Paraguay: Political System
According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, Paraguay has been a presidential republic since 1992. “Paz y justicia” is the country’s motto and refers to the historically fought for federal statehood (unity) and the right to self-determination (freedom). See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Paraguay politics, and acronyms as well.
The president is the head of the state and in personal union also the head of government. It is elected directly by the people every five years. Active military personnel will not be allowed to run for president. The number of terms is limited to one. The president, and in his absence the ex-president, and eleven ministers exercise the executive powers of the country. The President appoints the members of his cabinet and the chief judges. The President is also the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Together they make up the country’s legislature. The MPs are directly elected by the people and have a term of five years. Proportional voting takes place at the same time as the presidential election. Congress oversees the observance of the Constitution and the laws, enacts new regulations, laws, and electoral laws.
The judiciary is exercised by the Supreme Court. There are also courts of appeal for civil, commercial, criminal and labor law as well as the court of auditors. The administration of justice consists of the attorney general, public prosecutors, tax officials and other lower level judges.
The official name of the country is:
|República del Paraguay|
The national anthem of Paraguay was introduced in 1846. The text is by Francisco Esteban Acuña de Figueroa, the music by Francisco José Debali. They also wrote the national anthem of Uruquay.
The 1st stanza in Spanish
|A los pueblos de América in fausto,Tres centurias un cetro oprimió,
Más un día soberbia surgiendo,
Basta !, dijo y el cetro rompió.
Nuestros padres lidiando grandiosos,
Ilustraron su gloria marcial;
Y trozada la augusta diadema,
Enalzaron el gorro triunfal,
Y trozada la augusta diadema,
Enalzaron el gorro triunfal.Refrain
Paraguayos, República o muerte!
Nuestro brío nos dío libertad;
Ni opresores, ni siervos, alientan,
Donde reinan unión, e igualdad.
Ni opresores, ni siervos, alientan,
Donde reinan unión e igualdad,
unión e igualdad, unión e igualdad.Nueva Roma, la Patria ostentará
Dos caudillos de nombre y valer,
Que rivales, cual Rómulo y Remo, dividieron
gobierno y poder…
Largos años, cual Febo entre nubes
Viose oculta la perla del Sud,
Hoy un héroe grandioso aparece
realzando y virtud…The refrain in the English translation
The flag of Paraguay was officially introduced on November 27, 1842. Flag Day (Día de la Bandera) is celebrated on August 14th. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag have the following meanings: red: justice, white: peace and blue: freedom.
The flag of Paraguay has a peculiarity in that it has a different front and back. On the front is the national coat of arms and on the back is a seated yellow lion in front of a brown pole with a red Jacobin cap.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Paraguay.
Paraguay: People you know
- Nelson Valdez (born November 28, 1983), plays in the Bundesliga for Werder Bremen
- Julio Dos Santos (born May 7, 1983) plays in the Bundesliga for Bayern
- Roque Santa Cruz (born November 28, 1983), plays in the Bundesliga with FC Bayern
Politicians and rulers
- José Gaspar Rodríguez (1766-1840), President from 1814-1816, President with dictatorial powers from 1816-1840
- Carlos Antonio Lopez (1792 – 1862), often referred to as “Don Carlos”, was the father of Francisco Solano Lopez and President from 1844 – 1862
- Francisco Solano Lopez (1827-1870), President from 1862-1870, also known as Mariscal Francisco Solano Lopez
- Alfredo Stoessner (1913-2006), President from 1954-1989
- Andres Rodriguez (1923-1997), President from 1989-1993
- Carlos Wasmosi Montez (born 1938), President from 1993-1998
- Raúl Cubas Grau (born 1943), President from 1998-1999
- Luis Ángel González Macchi (born 1947), President from 1999-2003.
- Nicanor Duarte Frutos (born 1956), President since 2003.
- Fernando Lugo (born 1951), he was a Roman Catholic bishop in San Pedro until 2006, after which he went into politics. Since 1947 on April 20, 2008, he was the first election winner for the presidency who does not belong to the right-wing conservative Colorado party.
Writer and poet
- Augusto Rosa Basos, b. 1917: The most important contemporary writer in Paraguay. During the Stroessner era, he lived in exile in France, where he wrote important novels and short stories. His award-winning novel “Menschensohn”, the novella “Unter dem Mangobaum” and other stories have been translated into German. His most outstanding work is his historical reflection on the dictator Francia (“I, the Almighty”). In April 1990 Rosa Bastos was awarded the Cervantes Prize by the Spanish King Juan for his literary work.
- Alejandro Guanes
- Ignacio Alberto Pana
- Juan E. O’Leary: Journalist who, in his work “Historia de la Guerra de la Triple Alianza”, pays homage to the Paraguayan President Lopez, who plunged the country into war; O’Leary was director of the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes and later consul and foreign minister
- Ortiz Guerrero (1897-1933), the country’s first poet to write prose works in the Guariní language
The big cats like the jaguar and the puma live in Paraguay, as in other South and Central American countries, very withdrawn and in regions that are as deserted as possible. Both animal species are loners and eman needs a lot of luck and patience to see them in freedom.
The jaguars (Panthera onco) are the largest big cats on the American continent.
But since they are still hunted for their beautiful fur and their habitat is getting smaller and smaller, their population is endangered.
You can find a detailed, illustrated description of the animal here >>>
The Puma (Puma concolor) has a narrow body up to 130 cm long, a shoulder height of 65 cm and a strong, around 70 cm long tail with a black tip. It reaches a weight of 50 to 60 kg, whereby the females are about a third lighter. The animals living in the regions of the equator tend to be smaller than those in the far north or south.
You can find a detailed description of the animal at Goruma here >>
The genus of the tapirs (Tapirus) have – depending on the species – a head-trunk length of 100 to 250 cm, a body height of 75 to 120 cm and a weight of 110 to 320 kg.
The different kinds of animals live both in the Flat land as well as at heights up to about 3,600 m.
They are loners and feed mainly on leaves, fruits, twigs and other parts of plants. Their existence is considered threatened, which is particularly due to the destruction of their habitats.
There are five species of the genus Tapir (Tapirus), with the lowland, mountain and Kabomani tapir occurring in South America.
The Central American tapir can be found in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. The saddleback tapir, on the other hand, is only found in Southeast Asia. The animals are relatively common in Paraguay.
You can find a detailed description of the animal at Goruma here >>
coati (Nasua), also referred to as trunk bears, a genus of the family of the small bear (Procyonidae). They got their name because of their trunk-like, elongated snout with the movable nose. Their head-torso lengths range from 45 to 70 cm, while their yellow- and brown-banded tail is between 40 and 70 cm long. Your shoulder height is about 30 cm. Their weight is between 3.5 to 6 kg. Usually the males are larger than the females. The coat of the Nelson coati is short and silky. The hair of the other two types is longer and rather coarse.
The color of the back ranges from a light brown to reddish and even black. On the belly, they range in color from yellowish to dark brown, with the muzzle, chin and throat usually whitish, while the feet are black.
With their snouts, they search the ground, crevices and cavities for food, which consists mainly of fruit. But neither do they disdain invertebrates and even larger rodents.
You can find a detailed description of the animal at Goruma here >> Pampas
cats Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and the pampas cats (Leopardus colocolo) – also known as Colocolo – have their distribution area, as the name suggests, in the country’s pampas
The great anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is, as its name suggests, the largest member of its family. He is about 1.30 m long and 50 kg heavy. Its tail is about 90 cm long and has 40 cm long bristles. The completely toothless anteater feeds on termites and ants by breaking up their mounds with the pickaxe-like claws of its forelegs and picking up the insects with its long, worm-like tongue covered with a sticky coating. It is not tied to a particular location, but lives mainly in bush-lined savannahs and in light forest areas. In Paraguay it is at home in the Defensores del Chaco National Park. Because of its skin, which is well suited as leather for shoes, it was hunted a lot and is now under international protection.here >>>
The bristle armadillos ((Chaetophractus) are a genus of the family Chlamyphoridae in the order of the armored collateral animals (Cingulata) They inhabit a relatively small area in central South America, namely in southern Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and northern Chile.
Different types of monkeys are represented in Paraguay. They include howler monkeys, spider monkeys or capuchin monkeys
Reptiles and amphibians – without poisonous snakes
The largest reptiles in Paraguay are the anaconda and the caimans, which can be found on rivers or swamps. Other reptiles found are iguanas, especially the green iguana. The river banks, ponds and swamps are populated by the nocturnal bullfrog, which is around 20 cm tall and whose courtship calls can be heard from afar.
The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.
The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.
There are six subspecies of the snake. A detailed description of the snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
The yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) is up to approx. 4 m in length – with a weight of approx. 40 kg – somewhat smaller than the large anaconda. You can find a detailed description of the yellow anaconda at Goruma here >>>
The large anaconda (Eunectes) can in rare cases be over 9 m long and is therefore the largest snake in the world alongside the reticulated python. Your prey is entwined and strangled or crushed by the contraction of the muscles. It can also be life-threatening for humans. There are four types of the genus anaconda:
– Eunectes beniensis (Beni anaconda)
– Eunectes deschauenseei (De-Schauensee anaconda)
– Eunectes murinus (large anaconda)
– Eunectes notaeus (yellow anaconda)
Find a detailed description of the large anaconda At Goruma here >>>
The green iguana (Iguana iguana) belongs to the family of the iguanas (Iguanidae) and to the genus Iguana. The animals reach a head-trunk length up to about 50 cm, together with the tail it becomes about 2 m long.
Despite its name, the animal is not completely green, but rather greyish-green or they have a strong brown influence. The diurnal animal lives mainly in trees, but is also a good swimmer. Its diet is purely vegetarian and consists mainly of leaves.
Its meat is offered as “green chicken” because it is reminiscent of chicken. A well-known dish is the Sopa de Garrobo.
A detailed description of the green iguana can be found at Goruma here >>>
– General information about iguanas
Iguanas can be found from the south of the USA to Paraguay, on the Caribbean Islands, the Galápagos Islands and the Fiji Islands in the South Pacific.The
different species of the animals reach a length of only around 15 cm to 2 m, with the tail is often longer than the body. Scale combs or dewlaps are often found on their heads.
Their way of life is quite different, some genera live on the ground (Dipsosaurus, Cyclura), others on trees (Iguana, Brachylophus) or on rocks (Sauromalus, Ctenosaura, Conolophus, Amblyrhynchus)
live in the country’s rivers.
The caimans (Caimaninae) are a subfamily of the family of the alligators (Alligatoridae. Caimans occur, with the exception of the crocodile caiman, whose distribution area extends to Central America, only in South America. Since caimans have a slower metabolism than the “real crocodiles”) they are almost twice as old at 100 years of age. Their preferred habitat are lakes, swamps and rivers.
The local crocodile
caiman reaches a maximum length of 3 m and has the following subspecies: – Common crocodilus crocodilus
– Northern crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus fuscus)
– Nicaraguan crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus chiapasius)
– Rio Apaporis crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis) You can find
a detailed description of the crocodile caiman at Goruma here >>>
Venomous snakes – coral snakes
This snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter), with its black and white or yellow and red rings, occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.
They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America – with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions. They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the torso and their tail is short. The nocturnal snakes usually live hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles – more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.
Bites are extremely rare in humans. However, they have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between the nerves and between the nerves and muscles (synapses). In addition, numerous species of snake have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected.
Mesopotamian coral snake
The Mesopotamian coral snake (Micrurus baliocoryphus) is found in Argentina (Entre Rios, Correintes, South-West Misiones) and in Paraguay
This snake is found in Uruguay, Brazil and the northeast of Argentina.
There are no subspecies of the snake
Painted coral snake
This coral snake (Micrurus corallinus) is found in parts of Brazil, in the northeast of Argentina and in Paraguay. This species of snake has no subspecies.
Silvas Coral Snake
The Silvas Coral Snake (Micrurus silviae) is found in Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) as well as in Paraguay. This species of snake has no subspecies.
Southern Coral Snake
There are two species called Southern Coral Snake. This southern coral snake (Micrurus pyrrhocryptus) is widespread in the south-west of Brazil (Mato Grosso), in the west and south-west of Bolivia, in the north of Argentina and in Paraguay. There are no subspecies of this type of snake.
Southern Coral Snake
There are two species called Southern Coral Snake. This southern coral snake (Micrurus frontalis) can be found in Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), in the northeast of Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones) and in Paraguay. There are no subspecies of this type of snake.
Venomous snakes – lance vipers
The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae).
The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies. The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.
Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.
It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in medical diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.
The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.
Brazilian lance viper (Bothrops moojeni)
This snake is found in Argentina (Misiones) Brazil ((Piaui, Parana, Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goias, Maranhao and Bahia) in Bolivia and Paraguay.
From the snake there are no subspecies
Chaco lance viper (Bothrops diporus)
The snake is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. There are no subspecies of the snake.
Crescent lance viper (Bothrops alternatus)
The snake is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. There are no subspecies of the snake
Jararaca Lance Viper (Bothrops jararaca)
The snake occurs in Argentina (Misiones) Brazil (South Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso) as well as in northeast Paraguay before
There are no subspecies of the snake. A detailed description of the snake can be found here >>>
Jararacussu lance viper (Bothrops jararacussu)
The snake occurs in Argentina (Misiones), southern Bolivia, Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia) and in Paraguay. There are no subspecies of the snake
Matogrossa Lance Viper (Bothrops matogrossensis)
The snake occurs in Argentina (Salta), Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas, Rondonia, Goias, Tocantins, São Paulo), Paraguay and Peru. There are no subspecies of the snake.
Black- faced lance viper (Bothrops pauloensis)
The snake occurs in Brazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná) as well as in Bolivia and Paraguay. There are no subspecies of the snake
More poisonous animals
The genus of the banana spiders (Phoneutria) comprises eight different species, all of which are very aggressive and extremely poisonous. They are also known as the Brazilian wandering spiders. The most dangerous species is Phoneutria nigriventer. This occurs only in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
The females are between 30 and 50 mm in size, while the males are somewhat smaller with a maximum of 40 mm. The basic color is dark brown with light stripes.
Their venom can kill a healthy adult human in a matter of hours. However, the spider does not inject venom with every bite. There is also a counter serum. Most spider bite accidents occur in the household during the day.
The spider species live in South America, from Ecuador to northern Argentina. However, the main distribution area of the spiders is Brazil.
Every now and then individual spiders made their way to Europe in banana boxes, where they always caused great excitement.
Tarantulas are found almost everywhere in Paraguay. These are actually poisonous, but the poison does not pose a threat to humans. However, the bite could be quite painful and very unpleasant.
Giant wood rail
blue buzzard The aguja, blue buzzard or Kordilieradler (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) belongs to the subfamily of the buzzard-like (Buteoninae) in the family of the hawk-like (Accipitridae). The agujas reach a height between 60 and 75 cm – with a wingspan of 150 to 185 cm. The males weigh around 1,700 g and the females up to around 2,300 g. The bird lives in open and semi-open landscapes of all kinds and occurs up to heights of 3,000 m. Its prey consists mainly of small and medium-sized mammals, but also birds and insects. He builds his eyrie on cliffs, in tall trees or cacti.
Garza Mora Heron
The Garza Mora Heron () is one of the most common birds and can be found mainly in shallow waters and swamps. Characteristic of this bird are its black hood and its white-gray plumage.
Macaws The yellow-and-breasted macaws (Ara ararauna), which can be recognized at any time by their oversized, colorful beak, ensure a joy of color. The birds are between 80 to 90 cm tall. They are blue on the upper side and golden yellow on the chest and belly, which turns into a turquoise blue over the head and up to the neck
The gray-headed geese (Chloephaga poliocephala) occurs only in South America. The birds reach a height between 50 and 55 cm. As the name suggests, they have a gray head and the base of the neck is also gray and changes to a chestnut brown color in the front area, which becomes gray-brown towards the back. Their white plumage flanks are offset with black lines. The legs and feet are orange-red and the beak gray-black. They can be found in river and stream valleys, wooded moors and swamps.
The Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) is the Latin American representative of the stork family and the only stork in the world that has pure white plumage – with a black neck, head and beak. It has a standing height of about 1.50 m, a wingspan of 2.50 m and thus belongs to the large birds capable of flying. Its home is the marshland in the catchment area of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Parana. He hunts his food, which is exclusively animal, in the water. It consists of insects, fish, snails, worms, crustaceans, frogs, snakes and rodents.
The hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are the only family in the order of the hummingbird-like (Trochiliformes) and belong to the smallest warm-blooded animals. Not only are they able to stand in midair, but they are the only birds that can fly backwards. Their low weight and the very fast flapping of the wings (approx. 80 beats/sec.) Contribute to these flying skills. Hummingbirds mainly feed on nectar to provide the energy they need for strenuous flying. Their very long beak is striking, which is a perfect adaptation to their diet, since the nectar required is usually deep in the calyx of the flower.
soldierbird The long-tailed soldierbird (Leistes loyca) occurs in southern South America. The bird reaches a size of 23 to 27 cm. Its upper side is colored brown-gray, while the underside is more reddish.
There are four subspecies of the bird.
One of the most conspicuous birds is without a doubt the rhea (Rhea americana), which belongs to the order of ratites (Rheiformes). With a top height of 130-150 cm, a back height of approx. 100 cm and a weight of 20-25 kg, it is the largest bird in the New World. In addition to long strong feet, it has soft plumage and, for a flightless bird, long wings with a length of about 250 cm.
Thanks to these features, it can escape speeds of 50 km/h and quickly and unexpectedly change direction by alternating the right or left wing. In addition to pampas and savannahs, it can also be found on the edge of the forest and bush-strewn regions.
It feeds on grasses and herbs of all kinds, but also fruits and seeds as well as grasshoppers,
frogs, lizards and smaller rodents are on the menu. Guinea fowl
The guinea fowl (Eudromia elegans) is a species of bird from the cockchafer family in the order of the cocktails (Tinamiformes. They occur only in the south of South America and reach a size between 35 and 40 cm. Their long, forwardly curved hood is striking are light to dark brown in color, while the wings have numerous white spots. A characteristic light stripe runs behind and below the eye. The bird has 10 subspecies.
The toucans are birds of the Tukane family in the order of the woodpecker birds (Piciformes). The birds reach a size of 35 to 65 cm. Its most striking feature is its large, beautifully colored beak. Vile species are very brightly colored and often contrast with shiny black plumage. Yellow tones are also common. These birds are found in the tropics of Central and South America, where they live as pure tree-dwellers.
You have to be careful of the mosquito of the genus Anopheles, the carrier of malaria and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), also known as the Egyptian tiger mosquito, the carrier of dengue fever and yellow fever. They occur almost everywhere in Paraguay, but are particularly widespread in the Chaco region. Termites, ants, flies, numerous other mosquito species, wasps and honey and wild bees also live here.
One of the hardest precious woods, the lapacho tree, grows in Paraguay. However, the tree with the pink or yellow colored flowers is precisely this property. Today there are only a few of its kind left.
The bottle tree, which is also known as the elephant’s foot because of its bulbous trunk, occurs much more frequently and is the typical tree for the Gran Chaco region. The trunk serves as a water reservoir, which is why it is particularly widespread in dry areas.
Quite a few of the useful plants belong to the palm family, including the coco palm from southern Paraguay, whose nuts are used as animal feed and for making soap. Mats and baskets are made from the lichen.
The wax palm is also very useful as it is used regularly as a wax supplier.
Wheat and soy
Wheat and soy are grown in southeast Paraguay.
The pineapple is a naturally occurring fruit and is native to Paraguay.
Other tropical fruits
Numerous other tropical fruits grow or are cultivated here, including among others
The poinsettia, which is well known in this country and is particularly popular in winter, comes from Mexico, but is also widespread in Costa Rica and Paraguay. Since the plant belongs to the milkweed family, all parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the milky sap. However, there were considerable differences in the severity of toxicity between the various species. In general, one can say that wild species are considerably more poisonous than their recultivated plants
In national parks, but also in “normal” parks, on streets and in gardens, you will come across the hibiscus. But the oleander also blooms here, as does the orange peacock flower, numerous types of lily, jasmine and the poisonous poinsettia. The greatest variety of plants can be found in the Paraná Plateau, while the Gran Chaco is rather poor in species and mainly houses trees.
The flamboyant comes from Madagascar and is also known as the flame tree due to its bright red flowers. The 60 cm long, flattened, brown fruit pods are also striking. This tree is popular to plant on streets and in parks.