Republic of the Congo: Political System
According to CANCERMATTERS.NET, the Republic of the Congo is a presidential republic. The parliament is a bicameral system and consists of the National Assembly with 137 members elected for five years and the Senate with 66 members who are elected every six years. The head of state is the president, who is also the head of government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The direct election of the head of state takes place every 7 years, there is the possibility of one re-election. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Republic of the Congo politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|République du Congo Republic of the Congo|
The national anthem of the Republic of the Congo has been La Congolaise since 1960. The text is by Levent Kimbangui, Français Jacques Tondra composed the music. However, from 1969 to 1991 the country temporarily had a different national anthem.
|In French||In the English translation|
|En ce jour le soleil se lèveet notre Congo resplendit.
Une longue nuit s’achève,
un grand bonheur a surgi.
Chantons tous avec ivresse
le chant de la liberté.REFRAIN
Congolais, debout fièrement partout,
Proclamons l’union de notre nation,
Oublions ce qui nous divise,
soyons plus unis que jamais,
Vivons pour notre devise:
Unité, travail, progrès!
Vivons pour notre motto:
Unité, travail, progrès!
Des forêts jusqu’à la savanne,
Des savannes jusqu’à la mer,
Un seul peuple, une seule âme,
Un seul coer, ardent et fier,
Luttons tous, tant que nous sommes,
Pour notre vieux pays noir.
Et s’il nous faut mourir, en somme
Qu’importe puisque nos enfants,
Partout, pourront dire comme
On triomphe en combattant,
Et dans le moindre village
Chantent sous nos trois couleurs
|On this day the sun risesand our Congo shines.
A long night comes to an end,
great happiness appears.
We sing intoxicated
the song of freedom.REFRAIN
Congolese everywhere, arise,
let us proclaim the unity of our nation. Let us
forget what divides us,
let us be united like never before.
Let’s live for our motto:
Unity, work, progress!
Let’s live for our motto:
unity, work, progress!
From the woods to the savannah,
from the savannah to the sea.
A united people, a united soul,
a heart, fiery and proud.
Let’s fight the way we are
for our old black country.
And if we all die,
what does it matter
if our children can say everywhere
how we fight to triumph.
And in the smallest village they
sing under our three colors.
The national flag (country flag) of the Republic of the Congo dates from August 18, 1959 and was reintroduced on June 10 after a period with a socialist flag. It shows the pan-African colors. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors are interpreted as follows:
– Red for the blood shed in the freedom struggles
– Yellow symbolizes the riches of the country
– Green stands for nature
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Republic of the Congo.
Republic of the Congo: Known People
Pierre Anga (1940-1988)
Pierre Anga, a Congolese rebel leader, was the main opponent of then President Denis Sassou-Nguesso. In 1988 he was murdered by Congolese security forces in the jungle of Ikongono.
Conte Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza (1852-1905)
The Congolese capital Brazzaville is named after the famous French naval officer and traveler to Africa. De Brazza founded this second trading post to make it the starting point for French Congo steamers. In 2006 a mausoleum was set up for him in Brazzaville, because de Brazza is considered one of the few colonialists in Africa who proceeded without the use of force.
Emmanuel Boundzéki Dongala (born 1941)
The Congolese chemist and novelist currently works at Bard College in Simon’s Rock, a college in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. The renowned chemist is the author of numerous novels.
Bernard Bakana Kolélas (1933-2009)
The Congolese politician appeared as a presidential candidate in 1992 after a long imprisonment as leader of the anti-communist opposition. He was defeated by Pascal Lissouba and became Mayor of Brazzaville in 1994 and Prime Minister for a short time in 1997. After going into exile, he was sentenced to death in absentia for several crimes during the civil war. This judgment was later overturned.
Ernest Kombo SJ (1941-2008)
The Jesuit and Roman Catholic bishop of the Owando diocese was instrumental in establishing democracy in the Republic of the Congo. Between 2003 and 2006 he was the chairman of the Bishops’ Conference of the Congo. He was committed to fighting corruption and bad governance throughout his life.
Pascal Lissouba (born 1931)
The politician, who was born in Tsinguidi in 1931, was President of the Republic of the Congo from 1992 to 1997. His reign was marked by conditions similar to civil war. After fighting against the allies of Sassou-Nguesso, he was overthrown.
Alphonse Massemba-Débat (1921-1977)
The politician, who was born in N’Kollo near Brazzaville in 1921, served as President of the Republic of the Congo from 1963 to 1968. It appeared economically moderately socialist, but retained an authoritarian state system.
Isidore M’Vouba (born 1954)
The politician, who was born in Kindamba in 1954, has served as Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo since 2005. He is a close confidante of longtime President Denis Sassou-Nguesso. For this M’Vouba worked during the presidential elections in 1992 and 2002 as his campaign manager.
André Ntsatoubantou Milongo (1935-2007)
The former Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo (1991/1992) served in a transitional government under the then President Denis Sassou-Nguesso. He should lead the country to democracy.
Claudine Munari Mabondzo (born 1954)
This Congolese politician served as director of the cabinet from 1992 to 1997 under the then President Pascal Lissouba. She has been with the Ministry of Commerce since 2009.
Marien N’Gouabi (1938-1977)
The former head of state of the Republic of the Congo (1968-1977) died in Brazzaville in 1977. He was chairman of the Junta Conseil National de la Révolution. Under his government, strong ties with the USSR were forged and relations with the People’s Republic of China developed. The Université Marien Ngouabi and a stele dedicated to him in Pointe-Noire commemorates N’Gouabi, who was murdered in a coup attempt in 1977.
Denis Sassou-Nguesso (born 1943)
The officer and politician has been the President of the Republic of the Congo since 1997. He already held this office from 1979 to 1992. Sassou-Nguesso pursued a pragmatic and moderately Marxist policy. After 1989, he started a process of democratization in his country, contained corruption and sought IMF loans. However, in 2001, the non-governmental organization FIDH filed a case against Sassou Nguesso. He was charged with torture and crimes against humanity. However, the procedure was canceled in 1999.
Joachim-Jacques Yhombi-Opango (born 1939)
The politician and former President of the Republic of the Congo (1977-1979) was the cousin of his predecessor Marien N’Gouabi. After he was ousted from office in 1979 because of corruption, among other things, he was Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo between 1993 and 1996 under President Pascal Lissouba.
Fulbert Youlou (1917-1972)
the first President of the Republic of the Congo, hosted two conferences in Brazzaville in 1960. In it, African leaders discussed a solution to the Congo crisis. Youlou abolished democracy in his country in 1962 and made his party, the UDDIA, the country’s unity. Youlou’s presidency ended after a military coup in 1963. He died in 1972 in exile in Spain.
Congo Republic: animals
The most famous animal in the Republic of the Congo is the western lowland gorilla. He lives in the northwest of the country. In contrast to the eastern gorilla, its fur is more gray-brown than black. It can be easily recognized by its brown cap. It lives in the rainforest and in swamp areas, so that the animals have enough habitats.
In the Republic of the Congo – and especially in the 1.260 km² Odzala National Park – you can find buffalo, brazzame cats and bongos, one of the largest species of antelope. Other antelopes are the bushbuck, crown duiker and sitatungas (swamp antelopes). Other animals living in the country are brush ear pigs, giant forest pigs as well as African elephants and forest elephants. The forest elephants are particularly found in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, where they like to bathe in the Mbeli River. Among the predators are spotted hyenas, jackals, lions, cheetahs and leopards.
Animal husbandry plays only a minor role, mainly because of the tsetse fly. The tsetse flies (Glossina) are the only genus from the tongue flies (Glossinidae) family. In total there are over 30 species and subspecies of tsetse flies. They feed on human and animal blood and transmit the dreaded African trypanosomiasis, known as sleeping sickness, and the related Nagana disease in animals.
One should also protect oneself against the mosquito of the genus Anopheles, the carrier of malaria. Dengue fever and yellow fever are transmitted by the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti).
Reptiles without poisonous snakes
– slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus)
– dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis)
– West African crocodile (Crocodylus suchus)
– African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus)
– edge of the forest house snake (Boaedon perisilvestris)
– Dipsadoboa duchesnii (no other name known)
– Rock Python (Python sebae)
– Gunther `s Green Tree Snake (Dipsadoboa unicolor)
– Coastal House Snake (Boaedon littoralis)
– Olive House Snake (Boaedon olivaceus)
– Shreve`s Tree Snake (Dipsadoboa shrevei)
– African spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis crawshay)
– Boomslang (Dipholidus typus)
– Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) – Banded water cobra (Naja annulata
– Congo water cobra (Naja christyi)
– Rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis)
– Heavily banded cobra (Naja multifasciata)
Giant tiger tetra
The giant tiger tetra (Hydrocynus goliath) can reach a length of approx. 1.50 m and a weight of approx. 50 kg. It has 32 extremely sharp teeth, which makes it one of the most dangerous freshwater fish in the world. Locals have reported that it even attacks crocodiles, which is unique for a freshwater fish. It occurs in the Congo River and in the Lualaba River in Lake Upemba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Lake Tanganyika, which is part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Zambia and Burundi.
Republic of the Congo: plants
Several protected areas and national parks have been established to protect plants and animals, including the 1.260 km² Odzala National Park in the north-west of the country, which opened in 1935. It consists of rainforest with numerous clearings.
About 60% of the area of the Republic of the Congo is covered by tropical rainforest, in which the biodiversity is particularly high. Trees up to 50 m high grow there, under which epiphytes, shrubs, lianas, ferns and orchids have spread.
Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants but are not parasites. They grow high up because, unlike the ground plants, they get sunlight here. Since the rainwater runs down quickly, mosses and lichens, for example, with their spongy foliage, soak up large amounts of water and use it to filter minerals that are essential for survival. And a number of orchid species have large storage tubers that they can use to prevent drying out. These plants can make up up to 50% of all plants in the rainforest.
Particularly noteworthy are the magnificent and hardwood plants such as teak, limba and mahogany. Mangroves grow on the coast and are habitat for a number of animals.
Moist savannahs with grasses and bushes form the transition zones to the rainforest. Extensive swamps with their typical plants can be found in the northeast of the country.
Manioc, corn, peanuts, yams and plantains are mainly grown for self-sufficiency, while coffee, cocoa and sugar cane are grown for export.