.5 to 9 kg. The color ranges from reddish brown to dark brown to blackish, with the belly and the inside of the limbs being rather light. Characteristic of the animals are their dark hands and feet.
Geoffroy’s spider monkeys can be found from eastern Mexico to southern Central America to Panama.
The Geoffroy spider monkeys live mainly in lowland rainforests, but also in deciduous forests, as well as in cloud forests and mangroves.
As herbivores, they particularly feed on fruits, but also on leaves and other parts of plants. This species of monkey has seven subspecies
– howler monkeys
The howler monkeys (Alouatta) are a genus from the family of the spotted monkeys (Atelidae), which is found in Central and South America. There are a total of twelve different species of the genus Alouatta. The coat howler monkey occurs in Nicaragua.
They got their name because of their loud screaming, which they utter mostly early in the morning.
Howler monkeys, with a head-trunk length of 60 to 90 cm, are among the largest monkeys on the American continent after the spider monkeys. Their tail is roughly the same length as their body.
Their weight is between 4 and 10 kg, with the males being noticeably larger and heavier than the females. Their coat color ranges from yellow-brown to red to black,
The animals are pure herbivores that feed mainly on leaves and less often on fruits and flowers.
The animals can be found from southern Mexico across the Amazon basin to northern Argentina.
The agoutis (Dasyprocta) are a genus of rodents from the family of the agoutis and acouchis (Dasyproctidae). They have slender bodies and a thick and coarse coat that is usually dark orange or brownish in color.
They live in forests, dense bushland and savannahs, but also in fields and plantations. They are usually diurnal.
Their underside is white or yellowish. The animals reach a head-trunk length of 40 to 65 cm – with a weight between 1.5 to 4 kg.
As pure herbivores, agoutis feed on fruits, nuts and leaves. Stems or roots. In the Amazon region, they are almost the only animals that can open hard Brazil nuts with their teeth.
A distinction is made between the following eleven types of agoutis, of which only the following species occurs here
– Central American agouti (Dasyprocta punctata), which occurs from southern Mexico to Argentina
from sloths, there is the two-finger – and three-toed sloth. Both animal species are described in detail and illustrated by Goruma. In Nicaragua there are only the three-toed sloth, the one here >>> find
American otters (Lontra) are a genus of predators from the subfamily of the otter (Lutrinae) and of the family of the marten (Mustelidae). The animals are very similar to the Eurasian otter and also have their size.
Their fur is very dense and water-repellent. It is colored brown on the top while the underside is light brown or grayish in color. The snout and throat are whitish or light gray in color.
American otters have a head-body length of 45 to 85 cm – with a tail length of 30 to 55 cm. Their weight varies between 5 and 15 kg, with the males becoming significantly heavier than the females.
The otters are predominantly crepuscular or nocturnal, while during the day they stay in structures that they have dug themselves or that they have taken over from other animals. They are excellent swimmers and can stay underwater for up to around 8 minutes.
The animals are solitary animals, the only prolonged relationship being that of the females with their young. Their territories cover a length of up to 60 km along a body of water. They mark the boundaries of their territory with urine, feces or with the help of their anal glands.
Their diet consists mainly of fish, amphibians, turtles and other reptiles and crustaceans. Sometimes they also eat birds and their eggs, as well as small mammals or insects.
The animals can be found almost all over the American continent – from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego (Chile and Argentina), although over time it has been wholly or largely extinct in a number of regions.
These otters can always be found near water and live along rivers and lakes, in marshland, at river mouths, but also on the coasts of the sea.
There are four species of the American otter, of which only the following occurs in Costa Rica:
– South American otter (Lontra longicaudis). The animal is found in large parts of tropical South and Central America – from Mexico to Uruguay and the central part of Argentina. The animal is also native to Costa Rica and Panama.
The Florida Cottontail is found from Canada over the entire eastern and central United States, over Mexico and Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. The animals are therefore also found in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. They reach a head-trunk length between 40 and 50 cm. The males weigh between 800 and 1,500 g.
Their soft fur is mottled gray-black, while their dense undercoat appears brown. The top and sides are gray, while the belly is whitish and the nape is reddish-brown in color. The animals prefer clearings, forest edges and moors, but also meadows, orchards, farmland and areas overgrown with hedges, sub-grown bushes and young deciduous trees.
Their diet consists mainly of grass and herbs, but fruits are also on their menu. In winter, they also consume the bark of trees, twigs, and seeds.
The jaguars (Panthera onco) are the largest big cats on the American continent and the third largest in the world after the lions and tigers. A detailed description of the jaguars can be found here >>>
The jagurundis (Puma yagouaroundi), also known as weasel cats, are found in the south of North America and in Central and South America, including Nicaragua. They belong to the family of cats (Feloidea) in the order of predators.
The animals have a head body length of about 65 cm, with a tail about 45 cm long. The animals come in two color variants:
The color of the gray variant varies from ash gray to almost black.
The red-brown variant varies from light brown to olive brown to a light chestnut red.
Both variants also have a few and relatively subtle white marks on their faces.The animals live mainly in light forests, bushland and on the edges of forests – rarely in open terrain or in the tropical rainforest.
The long-tailed cat (Leopardus wiedii), also known as Bergozelot, reaches a head-trunk length between 50 and 80 cm with a tail with a length between 30 and 45 cm. Their coloration is yellow-brown with dark, ring-shaped spots arranged in stripes and thus resembles that of the ocelot. The short head is rounded and their dark ears have a white spot on the back. The animals can be found from northern Mexico to Uruguay and Argentina. They are also found in Nicaragua.
The animals spend most of their lives on trees. Their diet includes monkeys, smaller agoutis, possums, squirrels, tree beasts, but also birds and their eggs, as well as lizards and tree frogs, rarely also insects and even fruits.Long-tailed weasel
The long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) belongs to the subfamily Mustelinae and the marten family (Mustelidae).
The animals have a head-trunk length between 20 to 30 cm, with a tail length between 10 and 20 cm. Their weight varies from 90 to about 350 g.
Their fur is brown on the back and yellowish-white on the abdomen, while the tip of the tail is black. It is interesting that their winter fur is white except for the tip of the tail
They mainly eat small mammals, especially mice and other rodents. But cottontail rabbits, birds and reptiles are also on their menu. The long-tailed weasels are mainly nocturnal and spend their rest time during the day in hollow tree trunks, crevices in the rock, but also in the abandoned burrows of other animals. The animals can be found from southern Canada through parts of the USA, Mexico and the rest of Central America – including Costa Rica and Nicaragua – to Guyana and Bolivia.
The Makibears (Bassaricyon) are a genus from the family of small bears (Procyonidae). The genus of Makibears comprises six species, of which only the following two occur in Costa Rica:
– Bassaricyon gabbii, slender bear (Bassaricyon gabbii), also known as Olingo.
This bear species can be found in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Ecuador.The
animals inhabit tropical rainforests up to a height of 2,000 and cloud forests, where they can be found up to a height of up to 2,700 m.
Makibears are short-legged animals with a long tail.
Their head-trunk length is between 35 to 45 cm, with a length of the bushy and slightly curled tail of 40 to 50 cm. Their weight varies between about 1 to 2 kg.
Their fur is short and soft and is grayish or brown in color on the back, while the belly side is light yellow or whitish in color.
Your face is noticeable by the pointed muzzle, the small round ears and the relatively large eyes.
The Makibears are nocturnal tree dwellers and only occasionally come to the ground. They spend the day in a leafy nest in a tree hollow.
Their food consists mainly of fruits, but also of insects and smaller vertebrates
Central American tapir
The Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) belongs to the family of tapirs (Tapiridae) in the order of the odd ungulate (Perissodactyla). The animals are a bit like pigs.
The Central American tapir can reach a head-trunk length of up to 200 cm – with a body height of about 120 cm.
Her skin is very thick, especially on the back of the body. They are dark brown in color, while the cheeks and throat are yellowish-gray.
They are pure herbivores and feed on leaves, fruits, twigs and other parts of plants.
The animals are found in Central America in the lowlands and up to an altitude of about 3,500 m, they prefer to inhabit tropical rainforests.
coati (Nasua), also referred to as trunk bears, a genus of the family of the small bear (Procyonidae). They got their name because of their trunk-like, elongated snout with the movable nose.
Their head-torso lengths range from 45 to 70 cm, while their yellow- and brown-banded tail is between 40 and 70 cm long. Your shoulder height is about 30 cm. Their weight is between 3.5 to 6 kg. Usually the males are larger than the females. The coat of the Nelson coati is short and silky. The hair of the other two types is longer and rather coarse.
The color of the back ranges from a light brown to reddish and even black. On the abdomen, their color ranges from yellowish to dark brown, with the muzzle, chin and throat usually whitish, while the feet are black.
With their snouts they search the ground, crevices and cavities for food, which consists mainly of fruit. But neither do they disdain invertebrates and even larger rodents.
There are three species of the
coati, of which the following two species can be found in Nicaragua: – South American coati (Nasua nasua) – from Colombia to northern Argentina and Uruguay.
– White-nosed coati (Nasua narica) – from Arizona to the Gulf of Urabá in northwestern Colombia.
The armadillos (Dasypoda) belong to the order of the armored secondary animals (Cingulata) in the superordinate order of the secondary jointed animals (Xenarthra). There are 21 species of the armadillos genus that occur in the southwestern United States and South America, with most species being found in central South America. For example, there are 12 species in Paraguay. Particularly noteworthy is the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), which occurs in Peru and Nicaragua and is the most widespread armadillo
The Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) is a coati from the genus Tamandua, of
the family Myrmecophagidae in the order of the tooth arms (pilosa).
Its head-trunk length is between 50 to 60 cm with an almost equally long tail. Their fur is short-haired and colored beige or light brown.
The animals live solitary both on the ground and in trees. Its diet consists almost exclusively of state-forming insects such as ants or termites.
The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a nocturnal big cat living in the southern USA and in Central and South America.
A detailed representation of the ocelot can be found here >>>
The Pumas (Puma concolor) are large cats of prey and occur in North, Central and South America.
A detailed presentation of the pumas can be found here >>>
The skunk from the family Mephitidae is divided into the following four genera, which in turn are divided into 12 species
• Fleckenskunks (Spilogale), the genus consists of four species that occur in North and Central America.
• Stink badgers (Mydaus), the genus is made up of two species found on the Southeast Asian islands.
• Striped skunks (Mephitis), the genus consists of two species that occur in North and Central America.
• The Weißrüsselskunks (Conepatus), the genus is made up of four species that are found all over the American continent.
With a head-trunk length of about 12 to about 50 cm, a tail length of 7 to 40 cm and a weight of 200 g to 4.5 kg. Are they comparable to the size of a house cat? The basic color of the animals is black or dark brown, while the face, trunk and tail are provided with white stripes or spots.
The animals are usually crepuscular or nocturnal and during the day they retreat into buildings they have dug themselves or into burrows taken over by other animals, such as marmots, badgers or ground squirrels.
But they also spend the day in crevices or hollow tree trunks. In the evening or at night they go in search of food. They usually stay on the ground, only the Spotted Skunks also climb trees.
The strip skunks hibernate for a few weeks during the cold season.
The animals eat small mammals such as rodents and rabbits, birds, lizards, snakes and amphibians as well as insects and other invertebrates, but also fruits, nuts and tubers are on their menu.
A closer “acquaintance” with the animal can quickly become unpleasant if it thinks it has to defend itself.
The only thing that helps against the stinking secretion from his anal glands is a bath in tomato juice, if at all.
If the secretion comes into contact with the mucous membranes, vomiting and headaches are possible consequences. Contact with the eyes can even cause temporary blindness.
The genus of the tapirs (Tapirus) have – depending on the species – a head-trunk length of 100 to 250 cm, a body height of 75 to 120 cm and a weight of 110 to 320 kg.
The different kinds of animals live both in the Flat land as well as at heights up to about 3,600 m.
They are loners and feed mainly on leaves, fruits, twigs and other parts of plants. Their existence is considered threatened, which is particularly due to the destruction of their habitats.
There are five species of the genus Tapir (Tapirus), with the lowland, mountain and Kabomani tapir occurring in South America. The Central American tapir can be found in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. The saddleback tapir, on the other hand, is only found in Southeast Asia.
The Tayra (Eira barbara) is a species of predator from the marten family (Mustelidae).
Their torso is elongated and slender, with relatively short limbs.
The short and rather dense fur is dark brown in color, while the head is a little lighter. A yellowish or whitish spot on the throat is noticeable. The tail is long and bushy.
These animals have a head-trunk length of 55 to 70 cm – with a tail up to 48 cm long. Their weight is between 4 and 5 kg.
The animal can walk well, climb but also swim very well.
Their diet consists mainly of tree squirrels, rodents such as sting rats, rabbits and small pintail deer. Birds, invertebrates and fruits are also on their menu.
The tayras are found in Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Paraguay and northern Argentina – including Brazil. They mainly inhabit tropical rainforests.
The wrapped bear (Potos flavus), also known as the honey bear, belongs to the genus Potos and to the family of small bears (Procyonidae). The animal has a head-trunk length of 40 to 60 cm, with a 40 to 55 cm long tail. Their weight varies between around 1.5 to 4.5 kg. Their brown back fur is woolly and short, with a mostly yellowish to light brown hairline. The ventral side is yellowish in color. Nineteenth of their diet consists of fruits, while the rest are leaves and nectar. It is worth mentioning that the animals have a long, handy tail, which is very helpful when climbing. The tail is named because it “wraps” around the branches when climbing. The wrapped bears are found in the tropical rainforests between southern Mexico and the north and center of Brazil
Reptiles and amphibians (excluding snakes)
Around 250 different species of reptiles and amphibians live in the country. These include many snakes, crocodiles, lizards, frogs and salamanders. The range of the poison arrow frogs also begins in Nicaragua.
The Nicaraguan crocodile caimans live in the country’s rivers.
The caimans (Caimaninae) are a subfamily of the family of the alligators (Alligatoridae.
Caimans occur, with the exception of the crocodile caiman, whose distribution area extends to Central America, only in South America.
Since caimans have a slower metabolism than the “real crocodiles”) they are almost twice their age at 100 years. Their preferred habitat are lakes, swamps and rivers.
The local crocodile caiman reaches a maximum length of 3 m and has the following subspecies:
Particularly noteworthy are the local poisonous poison dart frogs and giant tortoises.
The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.
The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.
The snake can also be found in Florida/USA – where it was released and has developed into a plague.
There are six subspecies of
the snake. A detailed description of the snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
Brown rainbow boa
The brown rainbow boa (Epicrates maurus) is found in the north of Brazil, in Costa Rica, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname and Venezuela (Merida, Cojedes).
Also on Trinidad, Tobago and Isla Margarita.
The snake reaches a length of up to 150 cm.
There are no subspecies of the snake.
Green rat snake
The green rat snake (Senticolis triaspis) can be found in Nicaragua as well as in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, in the southeast of Mexico and in the USA (southern Arizona and in the southwest of New Mexico). The snake has three subspecies
Venomous snake lanceolers
The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae).
The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies.
The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.
Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.
It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.
The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.
Terciopelo lance viper (Bothrops asper)
The snake is also known as the rough lance viper.
They can be found in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.
There are no subspecies of the snake
Venomous snake-palm lance vipers
General information about palm
lance vipers The palm lance vipers belong to the genus Bothriechis, to the subfamily of pit vipers (Crotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).
The species of this snake genus have a length of about 60 to 80 cm – very rarely they reach a length of 1 m.
The palm lance vipers live exclusively in the trees of the tropical rainforest and are well adapted to the way of life in trees thanks to their long tail, which is optimized for grasping. Like all pit otters, they have pit organs on the sides of their heads between the nostrils and eyes, with which they can perceive thermal radiation (infrared radiation), which makes them good night hunters.
Their basic color is mostly green to greenish-yellow with light and dark speckles, whereby the very color-variable prehensile-tailed lanceolate is an exception.
Dark green palm lance viper (Bothriechis lateralis)
The snake is found in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama.
There are no subspecies of the snake
Raspberry-tailed palm lance viper (Bothriechis schlegelii)
The snake is found in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Peru and Venezuela.
There are no subspecies of the snake
Venomous snakes coral snakes
General information on coral snakes
This mostly very pretty snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter) with its black and white or yellow and red rings occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.
They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America – with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions.
They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short. They have The nocturnal snakes usually live hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles – more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.
Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses).
In addition, numerous species have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected.
Allen’s coral snake
Allen’s coral snake (Micrurus alleni)
Black-banded coral snake
black-banded coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus)
Much-banded coral snake
Much-banded coral snake (Micrurus multifasciatus)
American Coral Viper, Central American Coral Viper (Micrurus nigrocinctus)
More venomous snakes
The Erzspitznatter (Oxybelis aeneus)
Gloyds Moccasin Snake
The Gloyds Moccasin Snake (Agkistrodon howardgloydi)
Rainforest inverted nosed viper
the rainforest inverted nosed viper (Porthidium nasutum)
nosed viper The western inverted-nosed viper (Porthidium ophryomegas
Central American Bushmaster
The Central American Bushmaster Lachesis stenophrys)
Central American jumping
pit viper Central American jumping pit viper (Atropoides mexicanus)
Glossy Vine Snake
The gloss Vine Snake (Oxybelis fulgidus)
Around 700 species of birds are native to Nicaragua. The quetzal, which occurs particularly in the Bosawás nature reserve and is native to the almost untouched cloud forests at an altitude of 1,000 to 3,000 m, is strikingly colorful.
The scarlet macaw, one of the largest parrot species, can be seen in the humid forests of the lowlands or along rivers. Less colorful, but just as impressive, is the harpy, one of the largest birds of prey in the world. On the other hand, the Mexican siskin and several species of hummingbird are very small. And who in Europe already knows the owl? Other birds in the country include hummingbirds, parrots, pelicans and toucans.
The “turquoise brow motmot” is the national bird of Nicaragua.
The severe overfishing has unfortunately led to a sharp decline in many fish species.
However, many different species of fish are still found in both the Pacific and the Caribbean. The local 30 different species of dolphins and whales are particularly popular with tourists.
Water turtles come to the beaches of the Pacific to bury their eggs on the beach, among them the leatherback turtle and the olive ridged turtle.
The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), with a shield size of up to 2.50 m and a weight of up to 800 kg, is the largest turtle in the world and is the only species from the family of the same name (Dermochelyidae. A detailed description of the leatherback turtle can be found at Goruma here> >>
Olive ridged turtle
The olive ridged turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) has a body size of approx. 70 cm, with a maximum weight of 50 kg, making it one of the rather small sea turtles. Its heart-shaped shell has an eponymous olive-green color with greenish markings, the belly armor is yellowish-green in color. The animals are mainly found on the coasts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, for example in Costa Rica or Nicaragua.. They lay their eggs on around 50 well-known beaches, where they are hatched by the sun for between 50 and 60 days.
The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) can be found in the Pacific, the Caribbean and even in Lake Nicaragua. The animals are up to 350 cm long and weigh up to 230 kg. It can be easily recognized by its triangular fin, which is arranged almost at right angles. The very broad snout gave it its name. The animals live in both fresh and salt water. Whereby he prefers shallow water near the banks and in the mouth of the rivers. In addition to the great white shark and the tiger shark, the bull shark is one of the shark species that are responsible for most of the shark attacks on humans.
Jaguar (Managua) cichlid also
worth mentioning is the up to 70 cm long jaguar (Managua) cichlid (Parachromis managuensis) in the 1,024 km² large Lake Managua. The basic color of the fish is silver-white-gray, with a dense pattern of black spots and dots that are arranged in rows and lines. The fish is also found in Honduras and Costa Rica.
The Caribbean manatee (Trichechus) is a manatee and lives in the coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea, off Guyana, in the Gulf of Mexico and on the coasts of Brazil and Venezuela. About 3,000 animals also live in the coastal waters of Florida. They feed mainly on seagrass.
The animals reach a head-trunk length between 2.50 and 4.5 m – with a weight between 250 and (rarely) 600 kg. Your dives rarely last longer than about five minutes.
The lemon cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) in the approximately 200 km long Río San Juan is also worth mentioning. The Río San Juan originates in Lake Nicaragua and flows into the Caribbean at San Juan de Nicaragua. The males of the fish can grow up to approx. 30 cm and can be colored from lemon yellow to yellow-white to yellow-orange. The fish are still found in Costa Rica.
Nicaragua is home to the largest rainforest north of the Amazon, with 10% of the world’s biodiversity, as well as deciduous and cloud forests and extensive mangrove areas on both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts. These up to 30 m high bushes and trees have formed between land and sea.
The mangroves of the Pacific coast are usually higher and denser and are therefore home to a greater biodiversity than those of the Caribbean coast.
In the north of the country around Estelí, the tropical dry forest turns into grassland up to the cloud forest. Especially orchid fans will get their money’s worth here, as more than 150 species of this plant can be found here.
Brief information on trees
The forest area of Nicaragua covers about 5.5 million hectares with a large part of deciduous forest, followed by pine trees. It is estimated that there are over 6,000 different plant species here. Natural gum for chewing gum can be obtained from the milky sap of the porridge apple tree. Avocado trees, the fruits of which can be bought from us, are also relatively common. !! The Madroño (Calycophyllum candidissimum) is Nicaragua’s national tree !!
Plants in the Pacific dry forest
In the lowlands on the Pacific coast up to a height of about 800 m, due to the low rainfall of less than 2,000 mm per year, you can find thorns and rubber plants. The local trees and non-cactus-like plants lose their strength in the dry season and are then in full bloom in April and May.
Plants in highland pines, deciduous and cloud forests
With the exception of a few canyons in the mountains of the Pacific, most of the pine trees can be found in the north near Jalapa and Ocotal.
The higher mountain tops of Nicaragua are surrounded by cloud forest and provide a cool, moist environment for numerous plants. Most of these areas are around the mountainous regions of Matagalpa and Jinotega – such as Kilambé, Peñas Blancas, Saslaya and Musún.
On the mountain slopes of the cloud forests grow oaks, pines, the West Indian cedar as well as moss, ferns and orchids, many of which, as mentioned, are also found in the tropical rainforest. Various types of mahogany also grow here.
Plants in the Caribbean rain zone
In the Caribbean, it rains almost 10 months a year and the humidity is around 90%, with most of it being covered with rainforest and lowland rainforest. The magnificent trees here reach heights of 30 to 40 m. You can also find swampy mangrove forests with red, black and white mangroves as well as button mangroves.
The fruits of the Manchinel tree, which look like small apples, should be avoided because the tree is very poisonous. If you stand under a manchinel tree in the rain, for example, it exudes a milky liquid that causes unpleasant blisters on the skin. The sap of the tree was used as arrow poison by the Indians.