Suriname: Political System
According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, Suriname is a presidential republic. The head of the state is a president who is appointed directly by parliament every five years. The parliament has only one chamber. This House of Representatives is elected every five years by free, equal and secret ballot and has had a total of 51 members since January 1, 2005. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Suriname politics, and acronyms as well.
The head of government is the president. The president can dissolve parliament and force new elections. All citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote.
The official name of the country is:
|Republic of Suriname|
The national anthem of a country is usually a piece of music underlaid with a text that is intended to express the state or national feeling of a country. It is usually played on particularly festive occasions. The introduction of the national anthems goes back to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The numerous former colonies that had become independent generally introduced their national anthems and also their national flags after independence, i.e. in the second half of the 20th century.
The national anthem of Suriname was written in 1966 by Henny de Ziel (1916-1975) pseudonym: Trefossa and is played with the melody of 1876 by Johannes Corstianus de Puy(1835-1924) sung. The new tune “Welkom” by Johannes Nicolaas Helstone (1853-1927), which de Ziel had proposed, was rejected by the administration. Note: The Dutch version is not a literal translation of the national anthem in Sranantongo.
Official version of the hymn God zij met ons Suriname (Opo! Kondreman) in Sranantongo:
|Opo! Kondreman, oen opo!Sranangron e kari oen.
Wans ope tata komopo
Wi moe seti kondre boen.
Stré de f’stré, wi no sa frede.
Gado de wi fesiman.
Eri libi te na dede
Wi sa feti gi Sranan.
In the Dutch version
|God zij met ons SurinameHij herrff ‘ons heerlijk land
Hoe wij hier ook samen kwamen
Aan zijn land zijn wij verpand
Werkend houden we in imagined rights
en waarheid maken vrij
Al wat goed is te consider
Dat geeft aan ons land waardij.
And in the English translation
|On compatriots, on!The soil of Suriname calls you
From wherever our ancestors came
We should take care of our land.
We are not afraid to fight
God is our guide
Our whole life to death
we fight for Suriname.God be with our Surinam.
He exalts our glorious land.
As we came together here
, we are bound to his country. We
work in remembrance:
Law and truth make free,
everything that you consider to be good also gives
The national flag symbolizes certain historical developments or special characteristics of a country. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, today every country has its own national flag, which is often supplemented by numerous other flags inside.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Suriname.
Suriname: Known People
- Ronald Venetiaan (born 1936)President 1991-1996)
- Jules Albert Wijdenbosch (born 1941)Prime Minister 1987 – 1988 a. 1991, President 1996-2000
Writer and poet
- Lou Lichtfeld (1903 -)His best-known work is “New Life on Old Earth” from 1952
- Astrid Roemer (born 1947)
Brief preliminary remarks
More than 90% of Suriname is still covered by rainforest, where the biodiversity is known to be particularly great. To protect its environment and biodiversity, Surinam has set up eleven nature reserves, one nature park and four special environmental areas.
In Surinam you can find the following types of monkeys, of which more will be described in detail by Goruma in the coming months:
– Howler monkeys
– Capuchin monkey with head
– Red-faced spider monkey – Red
– Squirrel monkey
– White-headed sakis
The agoutis (Dasyprocta) are a genus of rodents from the family of the agoutis and acouchis (Dasyproctidae). They have slender bodies and a thick and coarse coat that is usually dark orange or brownish in color.
They live in forests, dense bushland and savannahs, but also in fields and plantations. They are usually diurnal. Their underside is white or yellowish.
The animals reach a head-trunk length of 40 to 65 cm – with a weight between 1.5 to 4 kg.
As pure herbivores, agoutis feed on fruits, nuts and leaves. Stems or roots. In the Amazon region, they are almost the only animals that can open the hard Brazil nuts with their teeth. A total of eleven types of agoutis are distinguished, of which the following species occurs in Suriname:
– Crested agouti (Dasyprocta cristata)
Of the anteaters from the suborder Vermilingua there are four different species from three different genera
. Their long, tubular snout is striking. They also have a thick coat and very strong claws on their front feet.
The different species reach a length between 20 to 140 cm – with a weight between 300 g and up to 50 kg for the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).
The great anteater is exclusively a ground dweller and lives in savannah areas, while the pygmy anteater only lives on trees.
The other two species live both on the ground and in trees.
They feed almost exclusively on ants and termites, which is where their name comes from. The animals mostly live as solitary animals in their own territories.
The females only give birth to one young at a time. The large and small anteaters are found in Suriname. The little anteater is also known as Tamandua and forms a genus (Tamandua) with the following two species:
– Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), it occurs in Central America and in northwestern South America.
– Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla), it occurs in northern and central South America.
toed sloths There are two-toed and three-toed sloths. Both animal species are described in detail and illustrated by Goruma.
The following four species of the three -toed sloth are distinguished
sloth (Bradypus pygmaeus) – white-throated sloth or Ai (Bradypus tridactylus)
– brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus)
– necked sloth (Bradypus torquatus)
In Surinam, the white-throated sloth (Bradypus tridactylus) occurs.
A detailed description of the three-toed animal can be found here >>>
tapirs Tapirs have a characteristic trunk, which gives them a somewhat unusual appearance. There are five different species of the genus tapirs (Tapirus), of which the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) occurs in Suriname. The five types of tapir are:
– Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)
tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) – Kabomani tapir (Tapirus kabomani)
– Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii)
– Black-backed tapir (Tapirus indicus)
Another species common in Guyana is the big otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) – also known as the giant otter – the largest species of otter in the world. Male animals can grow up to 2 m, with the tail about 70 cm.
Due to the massive destruction of its habitat by humans, this freshwater otter species has already been exterminated in Argentina and Uruguay and now still exists in Guiana, Suriname and a few other countries in South America. The otter is now considered an endangered species and must therefore be protected.
The armadillos (Dasypoda) form the only mammal group of the armored secondary animals (Cingulata). There are 20 different species that are common in South America and southeastern North America. The best-known armadillo is without a doubt the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), which can be found in large parts of South and Central America – and thus also in Suriname – up to the southeastern USA.
A detailed representation of the nine-banded armadillo can be found here >>>
The jaguars (Panthera onco) are the largest big cats on the American continent and the third largest in the world after the lions and tigers. A detailed description of the jaguars can be found here >>>
Caribbean manatee, manatee
The Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) – also known as the Caribbean manatee – is a species of manatee from the family of manatees (Trichechidae) in the order of the manatees (Sirenia). The animals reach a head-trunk length between 2.50 and 4 m – with a weight of 300 to 700 kg. Their very thick skin is grayish to gray-brown or brown in color. Your head is very massive and is only slightly separated from the body.
The animal is divided into the following two subspecies:
– Trichechus manatus latirostris
– Trichechus manatus manatus
A detailed description of the Caribbean manatee can be found here >>>
coati (Nasua), also referred to as trunk bears, a genus of the family of the small bear (Procyonidae). They got their name because of their trunk-like, elongated snout with the movable nose.
Their head-torso lengths range from 45 to 70 cm, while their yellow- and brown-banded tail is between 40 and 70 cm long. Your shoulder height is about 30 cm. Their weight is between 3.5 to 6 kg. Usually the males are larger than the females. The coat of the Nelson coati is short and silky. The hair of the other two types is longer and rather coarse.
The color of the back ranges from a light brown to reddish and even black. On the abdomen, their color ranges from yellowish to dark brown, with the muzzle, chin and throat usually whitish, while the feet are black.
With their snouts they search the ground, crevices and cavities for food, which consists mainly of fruit. But neither do they disdain invertebrates and even larger rodents.
There are three species of the coati, of which the following two species can be found in Suriname:
– South American coati (Nasua nasua) – from Colombia to northern Argentina and Uruguay.
– White-nosed coati (Nasua narica) – from Arizona to the Gulf of Urabá in northwestern Colombia.
The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a nocturnal big cat living in the southern USA and in Central and South America. A detailed representation of the ocelot can be found here >>>
peccary or peccaries (Tayassuidae) belong to the family of peccaries in the order of the cloven-hoofed animals. They resemble our wild boars.
The four species from the Tayassuidae family belong to three different genera:
– White-bearded peccari (Tayassu pecari)
– Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu)
– Giant peccary (Pecari maximus)
– Chaco-peccary (Catagonus wagneri)
Only the white-bearded peccary occurs in Suriname, whereby the animals live in very large packs. Their head-torso length varies between 95 to 130 cm – with a shoulder height between 45 and 60 cm. Their weight ranges from 25 to 50 kg.
The Pumas (Puma concolor) are large cats of prey and occur in North, Central and South America. A detailed presentation of the pumas can be found here >>>
The Tayra (Eira barbara) is a species of predator from the marten family (Mustelidae).
Their torso is elongated and slender, with relatively short limbs.
The short and rather dense fur is dark brown in color, while the head is a little lighter. A yellowish or whitish spot on the throat is noticeable. The tail is long and bushy.
These animals have a head-trunk length of 55 to 70 cm – with a tail up to 48 cm long. Their weight is between 4 and 5 kg.
The animal can walk well, climb but also swim very well.
Their diet consists mainly of tree squirrels, rodents such as sting rats, rabbits and small pintail deer. Birds, invertebrates and fruits are also on their menu.
The tayras are found in Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Paraguay and northern Argentina – including Brazil. They mainly inhabit tropical rainforests.
The forest dog (Speothos venaticus) is a wild dog found in South America. The animals reach a head-trunk length of 60 to 70 cm. Their coloring is light brown to dark brown, depending on the subspecies. They are more like a marten than a dog. It is worth mentioning that the animals have webbed feet on their paws.
The animals live in packs of up to ten animals, which are led by an alpha pair and hunt their prey together. Their prey are agoutis, pakas and capybaras and even full-grown tapirs. But armadillos, peccaries, mazamas, coatis, possums, tapetis, rheas, cockatoos and rodents are also on their menu.
Besides humans, jaguars and pumas are their enemies. In Suriname, the animals – in contrast to their other distribution areas – are relatively common.
In Germany you can often see these cute animals at their rubbish or garbage cans, where they are looking for something to eat. But one can also encounter these typical “cultural followers” in cellars or in attics. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) belong to the family of small bears (Procyonidae) in the order of predators (Carnivora) and reach a head-trunk length between 40 to 70 cm. The animals are also found in Suriname. A detailed description of the raccoon here >>>
The wrapped bear (Potos flavus), also known as the honey bear, belongs to the genus Potos and to the family of small bears (Procyonidae). The animal has a head-trunk length of 40 to 60 cm, with a 40 to 55 cm long tail. Their weight varies between around 1.5 to 4.5 kg. Their brown back fur is woolly and short, with a mostly yellowish to light brown hairline. The ventral side is yellowish in color. Their diet consists mainly of fruits, while the rest are leaves and nectar. It is worth mentioning that the animals have a long, handy tail, which is very helpful when climbing. The tail is named because it “wraps” around the branches when climbing. The wrapped bears are found in the tropical rainforests between southern Mexico and the north and center of Brazil.
Reptiles, amphibians – without poisonous snakes
The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.
The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.
The snake can be found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Amapá, Pará, Rondonia, Bahia, Sergipe, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Federal District, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Goiás, S Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte)
in Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia (Valle del Cauca).
Also in Mexico (Yucatan, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Quéretaro, Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco, Morelos and Hidalgo), in Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay.
The snake is also at home in Peru (Pasco), Suriname and Venezuela (Merida, Isla Margarita), as well as in Florida/USA – where it was released.
They can also be found in Trinidad, Tobago, Martinique, Aruba and Antigua.
There are six subspecies of the snake:
You can find a detailed description of the snake at Goruma here >>>
The great anaconda (Eunectes murinus) can in rare cases be over 9 m long and is therefore the largest snake in the world alongside the reticulated python. Your prey is entwined and strangled or crushed by the contraction of the muscles.
It can also be life-threatening for humans. The Great Anakondo is found in Suriname in Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Colombia, northern Bolivia, northeast Peru, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.
There are four types of the genus anaconda:
– Eunectes beniensis (Beni anaconda)
– Eunectes deschauenseei (De-Schauensee anaconda)
– Eunectes murinus (large anaconda)
– Eunectes notaeus(Yellow anaconda)
A detailed description of the large anaconda can be found at Goruma here >>>
The Colored Iguana
Geckos (Gekkonidae) are a family in the order of the squamata. The geckos are lizards and thus belong to the reptiles – which, depending on the species – can grow between 2 to 3 cm (Jaragua dwarf gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae) to almost 40 cm (New Caledonian giant gecko, Rhacodactylus leachianus). The geckos are divided into 55 genera with a total of around 1,000 different species. The animals can be found in the temperate zones but also in deserts, but especially in the tropics.
Johnstones Whistling Frog
The Johnstones Whistling Frog (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei) occurs in the entire Caribbean as well as in large parts of Central and South America. The males reach a size of 17 to 25 mm, while the females are significantly larger at 17 to 35 mm. The frogs are colored brown-green on their upper side. The males have an inflatable sound bladder in the neck region with which they can make loud calls during the mating season.
The caimans (Caimaninae) are a subfamily in the family of the alligators (Alligatoridae) in the order crocodiles (Crocodylia). They are divided into three types. With the exception of the crocodile caiman, which is also found in Central America, they are only found in South America. The three genera with their species:
- Real caimans (Caiman)- crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus). This caiman is also found in Suriname.The animals can be up to 3 m long. They can be found in lakes, rivers, swamps, irrigation ponds, reservoirs and even in water-filled ditches.
– Spectacled Caiman (Caiman yacare)
– Broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris)
- Mohrenkaiman (Melanosuchus)- Mohrenkaiman (Melanosuchus niger )
- Smooth-fronted caiman (Paleosuchus)- Wedge-headed smooth-fronted caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus). This caiman is also found in Suriname.The animals can be up to 1.70 m long. The animals are particularly found in thesmall streams and rivers of the systems.
– Browed smooth-forehead caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus). This caiman is also found in Suriname.
The animals can be up to 1.50 m long.
Their habitat is flooded forest areas near larger lakes
and their banks with sufficient undergrowth.
Venomous snake lanceolers
The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae). The lance viper genus comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which have subspecies. The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.
Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.
It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation. The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.
Brazilian lance viper (Bothrops brazil)
The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.
There are no subspecies of the snake
Common lance viper (Bothrops atrox)
The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Also on Trinidad, an island that belongs to the Lesser Antilles.
There are no subspecies of the snake
Green Jararaca Lance Viper (Bothrops bilineatus)
The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela. There are two subspecies of the snake
Venomous snakes coral snakes
This usually very pretty snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter) with its black and white or yellow and red rings occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.
They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America – with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions.
They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short. They have The nocturnal snakes usually live hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles – more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.
Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses).
In addition, numerous species of snake have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected.
Guyana Blackback Coral Snake
The Guyana Blackback Coral Snake (Micrurus collaris) can be found in Surinam in eastern Venezuela (Bolivar), in Guyana, in French Guyana and in Brazil (Roraima, Amapa)
Hemprich’s coral snake
The Hempricht’s coral snake (Micrurus hembrichi) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil (Para, Rondonia), Ecuador, Guyana, French Guyana, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela, in addition to Suriname.
There are two subspecies of the snake.
Caribbean coral snake
The Caribbean coral snake (Micrurus psyches) can be found in northern Brazil, in Guyana, French Guyana, in the south of Colombia and in the southeast of Venezuela, in addition to Surinan.
The snake also occurs in Trinidad.
Para coral snake
The Para coral snake (Micrurus paraensis) occurs only in Brazil (Mato Grosso, Para) except in the south of Surinam
South American coral snake
The South American coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus) can be found in Argentina, in the north of Bolivia, in Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Goias, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro), in the east of Ecuador, in Guyana, French Guyana, in addition to Suriname. in Paraguay, eastern Peru, Venezuela and Trinidad.
There are five subspecies of the snake.
The shower rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) is one of the 47 species of real rattlesnake and the only one found in Suriname. In addition to Suriname, the snake can be found in the north of Argentina, in Bolivia, in some states of Brazil, in French Guiana, Guyana, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. It also occurs on the 179 km² Lesser Antilles island of Aruba. There are seven subspecies of the snake.
Numerous species of fish live in the numerous larger and smaller rivers of Suriname – including the notorious piranhas as well as giant otters, capybaras and several species of caiman. But of course you can also find numerous fish species as well as various dolphin and whale species in the Atlantic.
An important breeding site for sea turtles is located near Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River in the Atlantic. The four species that lay their eggs in the sand here and allow the sun to hatch are:
– Green sea
– Hawksbill sea turtle – Leatherback turtle
– Olive hybrid turtle
A specialty is the Guyanancistrus nassauensis, discovered in 2005 – a species of catfish from the Loricariidae family – the armored catfish. The fish are very small at 6 cm and only occur in the Paramaka and the 612 km long Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guyana, in the Nassau Mountains.
In Suriname you can find a number of catfish species and families, including armored catfish and the giant antenna catfish.
Armored catfish The armored catfish from the genus Carydas in the Callichthydae family
antenna catfish The giant antenna catfish (Bradyplatystoma filamentosum) can be up to 350 cm long.
The porcupine fish (Diodontidae) are a family in the order of the puffer fish relatives (Tetraodontiformes) and have around 20 species. The fish are found in shallow subtropical and tropical sea coasts. Porcupine fish have spines on their bodies, as they pump themselves up with water in case of danger, the spines straighten up and make them almost invulnerable to predators. In humans, sting injuries can cause severe inflammation.
The cod (Gadus morhua) from the cod family (Gadidae) is found in parts of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. And there from Ungava Bay in northern Canada along the Atlantic coast from North America to Cape Hatteras.
The fish can also be found on the coasts of the southern half of Greenland and from Iceland, Svalbard and Bear Island to the Barents Sea, Novaya Zemlya and in the south to the Biscay. The fish are also found in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, with the exception of the Gulf of Bothnia. In the Baltic Sea, they are generally referred to and marketed as cod. As a rule, the animals are less than 1 m long and rarely larger.
In Amsterdam, for example, the local Surinamese sell their fish dried and salted as stockfish (Bakkeljauw)
The scalar (Pterophyllum scalare) becomes about 26 cm high and about 15 cm long and very narrow. It therefore seems to move vertically in the water. The fish belongs to the family of the cichlids (Cichlidae) and is a freshwater fish. The fish are colored silver with dark transverse bands. In English the fish is called Freshwater angelfish.
The Surinam Bachling (Rivulus amphoreus) grows up to about 8 cm. It is colored gold to greenish yellow. The fish are freshwater fish.
The Surinam grunt (Amistremus surrinamensis) is a species of fish that can grow to around 45 to 75 cm. The fish live in salt water and have a poison that is harmful to human health. In English the fish are called Black margate.
Cichlids (Cichlidae) or cichlids are a family of bony fish from the group of perch relatives (Percomorphaceae). After the carp fish (Cyprinidae) and the gobies (Gobiidae), the cichlids form the third largest fish family with around 1700 species.
Cichlids inhabit most of tropical Africa with around 900 species.
In the East African lakes Malawi and Tanganyika there are 350 species each and in Lake Victoria there are 250 to 350 species. Around 400 species live in Central and South America, four in Cuba and Hispaniola, and one in Texas. Another 17 species live in Madagascar. In Asia, the cichlids are represented with only eleven to twelve species: three in southern India and Sri Lanka, one in southern Iran (Iranocichla hormuzensis) and seven to eight in Israel and Jordan
South American dwarf cichlids
The dwarf cichlids of the genus Apistogramma and in the cichlid family occur in around 70 different species in a number of South American countries. The fish live in fresh water.
Cockatoo dwarf cichlid
The males of the cockatoo dwarf cichlid (Apistogramma cacatuoides) reach a maximum size of only approx. 9 cm, while the females are significantly smaller with 5 to 6 cm. The fish are found in the Amazon region of Peru and in some feet of Suriname.
Birds are numerous in Suriname. Macaws, other parrots, hummingbirds and toucans fly through the air here. Noticeable species are also the scarlet ibis, the black vulture, the hoatzin and the cinnamon tattila. A specialty is the harpy.
The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) belongs to the hawk-like family (Accipitridae) in the order of the birds of prey (Accipitriformes). The bird reaches a size between 90 to 110 cm with a wing span between 1.75 and 2 m. The bird is black on the back and gray-white on the belly. The relatively long tail is also black and has three broad gray horizontal bands. The legs are white or pale yellow with a dark gray transverse banding. On the gray head there is a broad and double head. The harpy eagle can be found in the tropical forests of all of Central and parts of South America up to a maximum altitude of 2,000 m. The bird feeds mainly on sloths and monkeys, but also on other mammals and birds.