Thailand: Political System
According to EQUZHOU.NET, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the king. From 1947 until his death on October 13, 2016, the very popular King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Rama IX, ruled. (1927-2016). See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Thailand politics, and acronyms as well.
At the head of the state is a head of government who is directly elected by the people. The parliament is a bicameral system. It consists of the Senate with 200 seats, which is elected every six years, and the House of Representatives with 500 seats, which is elected every four years. The voting age is 18 years.
The official name of the country is:
|Kingdom of Thailand|
The country is divided into 76 provinces, which in turn are divided into districts.
In September 2006, the military took power in the country with the support of the king. The elected Prime Minister Thaksin had to go into exile. In the elections in December 2007, the newly founded “Party of People’s Power” (PPP) then clearly won the elections. The PPP is considered a Thaksin-affiliated political grouping. The chairman of the PPP Samak Sundavarej announced after his election victory that he wanted to form a government under his leadership. The election result is considered a severe defeat for the putschists.
A military government is currently ruling under Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-o-cha. The head of state has been King Maha Vajiralongkorn (born 1952) since October 13, 2016
The national anthem of Thailand has been “Phleng Chat” since December 10, 1939. It was composed by Peter Feit (Phra Chen-Duriyang, 1883-1968), son of German immigrants. Your text is from Luang Saranuprphan.
|In Thai||In English translation|
|Prathet thai ruam luead nu’a chat chu’a thaiPen pra cha rat – pha thai kho’ng thai thuk suan
Yu dam rong khong wai dai thang muan
Duai thai luan mai rak sa mak khi
Thai ni rak sa ngop tae thu’ng rop mai khlat
Ekka cha mai hai khrai khom khi
Sala luead thuk yat pen chat phli
Tha loeng pra thet chat thai tha wi mi chai
|Thailand embracesall people with Thai blood with his chest.
Every inch of Thailand belongs to the Thais.
The country has maintained its independence
because the Thais have always been united.
Thais live in peace,
but they are not cowards in war.
They will not allow
anyone to deprive them of their independence.
Nor will they suffer tyranny.
All Thais are ready
to sacrifice every drop of their blood to the nation
for security, freedom and progress.
The national flag of Thailand was established by King Rama VI on September 28, 1917. (Introduced 1880-1925. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag with the five horizontal stripes in red-white-dark blue-white-red are interpreted as follows:
– red symbolizes the nation
– white stands for religion
– blue stands for the monarchy
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Thailand.
Thailand: writers and poets
- Angkhan Kalayanaphong(born 1926)poet
- Nauwarat Pnongphaibun(born 1940)poet
- Sunthon Phu(1786-1855)major poet of Thailand; Representative of the lyric genre Nirat (“Abschiedsdichtung”)
- Si Prat(17th century)writer; Representative of the lyric genre Nirat (“Abschiedsdichtung”)
- Prince Mahidol Adulyadej of Songkla (1892-1929)father of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX); is considered the founder of modern medicine and public health in Thailand.
- Silpa Bhirasri (1892-1962)sculptor and painter; is considered the founder of modern art in Thailand. His works include the statue of King Rama I at the Phra Puttha Yodfa Bridge (Memorial Bridge) in Bangkok and the statue of the standing Buddha in Phutthamonthon Park near Nakhon Pathom.
- Rirkrit Tiravanija (born 1961)action artist
- Jintara Poonlarp (born 1971)one of the most famous Mor Lam and Luk Thung singers
Politicians and rulers
- Kuang Abhayawongse (1902-1968)Prime Minister of Thailand from 1944-48
- Bhumibol Adulyadej (born 1927)the current king since June 9, 1946
- Pridi Banomyong (Luang Praditmanudhamma, 1900-1983)Prime Minister of Thailand between March and August 1946. He was involved in the bloodless overthrow of the absolute monarchy of Thailand on March 24, 1932, which led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. The following year, Pridi was suspected of being a communist and had to leave the country. During the reign of Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena, he was acquitted in court.
- Tawee Boonyaket (1904-1971)served as Prime Minister of Thailand for exactly 17 days in 1945
- Boromatrailokanat (Prince Ramesuan, 1431-1488)King of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya 1448-1488; introduced the ministries of Defense and War, as well as the Ministry of Interior and Labor, which are still known today. He also enforced Sakdi Na (“field violence”), also known as the law of the civil hierarchy, according to which every subject received land ownership.
- Kriangsak Jamanandana Chomanan (1917-2003)General, Prime Minister of Thailand 1977-80. He ensured an improvement in diplomatic relations with various countries in Southeast Asia, in particular with Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar.
- Sarit Dhanarajata (1908-1963)Field Marshal; Prime Minister of Thailand 1959-63
- Sanya Dharmasakti (1905-2002)Prime Minister of Thailand 1973-75
- Ekatat (Boromaraja V., d. 1767)last king of Ayutthaya 1758-1761 and 1763-1767
- Ekathotsarot (around 1556-1611)King of Ayutthaya
- Prateep Ungsongtham Hata (born 1952)General Secretary of the Duang Prateep Foundation and Thai Senator. In 2004, Queen Silvia of Sweden awarded her “The World’s Children’s Prize for the Rights of the Child” for her commitment to the poor.
- Chatichai Junhavan (1920-1998)Prime Minister of Thailand 1988-91
- Thanom Kittikachorn (1911-2004)General and Prime Minister of Thailand 1957-58 and 1963-73 respectively. He was a representative of a tough pro-American and anti-communist course and an opponent of parliamentarianism. Kittikachorn was involved in numerous coups. As incumbent Prime Minister he dissolved parliament on November 17, 1971 and imposed martial law on the grounds that he had to save the country from internal disintegration and the pro-communist guerrillas. On October 14, 1973 his military junta was overthrown and Kittikachorn went into exile. However, he returned and was nominated for the Royal Guard of Honor in 1999 by then Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai.
- Tanin Kraivixien (born 1927)Prime Minister of Thailand 1976-77
- Suchinda Kraprayoon (born 1933)Prime Minister of Thailand in 1992
- Chuan Leekpai (born 1938)lawyer; Prime Minister of Thailand 1992-2000
- Narai the Great (d. 1688)King of Ayutthaya 1656-1688
- Naresuan (1555-1605)King of Ayutthaya 1590-1605
- Thawal Thamrong Navaswadhi (1901-1988)Prime Minister of Thailand in 1947
- Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (1884-1948)the first Prime Minister of Thailand 1932-33
- Anand Panyarachun (born 1932)Prime Minister of Thailand 1991-92
- Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena (1887-1947)Prime Minister of Thailand 1933-38
- Phetracha (d. 1703)King of Ayutthaya
- Kukrit Pramoj (1911-1995)Prime Minister of Thailand 1975-76; During his tenure, the relationship between Thailand and China improved significantly.
- Seni Pramoj (1905-1997)Prime Minister of Thailand 1945-46 and 1975-76
- Prasat Thong (d. 1655)King of Ayutthaya 1630-1655
- Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (1862-1943)one of the most influential Thai personalities of the early 20th century. He is considered the founder of the modern school system in Thailand and modernized the provincial administration as the first minister of the interior from 1894 to 1915. Then he devoted himself to writing history.
- Rama I. Phra Puttha Yotfa Chulalok (1736-1809)founder of the Chakri dynasty, which chose Bangkok as its royal seat; King of Siam 1783-1809
- Rama II Phra Phuttaloetla (1766-1824)King of Siam
- Rama III. Phra Nang Klao (1788-1851)King of Siam 1824-1851
- Rama IV Mongkut (1804-1868)King of Siam 1851-1868
- Rama V. Chulalongkorn the Great (1853-1910)King of Siam 1868-1910
- Rama VI. Vajiravudh (1880-1925)King of Siam 1910-1925
- Rama VII. Prajadhipok (1893-1941)King of Siam and Thailand 1925-1935. During his reign in 1932 the absolute monarchy was transformed into a constitutional monarchy. He reluctantly agreed to this with the words: “I agree to become a puppet so that the introduction of the constitutional monarchy can be carried out as gently as possible.” In 1935 he abdicated.
- Rama VIII. Ananda Mahidol (1925-1946)King of Thailand 1935-1946
- Rama IX. Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great (born 1927)King of Thailand since June 9, 1946
- Rama Thibodi (1314-1369)the first king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in Siam
- Rama Thibodi II (1472-1529)King of Ayutthaya in Siam
- Ramkhamhaeng (around 1239-1298)King of Sukhothai. Under his rule, Sukhotai became the most powerful state in Southeast Asia.
- Pote Sarasin (1905-2000)Prime Minister of Thailand September to December 1957; was Secretary General of SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) from 1957
- Thaksin Shinawatra (born 1949)Prime Minister of Thailand since 2001
- Banharn Silapa-Archa (born 1932)Prime Minister of Thailand 1995-96
- Sirikit (born 1932)Queen of Thailand, wife of King Rama IX. She has been President of the Red Cross in Thailand since 1956.
- Phibul Songkhram (1887-1964)Field Marshal; Prime Minister of Thailand 1938-44 and 1948-57. Under his rule the country was renamed from Siam to “Mueang Thai” (Thailand).
- Songtham (1590-1628)King of Ayutthaya 1610-1628
- Sri Indraditya (d. 1270)founder of the Phra Ruang dynasty of the Sukhothai kingdom. He ruled 1238-1270.
- Taksin (1734-1782)king until the beginning of the Chakri dynasty; was “royally executed”, that is, since no royal blood was officially allowed to be shed, he was put in a velvet sack and beaten to death
- Prem Tinsulanonda (born 1920)General; Prime Minister of Thailand 1980-88
- Chavalit Yongchaiyudh (born 1932)politician and general; Prime Minister of Thailand 1996-97; currently Deputy Prime Minister
- Amorn Surangkanjanajai (born 1953)actor; lives in Germany
- Supachai Panitchpakdi (born 1946)Director General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) 2002-2005
- Sulak Sivaraksa (born 1933)founder and director of the Thai non-governmental organization “Sathirakoses-Nagapradeepa Foundation”, co-founder of the INEB (International Network of Engaged Buddhists); 1995 received the “Alternative Nobel Prize”
- “Prince Bira” (Birabongse Bhanudej Bhanubandh) (1914-1985)racing driver
- Udomporn Polsak (born 1981)weightlifter; Olympic champion and two-time world champion
- Buakaw Por. Pramuk (born 1982)Muay Thai fighter (Thai boxing)
- Paradorn Srichaphan (born 1979)tennis player
- Pawina Thongsuk (born 1979)weightlifter; Olympic champion
Theologians and philosophers
- Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (1906-1993)is considered to be one of the most influential Theravada Buddhist monks of the 20th century.
- Ajahn Chah (1918-1992)Theravada Buddhist monk of the Kamatthana forest monk tradition; was also a teacher for western Theravada monks. Monasteries around the world refer to him and his teaching.
- Michael Mitchai Cardinal Kitbunchu (born 1929)Archbishop of Bangkok
One of the most famous mammals in Thailand is probably the Asian elephant, even if the wild population is now declining worryingly. The elephant, which differs from the African elephant mainly in its smaller ears, is seen much more often as a tourist attraction in shows and as a pack and work animal.
Most often you can still find it in the national park in the northeast of the country.
The leopards and tigers indigenous to the area show dwindling populations due to heavy hunting.
The Sumatran rhinoceros and tapirs are now almost extinct and can only be admired in national parks.
On the other hand, you can meet monkeys far more frequently , with a wide variety of species native to Thailand. In the monsoon and rain forests of life handed gibbon and the Pig- which Plumplori exclusively inhabited the tropical rainforest. Other species are the langurs, macaques and Crab-eating macaques. Flying foxes, mongooses and small squirrels can be found almost everywhere. The latter belongs to the deer piglet family and, with a body height of approx. 20 cm, is the smallest member of the ungulates. The spotted musang is also still quite common, as is the pig badger in the forests of the Malay Peninsula and the short-tailed porcupine in the forests and grasslands.
It is unlikely that you will encounter the Javanese pangolin, and also the sun bear, which is often called the sun bear is declining in its existence. This is not least due to traditional medicine, which, as with the rhinoceros and other threatened animal species, claims that certain parts of the animal’s body have healing or stimulating powers.
Reptiles/amphibians (without snakes)
Turtles are found in Thailand, but some are extremely rare. This also includes the
Spiked earth turtle with the eye-catching red carapace, which still occurs on fast flowing mountain streams. The
Temple tortoise lives on the Malay Peninsula as well as in south-eastern central Thailand.
In contrast, butterfly agamas and banded geckos as well as many other agamen and gecko species are common throughout Thailand. To those found in Thailand monitor species which includes Bengalwaran which Dumerilwaran and the Asian Water Monitor, the m with its 3 length one of the largest lizards in the world.
The brackish water zones should be entered with caution as they are home to the estuarine crocodile, which is the largest living crocodile. It also lives in coastal waters, mangrove swamps, and at estuaries and is relatively widespread. Its distribution area includes the coasts of Sri Lanka, East India, Burma and Cambodia, the Philippines, New Guinea, Australia, the Bismarck Islands and the Solomon Islands. This crocodile has been protected since the late 1970s.
Of course, the amphibians are also represented in Thailand, frogs and toads can be found wherever there is water.
Snakes (not poisonous)
The blood python, which occurs predominantly in southern Thailand, is one of the nontoxic, but therefore by no means harmless, snakes. It captures its food by strangling it in a stranglehold. There are also some non-poisonous tree snakes , but under no circumstances should they be confused with the poisonous representatives of their species.
The scolopender, which belongs to the family of arthropods, can become uncomfortable for humans. This ground-dwelling, crepuscular or nocturnal centipede has a flat build and can grow up to 30 cm long and 2.5 cm thick. You can find it under stones, roots and in crevices. Its bite is not fatal, but it can be very painful and sometimes even lead to paralysis.
The common tarantulas are actually poisonous, but the poison does not pose a threat to humans. However, the bite could be quite painful. The blue Burma tarantula, which stands out with its deep blue colored legs, is aggressive and snappy, but also beautiful to look at. Their stimulus threshold is relatively low and compared to other tarantulas, the spider’s poison is also quite strong.
Poisonous fish are the stone, scorpion and lionfish found in the Indo-Pacific. They are among the most poisonous fish species on earth. Stone fish and scorpion fish can camouflage themselves very well and are therefore difficult to spot. They both have a number of poisonous stings, and those of the stone fish can sometimes be life-threatening.
The most famous representative of the puffer fish, the fugu, is also poisonous. He has a compact, round body shape and no scales. The nerve toxin is created by the microorganisms it consumes, the Pseudomonas bacteria, which in turn produce the toxin. It only becomes dangerous if you prepare it incorrectly, as the poison leads to nerve paralysis and you die of the resulting respiratory or cardiac arrest. Since the brain is not attacked, one remains conscious the entire time.
The poisonous snakes of Thailand, of which there are a considerable number, should not be forgotten. The king cobra is one of them, which is the longest venomous snake in the world, as well as the yellow-banded krait, the blue krait, the chain viper, the green viper, the green whip snake, the red-headed krai t, especially in southern Thailand, the monocle cobra on the Malay Peninsula and the white-lipped -Bamboo viper. A bite from most venomous snakes here is often fatal without treatment!
Particularly noticeable are the bright red males of the fire dragonfly, which can be found everywhere on stagnant water. The brownish females, on the other hand, are rather inconspicuous. But other insects such as beetles and butterflies are also very widespread.
The avifauna of Thailand is home to some special features, such as the hornbill, whose most striking feature is a horn-like structure above the beak. Drongos, hoopoes, kingfishers, starlings are represented as well as herons, cranes, king fishermen, terns and storks.
The once colorful underwater world has greatly decreased in its wealth, as many of the coral reefs have been destroyed and the habitat for the many species of fish and other living beings continues to dwindle. Ballfish and porcupine fish are said to be found here, and sharks can occasionally be seen. Divers are always enthusiastic about encounters with the whale shark .
Thailand is divided into several climatic zones, according to which the flora also depends. Prevails in the north of the monsoon forest of oaks, agarwood trees and teak trees, for a strict Fällverbot was adopted. In the northeast, due to overexploitation, desertification has started, which is particularly evident in the Khorat plateau.
In the south and south-east of the country, tropical rainforests dominate and play a very important role not only as a climate regulator, but also as a habitat. In the upper zones of the rain forest of up to 50 m wide thrives Yang tree, in coastal regions grow Rotangpalmen and ebenaceae. Also in the south of Thailand, mangroves line the coast, which represent a unique biotope for plants and animals. The nipa palm, which is used very extensively, also grows here.
Numerous Ficus species are particularly widespread , with the rubber tree and the banyan tree being just two of the approximately 800 different species. The latter is a botanical specialty and is one of the largest living organisms in the world. It is also known as the strangler fig or Bengal fig. He is a hemiepiphyte, which means that the rhizome (rhizome) this plant climbs up on tree trunks but takes root in the ground. By being anchored in the ground, the plant is supplied with nutrients and the aerial roots become thicker and lignified. Over time, they develop into stems, some of which are enormous in diameter. As soon as the roots touch, they merge into a dense network that winds around the host tree. In this way, its main vessels are pinched off and it dies.
Banyan trees are fast-growing and can reach a height of over 30 m, but their girth is more impressive. The largest banyan tree has a diameter of 300 m and is in Calcutta. The tree is sacred to many peoples because it is regarded as the seat of spirits.
At higher altitudes there are pines , and at an altitude of 1700 to 2100 m on Doi Chiang Dao mountain. A true rarity grows in northern Thailand, the Thai hemp palm. It occurs exclusively in this area and is characterized by the smooth trunk and its remarkable resistance to the cool and strong windy location.
If you look at the rivers, there is one plant that strikes you in particular: the water hyacinth. As a thick carpet it covers the rivers and although it is considered a weed, hinders navigation and takes away the light from other plants, so that they die and the fish lose their food, it has its good. It is able to purify the water of toxins such as arsenic and is therefore used specifically to purify drinking water.
Bamboo forms entire forests, and is particularly common in areas that have already been deforested. It is still a very important crop.
In the woods, the lianas, ferns and mosses winding on the trees accompany you at every step.
Also are often orchids, gardenia, hibiscus and the toxic rhododendron. At the water you can admire water lilies and lotus blossoms and also jasmine, bougainvilleae and frangipanis grow here. The latter come in the form of large shrubs or small trees. They belong to the dog poison family and stand out for their pink-white-colored and intensely fragrant flowers. Their very long (up to 30 cm), pointed, dark green leaves are also striking. In Asia, the Frangipani applies as a temple or sacrificial plant and is a symbol of immortality.
The prickly and foul-smelling durian fruit of the civet tree is very popular with the Thai people. Despite being considered a delict, the smell of the pulp is so reminiscent of rotten eggs that it is forbidden to take the fruit on public transport.
The nipa palm, whose occurrence is limited to the mangrove forests in the south of Thailand, is used economically. Its fibers are used to make wickerwork and the flowers are used to make a sugary juice, while the cactus-like fruits are considered a delicacy in Thailand.
The Malay Peninsula has eucalyptus and rubber tree plantations, and the bamboo is still used to build houses, furniture and scaffolding.
Aloe Vera grows on the southern coast of Thailand, the most famous medicinal plant in the world. There are a total of around 200 types of aloe, but only two types have healing properties, including aloe vera. The plant has no trunk, while the approximately 50 cm long, fleshy leaves that are toothed on the edge are arranged in a rosette. The gel-like interior of the leaves is also the main source of the active ingredients in aloe. Taken internally, for example in the form of a juice, the substances have a strengthening effect on the immune system and detoxify. If the gel contained in the leaves is applied externally, it has a skin-caring effect and a soothing effect on mosquito bites, sunburn and burns. It also has a disinfectant and wound and scar healing effect. Aloe also proves these properties in itself, by being able to close wounds on leaves within a few hours. However, the plant only develops the full range of its active ingredients at the age of 3-4 years. All wild growing aloe species are under nature protection!
The fingerroot is another plant with healing properties. Due to its antispasmodic properties, it is often used for digestive problems, but it also has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.
Ginseng is one of the most famous herbal remedies. The plant is between 50 and 80 cm tall, has whitish-yellow flowers and then shiny red fruits. The root, which is up to 15 cm long and 2 cm thick, is interesting and is used to strengthen the immune system and to increase physical and mental performance. A distinction is made between red and white ginseng. The dosage form and dose depends on the origin of the ginseng. In general, the medicine should not be given for more than three months.
What all ficus species have in common is that their leaves contain a milky sap that is slightly toxic and, if consumed in small amounts, can lead to vomiting, stomach pain and, if very large amounts, to cramps and paralysis.
Also known as golden Alpenrose or Rosenbaum known Rhododendron is because of the flowers, leaves, fruits and diterpenes contained in the nectar highly poisonous. The plant, which belongs to the heather family, causes stomach irritation and symptoms of paralysis to vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, cramps and in very severe cases even death from respiratory paralysis.
By the frangipani Caution is advised as this contains a toxic latex.
The water hyacinth originally comes from South America, but it was introduced to Thailand from Java, where it came after its spread in North America.
The approximately 40 m high civet or durian tree, the prickly fruit of which is very popular in Thailand, was once brought to the country from Indonesia and Malaysia.