Norway: Political System
According to COMPUTERMINUS.COM, Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a king or queen as the head of state. It is a stable democracy with a high degree of freedom. The head of government is a prime minister elected by parliament. The parliament has 165 members and is elected every four years in equal, secret and free elections. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Norway politics, and acronyms as well. The official name of the country is:
|Kingdom of Norway|
The text of the national anthem of Norway was written in 1859 by Bjørustjerne Bjønson (1832-1910), the 1903 Nobel Prize winner for literature. He was a friend of Edward Grieg (1843-1907). The melody comes from his cousin Richard Nordiaak (1842 – 1866). The national anthem is called Ja, vi elsker dette lands
|In Norwegian||In the English translation|
|Yes, alot of things land, som det each stranger,
furet, værbitt over vannet,
med de tusen hjem.
Elsker, elsker det and lowerers on the
far and mor and
the saganatt on the lowerers
drømmer on the jord.Dette lands Harald berget
med sin kjemperad,
dette lands Håkon verget
medens Øyvind kvad;
Olav på det ends up painted
corset with sitt blod,
fra dets høye Sverre talte
Roma midt imot.
Bøndene sine økser brynte
before en hær dro strangers,
Tordenskiold slowly kysten lynte,
så det lystes hjem.
Kvinner selv stod opp and strede
som de vare menn;
other kunne bare grede,
men det kok igjen!
Visstnok var vi ikke mange,
men vi strakk dog til,
since vi prøvdes noen gange,
and detod on spill;
ti vi heller lands brente
enn det kom til fall;
Husker bare hva somehendte
ned on Fredrikshald!
Hårde tider har vi døyet,
ble til sist forest;
men i understand nød blåøyet
frihet ble oss født.
The gav faderkraft å bære
hunger and krig,
det gav døden selv sin ære –
and gav forlik.
Fienden sitt våpen kastet,
opp visiret for,
vi med undren mot ham hastet,
ti han var vår bror.
Drevne foreign på stand av skammen
Gikk vi søderpå;
Only then are there to be brødre together,
and shall be sådan stå!
Norske menn i hus og hytte,
takk din store Gud!
Lands ville han beskytte,
skønt the mørkt så ut.
Alt hva fedrene har kjempet,
mødrene har grett,
har den Herrre stille lempet
så vi vant vår rett.
lot of things land, som det each stranger,
furet, værbitt over vannet,
med de tusen hjem.
Og som har fedres kamp hevetv
det av og NOD seir,
også vi når det blir krevet,
for dets fred slår leir.
|Yes we love this countryhow it rises,
furrowed and weathered from the water,
with the thousand homes.
Love, love it and think of
our father and mother
And the saga night that drags
dreams on our earth.
This land that Harald saved
with his huge army,
this land that Håkon defended
while Øyvind sang;
the cross with his blood in the country,
of whose size Sverre spoke
Peasants sharpened their axes
where an army was formed,
Tordenskiold flashed along the coast
so they shone home.
Even women stood up and argued
as if they were men;
Others could only despair,
but it came back!
Sure, we weren’t many,
when we were tested several times
and the stake was at stake;
because we’d rather set fire to the whole country
than let it fall;
let’s just remember what happened
down in Fredrikshald!
We endured hard times,
were denied for the last;
but in the worst need, naive
, freedom was born to us.
It gave us fatherhood to endure
famine and war,
it gave death itself the honor –
and there was agreement.
The enemy threw away his weapons,
opened his visor,
we rushed to him in amazement
because he was our brother.
Freed from shame
, we went south;
now we three brothers stand together
and will stay together.
Norwegian man in house and hut,
thank your great God!
He wanted to protect the country,
even though it looked dark.
Everything that the fathers fought for,
what the mothers cried,
the Lord quietly accomplished
so that we won our rights.
Yes, we love this land,
how it rises,
furrowed and weathered from the water,
with the thousand homes.
And like the struggle of our fathers,
it rose from need to victory, so
we too, when asked,
camp for its peace.
The national flag of Norway was introduced in its present form on January 1, 1899. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the Norwegian flag is based on the Danish flag, as Norway was legally a Danish province from 1537 to 1814. The blue cross comes from the Swedish flag from the time of the union with Sweden.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Norway.
Norway: People noteworthy
Writer and poet
Matti Aikio (1872-1929)
first Sami (Lappish) poet in Norway. Aikio was born in Karasjok in 1872 with his real name Mathis Isaksen as the child of a teacher and his wife. He studied education and initially also practiced the teaching profession. Aikio learned Norwegian at the age of 18 and then wrote his literary works in this language in order to draw attention to the needs of the Sami minority in Norway. Aikio died in Karasjok in 1872.
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (1812-1885)
Writer and collector of Norwegian fairy tales, forester. Asbjørnsen was born in what is now Oslo in 1812. With his fellow student Jørgen Moe, he traveled through Norway to collect and write down the country-specific fairy tales, similar to the Brothers Grimm. In doing so, he made a significant contribution to the preservation of the Norwegian soul. From 1858, however, he devoted himself to the profession of forester and wrote scientific articles. Asbjørnsen died in Kristiania, today’s Oslo, in 1885.
Bjørnstjerne Martinius Bjørnson (1832-1910)
Writer and politician. Bjørnson was born in Kvikne in 1832. He was a college dropout and initially worked as a journalist. In 1903 he was the first Scandinavian to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature. His works include “Maria Stuart in Scottland” (published in German in 1866). Bjørnson is also the author of the Norwegian national anthem. Ibsen was one of his friends. As a politician, he fought vehemently for a republic. Bjørnson died in Paris in 1910.
Finn Carling (1925-2004)
poet, critic, and writer. Carling was born into an upper middle class family in Oslo in 1925, but suffered from cerebral palsy all his life. He broke off his psychology studies. In his works, Carling often addressed his health problems, but was also known as humorous. “Die Glaskugel” (1949) was Carling’s first play – autobiographical like almost all subsequent texts. He died in Oslo in 2004.
Jon Fosse (born 1959)
Fosse is an author and writer. In addition to the publication of poetry and novels, he later devoted himself to writing plays. His plays “The night sings her songs”, “Das Kind” or “Traum” were also played in English translation on German stages. He was one of the writers who introduced postmodernism in Norway in the 1980s. In 2007 he received the Knight’s Cross of the French Ordre national du Mérite.
Jostein Gaarder (born 1952)
Writer. Gaarder was born in Oslo in 1952, where he later studied philosophy and theology, among other things. He taught for a decade and had his literary breakthrough with the book “Sofie’s World” (1991), which was released as a film in 1999. Awarded several times, Gaarder’s books are primarily dedicated to children and young people. His stories are definitely philosophical.
Inger Hagerup (1905-1985)
poet, writer and translator. Inger Johanne Halsør was born in Bergen in 1905 and married the teacher Anders Hagerup after attending the Oslo business school. In 1939 she published her first volume of poetry “Jeg gikk meg vill i skogene”. Hagerup also wrote children’s books and plays, which were widely distributed and in high editions. She also translated the novel “Lord of the Flies” into Norwegian. Hagerup died in Fredrikstad in 1985 as the mother of two children.
Knut Hamsun (1859-1952)
Writer. Hamsun, whose real name was Knud Pedersen, was born in Vågå in 1859 as the son of small farmers. He traveled a lot (USA, France, Germany etc.) and initially earned his living as a port and farm worker. In 1890 his book “Hunger” appeared, which brought him first literary recognition. He is one of the most important Norwegian writers of the 20th century. In 1920 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for his best-known work “Segen der Erde” (published in 1917). Hamsun died in Nørholm in 1952.
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)
Writer and playwright. Ibsen was born in Skien in 1828 as a descendant of one of the most respected and oldest families in Norway. After an apprenticeship as a pharmacist, he joined an intellectual group in Oslo. His literary style was very important for naturalism in Germany and Norway. In addition to many works, the play “Peer Gynt” is Ibsen’s best known piece. It was set to music by Edvard Grieg. Ibsen died in 1906 in what is now Oslo.
Jonas Lie (1833-1908)
Writer and playwright. Jonas Laurits Idemil Lie was born in Eiker in 1833 and studied law in what is now Oslo. His poetry collection “Digte” (1866) made Lie famous. From then on he no longer worked as a lawyer, but as a journalist. Four years later his novella “Der Geisterseher” appeared, which enabled him to live exclusively as a man of letters. His writings are impressionistic and neo-romantic and influenced Thomas Mann. Lie died in Stavern in 1908.
Erik Bodom (1829-1880)
landscape painter. Bodom was born in Vestby in 1829. He broke off his training in Oslo to devote himself entirely to painting. He learned from the Norwegian Hans Fredrik Gude, who had specialized in landscapes. They traveled to Düsseldorf together. Bodom’s landscapes are romantic and melancholy in nature and hang in both London and Norway. Bodom died in Düsseldorf in 1879.
Hans Fredrik Gude (1825-1903)
landscape and marine painter. Gude was born in Oslo in 1825 and studied at the local Royal Drawing School. He continued his studies at the Düsseldorf Academy, where he later also worked as a professor of landscape painting. Appointments to the Karlsruhe and Berlin academies followed. His works (eg “Norwegian Coast”) hang in the Berlin National Gallery. Gude died in Berlin in 1903.
Olaf Gulbransson (1873-1958)
caricaturist, painter and draftsman. Gulbransson was born in Christiania (Oslo) in 1873 and trained at the local Royal School of Arts and Crafts. Above all, he published political caricatures and book illustrations at the beginning of his career. He later studied further in Paris. Gulbransson had his breakthrough as a draftsman for the Munich satirical magazine Simplicissimus. Gulbransson died in 1958 near Tegernsee.
Edvard Munch (1863-1944)
Painter and printmaker. Munch was born in Løten in 1863 as the son of a military doctor and a merchant’s daughter. He received training at the Royal School of Drawing in Oslo and has significantly influenced and shaped expressionism in modern painting. During his life, Munch traveled a lot, including France and Germany. His most famous work is “The Scream” from 1893. Munch died in Oslo in 1944.
Kings and queens
From 1730 to the present day
|Name, dates of life||Reign||Particularities|
|Harald V.(born 1937)||1991 ruling until now||Multiple participation as a regatta sailor in Olympic Games|
|Olav V.(1903-1991)||1957-1991||Infatuated with solving third-degree math equations|
|Håkon VII(1872-1957)||1905-1957||Fought for a neutral position in Norway in both world wars|
|Oscar II(1829-1907)||1872-1905||King of Sweden and Freemason|
|Charles IV(1826-1872)||1859-1872||The romantic composer August Södermanndedicated a funeral march to his dea|
|Oscar I(1799-1859)||1844-1859||King of Norway and Sweden, godson of Joseph Bonaparte|
|Charles III Johann(1763-1844)||1818-1844||Great military career, including Minister of War of France|
|Charles II(1748-1818)||1814-1818||For lack of children of his own, adopted two boyswho became heir to the throne in Norway and Sweden|
|Christian Friedrich(1786-1848)||May 17, 1814-10. October 1814||But ruled Denmark for nine years as ruler|
|Friedrich VI.(1768-1839)||1808-1814||Fought in the Napoleonic War on the French side;signed the Peace of Kiel|
|Christian VII(1749-1808)||1766-1808||As a reformer, abolished serfdom|
|Frederick V(1723-1766)||1746-1766||Early death as a melancholic and alcoholic|
|Christian VI.(1699-1746)||1730-1746||The Danish-Norwegian Union has a long period of peace|
From 1299 to 1730
|Name, dates of life||Reign||Particularities|
|Frederick IV(1671-1730)||1699-1730||Also King of Denmark;kept diaries in German|
|Christian V(1646-1699)||1670-1699||Tried to conquer Hamburg in 1686 in vain|
|Friedrich III.(1609-1670)||1648-1670||Founder of Norwegianand Danish absolutism|
|Christian IV(1577-1648)||1588-1648||Had many cities and castles built|
|Frederick II(1534-1588)||1559-1588||Promoter of science and shipping|
|Christian III(1503-1559)||1534-1559||During and through his ruleDenmark and Norway experienced the Reformation|
|Frederick I(1471-1533)||1523-1533||Was also King of Denmarkand Canon of Cologne|
|Christian II(1481-1559)||1513-1523||Also called the tyrant;he also ruled over Denmark and Sweden|
|Johann I(1455-1513)||1481-1513||Married to Christina von Sachsen;Ruler also of Denmark and Sweden,
Duke of Schleswig and Holstein
|Christian I(1426-1481)||1450-1481||Founder of the Oldenburg lineand Count of Oldenburg|
|Charles I(1409-1470)||1449-1450||Married three times in his life;including King of Sweden|
|Christopher III. of Bavaria(1416-1448)||1439/1442-1448||Died of blood poisoning|
|Erik III.(1382-1459)||1389/1397 /1412-1439/1442||Also called Eric I of Pomerania, he alsoruled over Denmark and Sweden|
|Margaret I(1353-1412)||1380/1388-1412||Also ruled over Denmark and Swedenand created the Kalmar Union|
|Olaf IV(1370-1387)||1380-1387||Died at the age of 17,ending the male Folkunger line|
|Håkon VI. Magnusson(c. 1341-1380)||1355-1380||Invested a lot of time in the Norwegian economy|
|Magnus VII Eriksson(1316-1374)||1319-1355||Was also King of Swedenand died in a ship accident|
|Håkon V. Magnusson(1270-1319)||1299-1319||Is considered a great reformer of the Norwegian administration|
From 1135 to 1299
|Name, dates of life||Reign||Particularities|
|Erik II Magnusson(1268-1299)||1280-1299||Had great challengesin terms of peace and foreign policy|
|Magnus VI. Håkonsson(1238-1280)||1263-1280||Also called lagabætir = the law improver|
|Skule Bårdsson(1189-1240)||1239-1240||Was considered an excellent military strategist|
|Håkon IV. Håkonsson(1204-1263)||1217-1263||Mostly referred to as Håkon the Old;participated with Norway in the “legal century” to
establish inner peace
|Philipp Simonsson(12th century-1217)||1207-1217||In addition, the last bagler king|
|Inge II. Bårdsson(1185-1217)||1205-1217||As Birkebeiner King, he alsoensured ten years of peace between Birkebeiners and Baglers|
|Erling Steinvegg(12th century-1207)||1204-1207||Bagler king; Parents unknown|
|Guttorm Sigurdsson(1199-1204)||1204||Was King of Norway at the age of four;also Birkebeiner-König|
|Håkon III. Sverresson(about 1170-1204)||1202-1204||Initially I was traveling as an adventurer|
|Inge Magnusson(12th century-1202)||1196-1202||Ruled also over the Baglers,whose party disbanded after Magnusson’s dea|
|Jon Kuvlung(12th century-1188)||1188||Army King of Norway|
|Sverre Sigurdsson(1151-1202)||1177/1184-1202||Brought self-governmentand the abolition of slavery to the Faroese|
|Øystein Møyla(12th century-1177)||1176-1177||Møyla = girl;was so called because of his small petite figure and manner|
|Magnus V. Erlingsson(1156-1184)||1161-1184||Son of the Jerusalem driverand first crowned king of Scandinavia|
|Håkon II Herdebrei(1147-1162)||1159-1162||Herd porridge = broad shoulder;died at the age of 15|
|Øystein II. Haraldsson(1125-1157)||1142-1157||Is considered gripping and energetic,undertook several campaigns and raids|
|Inge Krogrygg(1135-1161)||1136-1161||Ruled together with his brothers,who later fought deadly battles|
|Sigurd II. Haraldsson(around 1132-1155)||1136-1155||Also called Munn because of his crooked mou|
|Harald IV. Gille(1103-1136)||1130-1136||Was killed in the bed of a mistressof the heir to the throne Sigurd Slembe|
|Magnus IV Sigurdsson(around 1115-1139)||1130-1135||Also called the blind man;1st king in the civil war|
From 870 to 1130
|Name, dates of life||Reign||Particularities|
|Sigurd I. Jórsalafari(around 1090-1130)||1103-1130||Also called the Jerusalem driver;still King of the Isle of Man|
|Øystein I. Magnusson(around 1088-1123)||1103-1123||Intensively promoted the expansion of the infrastructure|
|Olaf Magnusson(around 1099-1115)||1103-1115||Died of an undetermined illness at the age of 16|
|Magnus III. Berrføtt(around 1073-1103)||1093-1103||Called Magnus Barefoot or Sryrjaldar-Magnus(War Magnus); extremely martial king|
|Olav III. Kyrre(11th century-1093)||1066-1093||Also called the calm one; spoke Latin and preferred reading|
|Magnus II. Haraldsson(1048-1069)||1066-1069||Double king with his brother Olav III. Kyrre|
|Harald III. Hardråde(1015-1066)||1047-1066||Also called the tough one;fell by a deadly arrow in a battle for Engla|
|Magnus I the Gode(around 1024-1047)||1035-1047||Called the good; was king of Norway and Denmark|
|Knut II. The store(around 995-1035)||1028-1035||Called the great;was also king of Denmark and Engla|
|Olav II. Haraldsson(995-1030)||1015-1028||Called the saint today,was known as the fat one during his lifetime|
|Sven Tveskæg or Sven I. Gabelbart(around 965-1014)||1000-1014||Probably ousted his father from the throne;was also King of Denmark and King of Engla|
|Olav I. Tryggvason(963-1000)||995-1000||Is considered the country’s first Christian king|
|Sven Tveskæg or Sven I. Gabelbart(around 965-1014)||987-995||Made several invasions on England;had to recapture the throne after imprisonment|
|Harald Blauzahn(around 910-987)||961-987||Invaded Normandy as the leader of the Vikings|
|Harald II Grafell(10th century-970)||961-970||Graefell = gray skin;probably
murdered during a battle by the supposedly allied uncle Harald Blauzahn
|Håkon I.(around 920-961)||935-961||Also the good one; younger brother of Erik I.|
|Erik I(around 885-954)||933-935||Also called the blood ax; is said to have murdered 18 of his brothers|
|Harald Hårfagre(852-933)||870-933||Probably 1st King of Norway;Hårfagre = beautiful hair, fair hair|
Goruma below introduces all the Prime Ministers of Norway since the introduction of parliamentarism in 1884. Since that year, legislative power in Norway rests with the parliament, which elects the prime minister as head of government.
If a person has held office at different times with interruptions, the politician is shown correspondingly often in the table.
Prime Minister from 1945 until today
|Surname||Term of office||Party affiliation|
|Jens Stoltenberg(born 1959)||2005 in office until now||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Kjell Magne Bondevik(born 1947)||2001-2005||Christian People’s Party (KrF)|
|Jens Stoltenberg(born 1959)||2000-2001||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Kjell Magne Bondevik(born 1947)||1997-2000||Christian People’s Party (KrF)|
|Thorbjørn Jagland(born 1950)||1996-1997||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Gro Harlem Brundtland(born 1939)||1990-1996||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Jan Peder Syse(1930-1997)||1989-1990||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Gro Harlem Brundtland(born 1939)||1986-1989||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Kåre Willoch(born 1928)||1981-1986||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Gro Harlem Brundtland(born 1939)||1981-1981||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Odvar Nordli(born 1927)||1976-1981||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Trygve Bratteli(1910-1984)||1973-1976||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Lars Korvald(1916-2006)||1972-1973||Christian People’s Party (KrF)|
|Trygve Bratteli(1910-1984)||1971-1972||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Per border(1913-2005)||1965-1971||Center Party (Sp)|
|Einar Gerhardsen(1897-1987)||1963-1965||Labor Party (Ap)|
|John Lyng(1905-1978)||1963-1963||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Einar Gerhardsen(1897-1987)||1955-1963||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Oscar Torp(1893-1958)||1951-1955||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Einar Gerhardsen(1897-1987)||1945-1951||Labor Party (Ap)|
Prime Minister from 1884 to 1945
|Surname||Term of office||Party affiliation|
|Vidkun Quisling(1887-1945)||1942-1945||Fascist Party National Collection (NS)|
|Johan Nygaardsvold(1879-1952)||1935-1940||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Johan Ludwig Mowinckel(1870-1943)||1933-1935||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Jens Hundseid(1883-1965)||1932-1933||Center Party (Sp)|
|Peder Kolstad(1878-1932)||1931-1932||Center Party (Sp)|
|Johan Ludwig Mowinckel(1870-1943)||1928-1931||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Christopher Hornsrud(1859-1960)||1928-1928||Labor Party (Ap)|
|Ivar Lykke(1872-1949)||1926-1928||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Johan Ludwig Mowinckel(1870-1943)||1924-1926||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Abraham Berge(1851-1936)||1923-1924||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Otto Bahr Halvorsen(1872-1923)||1923-1923||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Otto Albert Blehr(1847-1927)||1921-1923||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Otto Bahr Halvorsen(1872-1923)||1920-1921||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Gunnar Knudsen(1848-1928)||1913-1920||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Jens Bratlie(1856-1939)||1912-1913||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Wollert Konow(1845-1924)||1910-1912||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Gunnar Knudsen(1848-1928)||1908-1910||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Jørgen Løvland(1848-1922)||1907-1908||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Christian Michelsen(1857-1925)||1905-1907||Center Party (Sp)|
|Francis Hagerup(1851-1921)||1903-1905||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Otto Albert Blehr(1847-1927)||1902-1903||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Johannes Steen(1827-1906)||1898-1902||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Francis Hagerup(1851-1921)||1895-1898||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Emil Stang(1834-1912)||1893-1895||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Johannes Steen(1827-1906)||1891-1893||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
|Emil Stang(1834-1912)||1889-1891||Conservative Party Høyre (H)|
|Johan Sverdrup(1816-1892)||1884-1889||Social Liberal Party Venstre (V)|
pop rock band. In 1982 Pål Waaktaar-Savoy and Magne Furuholmen founded the band a-ha, which made an international impression in 1985 with the world hit “Take on me”. Another member of the music group, which was dissolved in 2010, was the singer Morten Harket. The hits also included titles like “Hunting high and low”, “The Sun Always Shines on TV” and “Lifelines”. Harket’s high voice was particularly striking. The band was a huge export success for Norway.
Leif Ove Andsnes (born 1970)
pianist. Andsnes was born in Karmøy in 1970 and later studied in Bergen. He is an internationally recognized pianist with solo appearances in Oslo, London and Munich, among others. There are recordings with his interpretations by Chopin, Grieg, Liszt etc. Andsnes has received numerous awards, for example the German Record Award and the German Critics Award.
Kirsten Flagstad (1895-1962)
opera singer (soprano). Flagstad was born in Hamar in 1895 to a family of musicians and studied in Stockholm. Especially her Richard Wagner interpretations made for worldwide fame. Flagstad is one of the most important international opera singers. Sound carriers with operas and operettas sung by her are more numerous than any other representative of her profession. She appeared on Broadway and in London, among others. Flagstad died in Oslo in 1962.
Jan Garbarek (born 1947)
jazz saxophonist. Garbarek was born in Mysen in 1947. He taught himself to play the saxophone. Garbarek was influenced by American saxophonists and brings Norwegian folklore into his playing as a new element that makes him unmistakable. He is one of the most important contemporary European jazz musicians. Garbarek plays a leading role in the Scandinavian jazz scene in particular. The 1973 album “Witchi-Tai-To” marked his breakthrough as a jazz saxophonist.
Edvard Hagerup Grieg (1843-1907)
Composer. Grieg was born into a wealthy family in Bergen in 1843. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory. His friends and acquaintances included Brahms, Liszt and Tschaikowsky. His most famous orchestral piece is “Peer Gynt” – the music-translated drama by Henrik Ibsen. Grieg’s works are assigned to the Romantic era. He also composed piano and chamber music and is the only Norwegian composer known internationally. Grieg died in Bergen in 1907.
Morten Harket (born 1959)
Composer, singer and former front man of the group a-ha. Harket was born in Kongsberg in 1959. Before he started at a-ha in the early 1980s and landed international hits like “Take on Me”, Harket sang with no-name bands like Ten Sing and Soldier Blue. Harket has also made records as a successful and award-winning solo artist, including “Wild Seed” (1995). Since the breakup of a-ha in December 2010, there has been a creative break in Harket’s music career.
Maria Mena (born 1986)
pop musician, singer and songwriter. Mena was born in Oslo in 1986 as the daughter of a professional drummer and songwriter. Her debut song “My Lullaby” was released by Sony Music in 2001 and reached number 5 on the charts in Norway. In 2007 she received the gold record for her record “Apparently Unaffected” – a mix of pop and ballad. Two years later she was named Artist of the Year with the Spellemann Award.
Nils Petter Molvær (born 1960)
jazz trumpeter and music producer. Molvær was born in Langevåg in 1960. Molvær is a creative pioneer in merging jazz and electronic music. With his first album “Khmer” he immediately played his way into the hearts of a large audience and won the German Record Critics’ Prize. Its success is based on the fusion of trumpet and electro beats. Molvær also provided the soundtrack for the German film “Stratosphere Girl”.
Alexander Rybak (born 1986)
Composer, singer, actor, violinist. Rybak was born in 1986 in Minsk, Belarus, into a family of musicians, with whom he moved to Norway seven years later. He speaks several languages and instruments. In 2009 Rybak won the Eurovision Song Contest with “Fairytale”. As an actor at an Oslo theater, he impressed in an “Anatevka” production and received an award. Rybak is a very promising talent.
Alfred Andersen-Wingar (1869-1952)
Composer. Andersen-Wingar was born in Kristiania in 1869, where he also studied in addition to Paris. He mastered the violin and viola playing. His compositions, which are assigned to the late romantic era, include operas, overtures and symphonies. Between 1911 and 1918 he worked as a conductor of the folk symphony concerts in Kristiania, today’s Oslo. Andersen-Wingar died in Oslo in 1952.
Bent Hamer (born 1956)
screenwriter, producer and director. Hamer was born in Sandefjord in 1956 and later studied in Stockholm. With “Kitchen Stories” (2003) he landed a great success in Cannes and was awarded the European Distribution Prize. The 2005 film “Factotum” starring Matt Dillon, for which he co-wrote the script, was also internationally successful. Hamer has also received an Oscar nomination for the 2007 film “O’Horten”.
Fridtjof Mjøen (1897-1967)
actor, medic and director. Fridtjof Otto Rudolf Greverus Mjøen was born in Magdeburg in 1897 and studied medicine in Rostock. In 1928 he made his acting debut in “Schneeschuhbanditen” – a German-Norwegian film. In the late 1930s he played with Gustav Gründgens at the Schauspielhaus in Berlin. After the war, he increasingly distinguished himself as a director in Norway. Mjøen died in Oslo in 1967.
Aud Egede Nissen (1893-1974)
silent film actress. Nissen was born in Bergen in 1893 as the daughter of a politician. She made her film debut in 1913 in the Danish film “When Love Speaks”. A year later she had her first role in a German film. She worked with many important directors, including Lubitsch and Murnau. Above all, wicked roles such as the dancer Cara Carozza in Fritz Lang’s 1921 film, “Dr. Mabuse, the Player”, were part of her repertoire. Nissen died in Oslo in 1974.
Liv Ullmann (born 1938)
actress and director. Ullmann was born in Tokyo in 1938 as the daughter of a Norwegian engineer. Back in Norway, Ullmann completed an acting course, which she continued in London. She later worked with the director Ingmar Bergman in the film “Persona”, which made her world famous. At the beginning of the 1990s she began directing herself and received several awards – for example for “Sophie” or “Die Faulosen”.
Nobel Prize Winner
Only those Nobel Laureates who were Norwegian citizens at the time of the award are presented here.
In 2014 there were two Norwegian Nobel Prize winners for “Physiology or Medicine” and for “Physics” – the married couple May-Britt and Edvard Moser.
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
|Award winner||Year of award||Reason for the award|
|Fridtjof Nansen(1861-1930)||1922||As the inventor of the Nansen pass for refugees|
|Christian Lous Lange(1869-1938)||1921||For his work as Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union|
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
|Award winner||Year of award||Reason for the award|
|Odd Hassel(1897-1981)||1969||Together with the British Derek HR Barton:For her work in the development of the concept of conformation
and its application in chemistry
Nobel Prize in literature
|Award winner||Year of award||Reason for the award|
|Sigrid Undset(1882-1949)||1928||Mainly for her powerful portrayalsof medieval life in the (Scandinavian) nor|
|Knut Hamsun(1859-1952)||1920||For his monumental work “Blessing of the Earth”|
|Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson(1832-1910)||1903||As a proof of recognition for his noble, great and versatile effectiveness as a poetwho was always distinguished by a unique freshness of inspiration and a rare purity of soul|
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
|Award winner||Year of award||Reason for the award|
|May-Britt Moser(born 1963)||2014||Together with her husband and theBritish-American John O’Keefe
for their outstanding work
in researching the cellular basis
for spatial orientation.
|Edvard Ingjald Moser(born 1962)||2014||Together with his wife and theBritish-American John O’Keefe
for their outstanding work
in researching the cellular basis
for spatial orientation.
Nobel Prize in Economics
|Award winner||Year of award||Reason for the award|
|Finn E. Kydland(born 1943)||2004||Together with the American Edward C. Prescott:For their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics:
The time consistency of economic policy and the driving force of business cycles
|Trygve Magnus Haavelmo(1911-1999)||1989||For his formulation of the probabilistic foundations of econometrics|
|Ragnar AK Frisch(1895-1973)||1969||Together with the Dutchman Jan Tinbergen:For the development and application of dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes|
Simen Agdestein (born 1967)
chess grandmaster and soccer player. Agdestein was born in Asker in 1967. At 15 he won the national chess title, three years later the grandmaster title. He also made it into the national league as a football player. Because of an injury to his knee and the refusal to switch to a foreign team in order to further distinguish himself, Agdestein’s football career ended in 1992. Among other things, he works as a chess teacher.
Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 1990)
chess player and chess grandmaster. Carlsen was born in Tønsberg in 1990 and started playing chess at the age of five. His teacher was his father. Carlsen holds the title of the world’s youngest living chess grandmaster.
Anders Aukland (born 1972)
cross-country skier. Aukland was born in Tønsberg in 1972 and trained at the Norwegian Sport University (NIH). He made his World Cup debut in 1993. He won Olympic gold in 2002 at the Winter Games in Salt Lake City. Aukland also won the gold medal in 2003 at the Nordic World Ski Championships. So far he has recorded six World Cup victories.
Ole Einar Bjørndalen (born 1974)
biathlete. Bjørndalen was born in Drammen in 1974 and is considered one of the most successful athletes of all time. In 1992 he won the Junior World Championships. At the 2002 Winter Olympics, he even won all four biathlon competitions that were available. In 2011 Bjørndalen was honored with the most prestigious award in the ski resort – the Holmenkollen Medal.
Bjørn Dæhlie (born 1967)
cross-country skier. Dæhlie was born in Elverum in 1967 and made his World Cup debut in 1989. In total, he won the World Cup 46 times. Three participations in the Olympic Winter Games earned him eight gold medals. And Dæhlie also won nine gold medals at the Nordic World Ski Championships. He has by far the greatest successes as a cross-country skier since the Olympic Winter Games.
Stein Eriksen (born 1927)
ski racer. Eriksen was born in Oslo in 1927. At the 1952 Winter Olympics in the Norwegian capital, Eriksen won gold in the giant slalom and captured the hearts of spectators by storm. From now on he was the embodiment of the sport due to his special charisma. In any case, he enjoyed the reputation of being the first male skier with a gold medal who did not come from the Alps. Eriksen emigrated to the USA immediately after winning the Olympic Games.
Frode Estil (born 1972)
cross-country skier. Estil was born in Lierne in 1972. He won two Olympic gold and two Olympic silver. At world championships he won four gold, two silver and three bronze medals. Estil was also 2001 Sportsman of the Year in Norway and speaks four languages, including German. In 2007 he was awarded the honorable Holmenkollen Medal.
Ivar Formo (1951-2006)
cross-country skier. He was a four-time Olympic medal winner and won bronze in the 1974 World Cup. In 1975 he was awarded the Holmenkollen Medal. A year later, he was selected as Sportsman of the Year in Norway. Formo tragically drowned on Boxing Day 2006 while ice skating on a lake near Oslo.
Sonja Henie (1912-1969)
figure skater. Henie was born in 1912 in what is now Oslo, the daughter of a fur trader and made her Olympic debut at the age of eleven. She won Olympic gold for her country three times – in 1928, 1932 and 1936. In addition, she won ten world championships as an individual runner and six European championship victories. After her sports career, she devoted herself to film. Henie died on a plane to Paris in 1969.
Tor Arne Hetland (born 1974)
cross-country skier. Hetland was born in Stavanger in 1974 and made his debut in 1990. At the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, he won gold as a sprinter, four years later in Turin he won silver with his team. In the course of his career, which he ended in 2009, he won gold three times at the Nordic World Ski Championships. There were also eleven World Cup victories.
Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset (born 1971)
cross-country skier. Hjelmeset was born in Sandane in 1971. As a master of the classic running style, he won the 2002 Olympic bronze in Salt Lake City. He won Olympic silver in Vancouver in 2010 at 4 x 10 km. Hjelmeset has so far recorded eight World Cup victories and five gold medals at the Nordic World Ski Championships. In 2007 he was presented with the Holmenkollen Medal for his services.
Roar Ljøkelsøy (born 1976)
ski jumper. Ljøkelsøy was born in Orkdal in 1976 and started ski jumping at the age of nine. In 1993 he made his debut in the World Cup. He won two Olympic bronze medals at the Winter Games in Turin. At the Ski Flying World Championships in 2004 and 2006, Ljøkelsøy received gold for his achievements. After his resignation in 2010, he became an ambassador for athletes in the organization “Right to Play”.
Hilde Gjermundshaug Pedersen (born 1964)
cross-country skier. Pedersen was born in Hamar in 1964. At the 2002 Winter Olympics she won silver in the relay, and in 2006 she won bronze in the classic 10 km run. Pedersen also won two gold medals at the 2005 World Cup in Oberstdorf and one gold medal at the 1997 World Cup. In the mid-forties, she retired as a cross-country skier.
Liv Grete Poirée (born 1974)
biathlete. Poirée, née Skjelbreid, was born in Bergen in 1974. Her greatest achievement included winning four golds in a single World Cup. That was in 2004 and she was the first female athlete in the world to do it. There were also several Olympic silver and bronze medals in 1998 and 2002. In 2006, she announced her retirement from professional sport.
Bente Skari (born 1972)
cross-country skier. Skari, née Martinsen, was born in Oslo in 1972. She won a total of five Olympic medals, including one gold in the classic 10 km run in Salt Lake City in 2002. She also achieved gold five times at various world championships between 1999 and 2003. This makes her one of the most successful cross-country skiers in the world.
Vibeke Skofterud (born 1980)
cross-country skier. Skofterud was born in 1980 and has been skiing professionally since 1999. At the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, she won the 4×5 km relay race. Skofterud previously won silver at the 2003 World Cup and gold two years later in the relay. She is avowedly homosexual and therefore advocates more openness in sport and in public life.
Kristin Størmer Steira (born 1981)
cross-country skier. Steira was born in Mo i Rana in 1981 and made her debut at the 2002 World Cup. She won gold at the 2005 World Championships in Oberstdorf in the Norwegian 4×5 km relay. At the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Steira also won the 4×5 km relay. Their club is called IL Forsøk.
Andreas Thorkildsen (born 1982)
javelin thrower. Thorkildsen was born in Kristiansand in 1982 and was voted Sportsman of the Year in Norway in 2004 and 2008. He won several times for his country. Among other things, he won gold at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens and at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. A year later, he won the world title at the World Cup in Berlin with a width of 89.59 m.
Vegard Ulvang (born 1963)
cross-country skier. Ulvang was born in Kirkenes in 1963. He has six Olympic medals, three of which are gold. At the Nordic World Ski Championships in 1991 and 1993, he also brought home victory in the relay. In 1991 Ulvang was awarded the prestigious Holmenkollen Medal and in 1992 he was named Sportsman of the Year in Norway. Furthermore, he can call nine World Cup victories his own. In 1997 Ulvang announced the end of his professional career.
Axel Paulsen (1855-1938)
figure skater and inventor of the figure skating “Axel”. Paulsen was born in 1855 in what is now Oslo. He held the title of Champion of the World when he was in his early thirties. One of the most complicated jumps in figure skating is named after Paulsen. He also competed as a speed skater. Paulsen died in 1938.
Molla Mallory (1893-1959)
tennis player. Mallory, née Bjurstedt, was born in Oslo in 1893. She won eight Norwegian championship titles and one Olympic bronze in tennis. During her life in America, Mallory continued to win. She won record and exemplary the American tennis championships (today’s title: US Open) eight times, namely from 1915 to 1922 and again in 1926. Mallory died in Stockholm in 1959.
Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829)
mathematician. Abel was born on the Norwegian island of Finnøy in 1802 and studied at the University of what is now Oslo. He excelled especially in analysis (Abelian partial summation) and helped found group theory. In his honor, the Norwegian government has been awarding the 6 million crown Abel Prize for exceptional scientific work in mathematics since 2003. Abel died in Froland in 1829.
Roald Engebreth Gravning Amundsen (1872-1928)
polar explorer. Amundsen was born in what is now Fredrikstad in 1872 and studied languages, zoology and philosophy in Kristiania. He was the first person to reach the South Pole on December 14, 1911. His North Pole expedition is also legendary. Accordingly, it is assumed that he was the first there too. Amundsen died on June 18, 1928 near the Arctic Bear Island while trying to find and rescue the Italian Umberto Nobile – with whom he had flown over the North Pole in an airship in 1926 – with the help of a small plane.
Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (1867-1917)
physicist. Birkeland was born in Kristiania in 1867, where he later also studied. After several stays abroad, he was the first to write a scientific analysis of the Northern Lights phenomenon in 1896. Birkeland’s research and findings as well as 59 patents were the reason for seven Nobel Prize nominations. Birkeland died in Tokyo in 1917. An asteroid has been named after him; he did not receive the Nobel Prize.
Cato Maximilian Guldberg (1836-1902)
mathematician and chemist. Guldberg was born in 1836 in what is now Oslo. He went down in history through the joint formulation of the law of mass action in 1867 together with his brother-in-law Peter Waage. Guldberg worked for many years at Oslo University. The Guldberg rule from 1890 also goes back to him. The famous Norwegian mathematician and chemist Cato Maximilian Guldberg died in Oslo in 1902.
Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718-1773)
botanist, mycologist, ornithologist and zoologist. Gunnerus was born in Christiania in 1718. He studied in Copenhagen, Halle and Jena. He later taught as a theology professor at Copenhagen University. As a botanist he created the two-volume work “Flora Norvegica”. There is a genus of plants named after him (Gunnera). The scientist also researched northern lights and made important findings for posterity. Gunnerus died in Kristiansund in 1773.
Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912)
doctor, zoologist, discoverer of the leprosy pathogen. Hansen was born in Bergen in 1841 and studied in Oslo. Back in Bergen, he worked at the Institute for Leprosy Research, where he discovered the causative agent of the disease in 1873 and wrote about it. Hansen contracted syphilis in 1860 and died in 1912 in Florø as a result of the disease. Today there is a medical museum named after him in Bergen.
Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002)
anthropologist, botanist, ethnologist, geologist and zoologist. Heyerdahl was born in Larvik in 1914 and studied in Oslo. In the course of his life he took part in many expeditions, for example to Peru, Bolivia, the Galápagos Islands and Russia. He achieved fame in 1947 with the Kon-Tiki expedition, during which he covered 8,000 km across the ocean on a raft. Heyerdahl died in 2002 in Andora, Italy. His adventure and research life was filmed several times and transformed into literature.
Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930)
philanthropist, polar researcher, politician and zoologist. Nansen was born in Store Frøen in 1861 and later studied zoology at the University of what is now Oslo. He took part in various deep-sea expeditions, was a professor at the university where he had already completed his studies and later devoted himself increasingly to politics. As a statesman, among other things, he held the position of League of Nations Commissioner. In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for campaigning for international refugee aid. Nansen died in Lysaker in 1930.
Anathon Aall (1867-1943)
philosopher. Aall was born in Nesseby in 1867 and later studied philosophy and theology in Norway’s capital. He completed further studies in Berlin and Paris, among others. Aall published several philosophical writings and works on the history of ideas as well as an essay on the subject “On the effect of the repetition of an element while showing several characters at the same time”. He taught as professor and dean at the University of Oslo until his death in 1943.
Anders Behring Breivik (1979)
right-wing extremist and avowed perpetrator of two terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011. Breivik was born in Oslo in 1979, where he attended several schools. He later earned his money with various companies, for example online trading, but most of them went bankrupt. On July 22, 2011, the member of an Oslo sports shooting club carried out two attacks in Oslo and on the island of Utøya, killing a total of 77 people. Breivik is an avowed anti-Islamist and strict right-wing extremist, who claims to have planned his act for 15 years.
On August 24, 2012, Breivik was declared sane by the Oslo District Court, contrary to the prosecution’s request, and sentenced to 21 years’ imprisonment with subsequent preventive detention – it is the highest sentence known in Norwegian criminal law.
Henrik Bull (1864-1953)
Architect. Bull was born in Christiania (Oslo) in 1864 as the son of an urban planner. He studied in Oslo and Berlin and worked as an architect from 1888. His works include churches, but also several important Oslo buildings such as the National Theater. Bull also designed Edvard Grieg’s famous winter atelier in Ekely. This was followed by furnishings and even a chocolate bar called “Lohengrin” for the Osler company Freia. Bull died in Oslo in 1953.
Johan Fjeldsted Dahl (1807-1877)
publisher and bookseller. Dahl was born in Copenhagen in 1807 and entered important cultural circles early on. At first he worked as an employee in the book trade, but in 1832 he went into business for himself. Dahl embodied the most important Norwegian bookseller of the 19th century in the 1830s and 1840s, because he was the place where everything that had a reputation in Oslo met. As a publisher, he particularly focused on scientific books. He was a pioneer in the Norwegian publishing industry. Dahl died in what is now Oslo in 1877.
Ole-Johan Dahl (1931-2002)
computer scientist. Dahl was born in 1931 in Mandal into a family of seafarers and studied numerical mathematics at the University of Oslo. In the course of his life, the expert in programming languages worked, among other things, as research director of the Norwegian Computing Center and as Norway’s first computer science professor at Oslo University. In 2001 he received the Turing Prize. Further awards followed, for example by the Norwegian king. Dahl died in Asker in 2002.
Bernt Ivar Eidsvig – religious name Markus (born 1953)
Bishop of the Diocese of Oslo, theologian, Catholic priest. Eidsvig was born in Rjuken in 1953 and later studied theology in Oslo. At the beginning of the 1980s he was ordained a priest and was initially, among other things, the pastor of Bergen. Since 1991 Eidsvig has had the religious name Markus, which was given to him in Austria. Pope Benedict XVI personally appointed him Catholic Bishop of Oslo in 2005.
Sverre Fehn (1924-2009)
Architect. Fehn was born in Kongsberg in 1924 and later studied architecture at the University of Oslo. His name became known worldwide through the construction of the Norwegian pavilion at the 1958 World Exhibition in Brussels. The modernist also designed the Nordic pavilion at the Venice Biennale between 1958 and 1962. In 1997 he received the most prestigious architecture prize in the world, the Pritzker Prize. Fehn died in Oslo in 2009.
Helge Ingstad (1899-2001)
archaeologist and adventurer. Ingstad was born in Meråker in 1899 and later studied law. After a few years of legal work he moved to Canada as a trapper, where he became famous for his bestseller “My Life in the Wilderness” (1931) and Ingstad Creek was named after him. The temporary governor of Greenland also gained worldwide fame through the discovery of Viking settlements in L’Anse aux Meadows, Canada. Ingstad died in Oslo in 2001.
Gisle Johnson (1822-1894)
theologian. Johnson was born in Fredrikshald in 1822. He studied at the University of what is now Oslo, Berlin and Leipzig. From 1860 he taught as a theology professor at his home university. His modern approach to the Bible, but in particular his engagement with Luther, his life and the time of the Reformation made him one of the most influential Norwegian theologians in the 19th century. He also co-founded the Inner Mission in Norway. Johnson died in Nøtterøy in 1894.
Eva Joly (1943)
lawyer and member of the European Council. Joly was born in Oslo in 1943 and later studied French at the university there. In Paris she passed a law exam and doctorate. Joly was responsible for putting together an anti-corruption commission in Norway as an advisor to the Ministry of Justice and the police. Her name became internationally known when she exposed the so-called Elf-Aquitaine-Leuna affair. Reader’s Digests voted her European of the Year in 2002. Joly has been in the European Parliament since 2009.
Kristen Nygaard (1926-2002)
computer scientist. Nygaard was born in Oslo in 1926, where he later studied mathematics. As head of the Computing Office, he was, among other things, the supervisor of Ole-Johan Dahl, with whom he often worked afterwards. Together they received the ACM Turing Award, known as the Nobel Prize in Computer Science, in 2002. Nygaard, honorary doctorate from several universities, went down in history as a pioneer in programming languages. He died in Oslo in 2002.
Erik the Red (around 950-1003)
explorer, conqueror, seafarer. Erik “the Red” Thorvaldsson was born around 950 in Jæren. The family went into hiding in Iceland after their father was guilty of murder. Erik also later murdered and was expelled from Iceland. He fled to Greenland, but returned a few years later to mobilize Icelanders to build settlements in Greenland (these survived 5 centuries). Everything happened by sea at the time. Erik the Red embodies the image of the Viking like no other. He died of an epidemic in Brattahlíð, Greenland, in 1003.
Erik Andreas Rotheim (1898-1938)
inventor and chemical engineer. Rotheim was born in what is now Oslo in 1898 and later studied engineering in Switzerland. Back in Norway, he started his own company. He invented the spray can in 1926 and acquired patents in several countries. This invention made him famous. Rotheim died in Oslo in 1938.
Eilert Sundt (1817-1875)
sociological pioneer, ethnologist and theologian. Sundt was born in Farsund in 1817 and later studied theology in what is now Oslo. Sundt founded the Society for the Promotion of Popular Education in 1850. He is considered to be the pioneer of so-called oral history in the field of sociology in Norway. He was also a supporter of Norwegian national romanticism and the Enlightenment. Sundt died in Eidsvoll in 1875.
Johan Vaaler (1866-1910)
inventor of the paper clip. Vaaler was born near Oslo in 1866 and later studied mathematics and physics. He then worked in a patent office in Oslo. In 1899, Vaaler invented the paper clip, received the imperial patent from Germany and made one of Norway’s most important inventions. Vaaler died in 1910 in what is now Oslo.
The polar hare (Lepus arcticus) belongs to the genus of the real hare in the family of the hare (Leporidae) and in the order of the hare-like (Lagomorpha). Arctic hares reach a length between 55 and 65 cm and weigh between 2.5 and 6 kg. Their front paws, in particular, are relatively long and curved, making it possible to dig for plants even under hard snow. In addition, the animals have pronounced incisors with which they can also look for food.
The crepuscular and nocturnal animals are extraordinarily fast with a speed of up to approx. 60 km/h and can therefore mostly escape their enemies – the weasels, arctic foxes, snow owls, peregrine falcons and hawks. Most of the victims are therefore more likely to be the young. Their diet consists of mosses, lichens, buds, flowers, berries and grasses, and it has been observed that they even eat meat from hunters’ traps every now and then. Arctic hares can be seen particularly in Finnmark, and the animals also live in the arctic part of Canada and parts of Greenland. Finnmark was transferred to the province of Troms og Finnmark on January 1, 2020. Incidentally, it belongs to the same genus as the brown hare (Lepus europaeus)
The arctic fox ((Vulpes lagopus) belongs to the tribe of real foxes ((Vulpini) in the family of dogs (Canidae). The head-trunk length is between 35 and 60 cm, with a shoulder height of about 30 cm. The tail is with Approximately 35 cm long. In summer the head, back, tail and legs are brown, the flanks and belly light beige. This color provides excellent camouflage during the summer months on the tundra.
The summer fur of all arctic foxes is similar, but winter fur comes in two very different colors, a white and a blue variant. The white fox wears a pure white fur in winter, while the colors of the blue fox fur vary from light gray to dark blue. There are eight subspecies of the type of animal. The animals are found north of the tree line in Northern Europe (Scandinavia, Spitsbergen, Iceland), Northern Russia (Siberia), Northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. They mainly live there on the tundra, but they have even been seen on the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean. His prey include lemmings and the local mice. Also here breeding birds and theirs
In Dovrefjell there are musk oxen that came to Norway with the help of humans from Greenland. They have their ancestors in the highlands of Central Asia and, in addition to northeast Greenland and Norway, are also native to Canada. The herd animal is an even-toed ungulate and has a buffalo-like appearance.
The males are up to 2.50 m long, 1.45 m high and weigh between 300 and 400 kg. The females are slightly smaller and lighter. The horns pointing backwards are found in both sexes. A typical characteristic is the hump over the shoulder and a pronounced mane. And even if they don’t look like it, musk ox are relatives of goats or sheep. A thick pad of fat protects the animals from the cold.
deer Red deer are more likely to be found in the coastal areas. The red deer (Cervus elaphus) belongs to the genus of the noble deer (Cervus) in the deer family (Cervidae). The animals have a shoulder height of up to 150 cm and a head-trunk length between 170 to 250 cm. The most striking sign of the red deer is the wide spreading and much branched antlers of the male.
The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) belongs to the deer family. With a shoulder height of over 70 cm and – depending on gender – a head-trunk length between 100 and 140 cm – with a weight between 15 and 30 kg.
A detailed description of the deer can be found at Goruma here >>>
The most widespread and probably the best-known animal in Norway is the elk (Alces alces), which belongs to the deer family (Cevidae) and can be seen in the forests, but also on roads in the south and east of Norway. Their long legs are striking. The animals reach a head-trunk length of up to 3 m, with a shoulder height of over 2 m. Their weight can be over 500 kg. The color of the trunk, the upper parts of the legs, the neck and the head varies between red-brown and black-brown. The males are the bull elk and the female elk.
Their food is mainly very high-energy plants, such as young tree shoots and aquatic plants, as fresh leaves are much richer in protein and minerals than grass. They prefer poplar, birch and willow trees. Aquatic plants may also be eaten with pleasure because of their high sodium content. Moose are the only deer that can graze underwater. In autumn and winter they also eat blueberry twigs, common heather and young pine shoots. During the rut, the bulls – like the red deer for example – hardly consume any food and therefore lose a lot of weight during this time. A detailed and illustrated representation of the elk can be found at Goruma here >>>
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) occurs more in the south of Norway. The animals reach a head-trunk length between 80-90 cm, with a shoulder height of 35-45 cm and can weigh up to 10 kg. Its tail becomes 45-50 cm long. A detailed and illustrated representation of the red fox can be found at Goruma here >>>
Marten, otters, badgers
In the south of the country live red foxes, martens, otters and badgers.
A specialty is wolverine, which you can mainly find in the northern Norwegian fell regions between Børgefjell and Finnmark.
However, there are also individual animals in the south of Norway. He belongs to the marten family and is in this with a length of 1 m and a weight of max. 35 kg the largest and heaviest representative.
The shy mountain animal has a shaggy, dark brown fur, a long bushy tail and large paws that make it much easier for him to walk through the snow.
Wolverines live solitary and prefer to stay near water. In addition to carrion, its diet also includes berries and rodents.
It doesn’t get its name because of its eating habits, but in all probability owes it to a translation error.
In Norwegian, “fjeldfross” means something like “mountain cat”.
The population of beavers (Castor fiber) has now recovered well in the country after the rodent was almost extinct in Norway. Its body length is 90 to 110 cm and its weight is between 20 and 30 kg, with the female being on average slightly heavier than the male. A detailed description of the beaver can be found at Goruma here >>>
In the north of the country there are also reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), which belong to the deer family. The animals are half-tamed by the seeds. The reindeer is about 2 m long with a shoulder height of about 1.25 m. Clothing is made from its very dense fur, which consists of air-filled hair. He also serves as a meat supplier.
The reindeer is the only species of deer in which both males and females have antlers. Its main diet includes lichens, which it exposes from the snow with its wide hooves. But they also eat leaves, bark and grass. In addition to Norway, the animals are also found in Greenland in the north of the USA and in the tundras of northern Eurasia and Canada.
Bears, lynxes, wolves
Unfortunately, there are only a few bears, lynxes and wolves left in Norway. You can get an illustrated description of the animals by clicking on one of the three links.
Ermines and lemmings are also common. Birds such as the hawk sku, buzzard, white-tailed eagle and the snowy owl benefit from the occurrence of these small mammals, which are among their prey.
The adder is the only poisonous animal in Norway. However, it occurs here relatively frequently. Although a bite is usually not fatal and has no long-term effects, it can still lead to significant health problems.
However, children can also die from a bite. Animals such as dogs are also at risk.
Kittiwakes, guillemots, alks, cormorants and other seagull species frolic on the coast of Norway. They all provide the
basic food for the sea eagle. The 30 cm large puffin is the heraldic bird of Værøys and can be found mainly on grassy slopes. However, it has little in common with the parrots, but belongs to the family of the alken. The name comes from the brightly colored, parrot-like beak, while the bird is colored black and white. It is interesting that the clutch of beautiful and cute birds consists of just one egg.
Other common birds are cranes, whooper swans, loons, geese and ducks. Sandpipers, meadow pipits and wheatears are also common in swampy areas. Tundra birds are ear larks, snow bunting, Odin’s chickens, and ringed plovers. In addition to the sea eagle, the birds of prey also include the golden eagle, the osprey and the hunting falcon. And of course numerous songbirds, crows and pigeons live here.
The snowy owl is a rarity because it only breeds in the arctic regions. The crepuscular and nocturnal owl grows to 59 – 64 cm tall and has a wingspan of 150 – 160 cm, with the females being slightly larger than the males. They can be easily distinguished from the snow-white males by their speckled plumage. It prefers open terrain as a habitat, where it hunts for lemmings and other voles. The snowy owl is the only one capable of storing body fat.
Occasionally whales and dolphins can be seen not far from the coast. Seals have made themselves comfortable in some fjords. The sea fish are particularly valuable for the Norwegians and form an important source of income. Common sea fish are the herring, halibut, cod, cod and mackerel. Other fish that are also abundant are salmon, pike, carp and trout. The salmon are now bred in large salmon farms (aquaculture) in the fjords
The associated damage is viewed very critically by environmentalists, as the animals pollute the fjords with their excrement. Parasitic infestation in fish has also become a major problem.
Deciduous trees such as oak, alder, linden, elm and maple trees predominate on the south coast of Norway and in central Norway.
Birch, aspens and the rare dwarf birch grow further north. The most widespread trees are still conifers such as firs and pines, but also spruce, pine and yew trees.
The mountain ash is also native to West Asia and can reach a height of up to 1 m. It is also known under the names rowan, quitsche, blackberry or blackberry.
It owes its name to its orange- to red-colored fruits, which birds like to eat, especially Krammet birds and juniper thrushes. Contrary to popular belief, the fruits are not poisonous for humans, but they are inedible because their taste is determined by malic acid and tannins.
Most of the trees grow in the south-east of the country and in the area of the south-western fjord. You can also find hazelnut trees here.
In addition to mushrooms, blueberries and lingonberries, cloudberries, which are little known outside of Scandinavia, thrive in the forest.
This plant, which is also often found in bog areas, becomes 10-25 cm high and first has red and later orange-yellow fruits.
The cloudberries are mostly processed into jam. They also grow in northern Asia as well as northern North America.
Despite its high toxicity, monkshood is also used in medicine and homeopathy – in a safe dose. It is used for rheumatism, pleurisy and nerve pain, as well as homeopathically as a tincture for colds, pneumonia and sciatica.
The leaves of the cloudberry are used for diarrhea, and because of the steroid diosgenin contained in the plant, also for gout and rheumatism. The cloudberry also has a very high vitamin C content.
The liverwort from the buttercup family is one of the earliest plants to flower in spring, as it already flowers in May. It becomes about 15 cm high, has trilobed leaves and purple petals. It grows on lime-rich, stony forest soils and prefers sunny locations. The fresh plant contains protoanemonin, which is very irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. This leads to redness, itching and blistering.
The rare holly from the holly family is an evergreen shrub or tree that can reach a height of 6 m and live up to 300 years. Other names are Christ thorn, Stechhülse, Stecheiche and palm thorn.
It is named after its leathery and thorny toothed leaves, which are brightly colored on the underside and dark green on the upper side. It blooms with inconspicuous small white flowers between May and June, so that the fruits ripen in autumn. These are first green, later coral red. Both the leaves and the fruit are poisonous, and children in particular should be careful as a dose of 20-30 berries is considered fatal to them. The symptoms of poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea and drowsiness.
There are different types of monkshood, with the type found in Norway being the Nordic monkshood.
All species are very poisonous, so that the monkshood is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe. It is 1 to 2 m high and has light purple flowers that are arranged in dense clusters. The poisonous alkaloid aconitine is found in all parts of the plant, but the roots are particularly enriched with the poison. Just a few grams of it are fatal for an adult.
What is special is that the poison can also be absorbed through the skin, where it then has a local anesthetic effect. After an initial tingling sensation in the fingers and toes, sweats, vomiting and diarrhea occur. Eventually death occurs from cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. In the past, monkshood poison was used as an arrow poison and quite often in poisonous murders.
Apart from the toxicity, the monkshood must not be picked because it is strictly protected.
Frost-sensitive plants such as the spring squill and the gray bell heather grow on the west coast.
Plants such as foxglove and poisonous holly thrive in northern Norway and the fjords.
Cotton grass is also typical of the northern heathland. In the north-east of the country one can encounter the liverwort and the highly poisonous monkshood.
The glacier buttercup can be found in the fell up to a height of 2,370 m, which is a record for flowering plants in Europe.
Shrub and grass heaths determine the vegetation on the fell plateaus above the birch forest. Dwarf shrub heaths eventually lead to the upper alpine zone, where mosses, lichens and a few types of willow predominate.
Numerous plants have come to Norway from Siberia. Examples are the Siberian chives, the magnificent carnation and the white Germer.