Senegal: Political System
Senegal is a presidential republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. The unicameral parliament, the National Assembly, consists of 120 members who are elected every five years.
The head of state is also elected every five years; re-election is possible once.
The official name of the country is:
|République du Sénégal Republic of Senegal
Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons (Take your Koras, hit the marimbas) has been Senegal’s national anthem since 1960. The text was written by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001), the country’s first president. The music comes from Herbert Pepper. Koras and marimbas are traditional musical instruments used by Senegalese residents.
|In English translation
|Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafonsLe Lion rouge a rugi Le Dompteur de la Brousse
d’un bond s’est élancé dissipant les ténébres
Soleil sur nos terreurs Soleil sur notre espoir.
Debout frères voiciRefrain
l’Afrique rassemblée – Fibers de mon c’ur vert
épaule countre épaule Mes plus que fréres O Sénégalais, debout!
Unissons la mer et les sources, Unissons la Steppe et la forêt Salut Afrique mère. Salut Afrique mère.Sénégal, toi le fils de l’écume du Lion,
Toi surgi de la nuit au galop des chevaux,
Rends-nous, oh ‘rends-nous l’ honneur de nos Ancêtres,
Splendides comme ébene et forts comme le muscle
Nous disons droits- l’épée n’a pas une bavure.refrainSénégal, nous faisons nôtre ton grand dessein:
Rassembler les poussins à l’abri des milans Pour en faire, de l’Est à l’Ouest, du Nord au Sud,
Dressé, un même peuple, un peuple sans couture,
Mais un peuple tourné vers tous les vents du monde.refrainSénégal, comme toi, comme tous nos héros,
Nous serons durs sans haine et les deux bras ouverts L’épée, nous la mettrons dans la paix du fourreau,
Car le travail sera notre arme et la parole.
Le Bantou est un frère, et l’Arabe et le Blanc.refrain
Mais que si l’ennemi incendie nos Frontières
Nous serons tous dressés et les armes au poing:
Un Peuple dans sa foi défiant tous les malheurs,
Les jeunes et les vieux, les hommes et les femmes.
La Mort, oui! Nous disons la Mort, mais pas la honte.
|Pluck your Koras, drum the balafons.The red lion roared. The lord of the bush
swings up in the leap, driving away the darkness.
let the sun shine on our fear and the sun on our hope.
Stand upright – look, my brothers – the risen Africa
fibers of my green heart.
Shoulder to shoulder with you who are more than brothers to me,
The sea and springs are united, steppe and forest are united!
Hail, mother Africa, hail, mother Africa.
Senegal, you son of the foam of the lion, emerged
from the night at the gallop of the horses,
give us back, oh, give us back the honor of our ancestors!
Magnificent as black ebony and strong as the muscle
We say it clearly and distinctly – the sword has no nick.
Senegal, let’s make your big intention our own: to round up the
chicks for protection from the Milan,
to make one people out of the east and the west, the north and the south, who have risen, a people without seams
but one People who face all the winds of the world.
Senegal, like all our heroes,
we will be tough without hatred and have two arms open.
We will put the sword in the peace of its scabbard,
for the work will be our weapon and the word.
The Bantu is a brother and the Arab and the white.
But when the enemy sets fire to our borders, they
will stand up like everyone else and have arms in their fists:
a people in their faith who defies all misfortune,
the young and the old, the men and the women.
Death, yes! We say death, but not shame.
The national flag (country flag) of Senegal was officially introduced on August 20, 1960. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag have the following meaning:
– Red is a reminder of the blood spilled in the struggle for freedom.
– Yellow stands for blooming landscapes and as a symbol of the country’s wealth.
– Green stands for the hope for a good one and also for the largest three religious groups in the state – the Muslims, Christians and traditionalists.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Senegal.
Senegal: Known People
Malick Badiane (born 1984)
The basketball player from Senegal, born in Thiès in 1984, is mainly used in the center position. Badiane played in the course of his career for TV Langen and the Senegalese national team.
Amadou Bamba (1853-1927)
The founder of the Mourid Brotherhood, born in M’Backe in 1927, is buried in Touba, where the Great Mosque from 1963 rises above his grave.
Madjiguène Cissé (born 1951)
Born in the capital Dakar, Madjiguène Cissé is a Senegalese women activist who was also the spokesperson for the French Sans Papiers movement. As the founder of the women’s network for sustainable development in Africa, she is committed to education and equality for women.
Isaac Forster (1903-1984)
The Senegalese lawyer from Dakar was a judge at the International Court of Justice in The Hague from 1964 to 1982.
Habib Koité (born 1958)
Koité is a musician from Mali who was born in 1958 in the Senegalese city of Thiès. He celebrated his greatest successes with his band Bamada.
Soriba Kouyaté (1963-2010)
Soriba Kouyaté was a kora player and griot from Senegal. The famous director Spike Lee liked to use Kouyaté’s music in his films.
Jean-Louis Lafosse (1941-1981)
The French racing driver who was born in Dakar in 1941 was just 40 years old.
Djibril Diop Mambéty (1945-1998)
Mambéty made a name for himself as an actor and director. The Senegalese most recently worked on the trilogy “Histoires de petites gens”, which he was able to complete as far as possible before his death.
Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye (born 1958)
The Senegalese politician, who has been Prime Minister of Senegal since 2009, was born in Kaolack.
Papa Waigo N’Diaye (born 1984)
N’Diaye, a Senegalese soccer player from Saint-Louis, is currently playing in the position of striker for the Fiorentina.
Youssou N’Dour (born 1959)
If someone is responsible for the development of Senegalese popular music, then it is certainly Youssou N’Dour, the singer and composer from Dakar, who is a superstar in his country.
Ibrahim Baye Niass (1900-1975)
The Islamic scholar and saint, who died in London in 1975, was an important leader in West Africa as a marabout.
Omar Pene (born 1956)
Omar Pene, a Senegalese Mbalax singer and composer from Dakar, is still celebrated as one of the most influential singers in Africa.
Ousmane Sembène (1923-2007) One of
the most important Senegalese writers and directors, Sembène is also honored as the father figure of sub-Saharan cinema.
Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) In
1906 in Joal, Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor, one of the country’s most important politicians, was born. The philologist, who is also active as a poet, served as President of Senegal from 1960 to 1980. His policy was shaped by a course of reconciliation with the former colonial powers.
MC Solaar (born 1969)
In 1969, the famous French rapper MC Solaar was born in Dakar. His real name was Claude M’Barali.
Habib Thiam (born 1933)
Thiam served first as Prime Minister of Senegal from 1981 to 1983 and again from 1991 to 1998. On July 3, 1998, he resigned from his position.
Patrick Vieira (born 1976)
The French soccer player from Dakar is currently playing for Manchester City. The son of Cape Verdean parents is one of the most famous footballers in his country.
Me Abdoulaye Wade (born 1926)
The studied lawyer and founder of the Democratic Party of Senegal is currently President of Senegal. One of his greatest achievements was the defense of the secular state against attacks by radical Islamists.
Kéba Mbaye (1924-2007)
The Senegalese judge and sports official was President of the Supreme Court of Senegal and Vice-President of the International Court of Justice in The Hague between 1987 and 1991.
Animals are rarely found in the wild, as agriculture and increasing colonization are increasingly restricting their habitat. The heavily forced logging also causes problems for the animal world.
The elephant population has recovered somewhat and less than 200 lions. Both can be found on the upper reaches of the Gambia River and in the Niokolo Koba National Park.
Monkey species such as monkeys, baboons and chimpanzees are somewhat more common.
Hippos, water buffalo, gazelles, antelopes and warthogs also live in the country.
Giraffes, which were widespread in the Ferlo savannah 100 years ago, are now only found in the Bandia Reserve. For this they had to be imported from South Africa. Other rare mammals include dromedaries, jackals, porcupines, the desert fox (fennec) and hyenas.
Reptiles (without snakes)
Rare reptiles are almost all local turtle species. Crocodiles, iguanas and monitor lizards are a little more common.
Senegal has a very diverse bird life, as both native and European migratory birds can find largely intact living conditions and nesting sites.
In Djoudj National Park, the world’s third largest bird reserve, which is located in the mouth of the Senegal River, there are an estimated 400 species of birds.
Pelicans are very common, other typical representatives are vultures and guinea fowls.
The unlinked snakes are not (yet) shown at Goruma.
African house snake
The African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus) is a non-toxic species of snake, of which there are six subspecies. Their males are 60 to 80 cm and the females 80 to 100 cm.
African spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis)
Striped house snake
the striped house snake (Boaedon lineatus)
Common puff adder (Bitis arietans)
Green mamba (Dendroaspis viridis)
Ball python (Python regius)
The Mali cobra (Naja katiensis)
Black and white cobra (Naja melanoleuca)
Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)
Senegal cobra (Naja senegalensis)
Uraeus snake (well, well)
Barracudas, epinephelus – a group of groupers – and tuna swim in the Atlantic off Senegal. The local specialty lobster (lobster) can also be found in the sea. The following marine mammals are worth mentioning:
– Blue whales
whales – Humpback whales
– Clymene dolphins
– Bottlenose dolphins
– Slender dolphins
– Striped dolphins
– Killer whales
– Chinstrap dolphins
Senegal is very rich in vermin, but you should be particularly careful with the widespread anopheles mosquito. In the event of a bite, this transmits the often fatal disease malaria. Malaria is the most widespread disease in tropical and subtropical climates and against which there is no vaccine.
The vegetation of the north is characterized by the thorn bush savannah, in the interior of the country by the dry savannah. This is determined by the sparse growth of grass, acacias and the baobab, the baobab tree, which is characteristic of West Africa and has also become the national tree of Senegal. This tree with its strikingly shaped trunk and silver-gray bark belongs to the wool tree family and can live up to 1000 years. Furthermore, it is characterized by its cucumber-shaped and wood-skinned fruits as well as fatty seeds. The baobab can store up to 5000 liters of water in the dry season, but then it loses all its leaves in order to protect itself from excessive evaporation and thus from dying of thirst.
The tree population gradually increases further south. Tamarind and flamboyant trees determine the landscape, as does the head-high elephant grass. This grows in humid or temporarily flooded savannas and can reach heights of up to 6 m.
In the south of the country you can already find dense subtropical forests of baobab, bamboo, kapok trees, mahogany and teak trees.
Kapok trees reach heights of up to 70 m and are characterized by fold-like roots at the base of the tree. The German name is the ” Wollbaum “, in English it is known as the ” Silk cotton tree “. This is because there are cotton-like hairs in the fruit capsules, which are used to stuff mattresses.
The shea butter tree is also common. It is used to make shea butter and especially cotton.
The west of Senegal, along the rivers of the Sine-Saloum, the Gambis River and the Casamance River, is rich in dense mangrove vegetation. The mangrove population is at great risk due to the increasing demand for firewood.
The kola nuts offered everywhere are not poisonous, but inedible for the European palate. The locals claim that these chewed well and dosed accordingly have a strong stimulating effect.
There is intensive peanut cultivation along the Dakar-Tambacounda railway line , as well as rice cultivation in the Casamance. Oil and coconut palms, orange, lime, papaya and mango trees shape the landscape there. Bananas are also native to Senegal.
The tamarind tree originally comes from India, the fruits of which are used to make fruit purees, sauces and lemonades. The evergreen flamboyant (flame tree) comes from Madagascar. It has double pinnate leaves and bright red inflorescences, which is also the reason for its name.