Ukraine: Political System
According to COMPUTERMINUS.COM, Ukraine is a presidential republic, which is reflected in the powers of the president, but according to the constitution the country is actually a republic with a presidential-parliamentary system of government. The head of state, the president, is directly elected for five years; He is Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Chairman of the National Security and Defense Council, and holds significant emergency powers. He has the right to initiate legislation and can veto legislative decisions. The prime minister is the chairman of the government, which has to answer to the president and parliament. The legislature rests with the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada), which is elected for four years. Since the constitutional amendment of 2000, the establishment of a bicameral parliament has been established. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Ukraine politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|Presidential Republic of Ukraine
In terms of administration, Ukraine is in 24 regions (Oblasty), two major cities with this status. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea came to Russia as a result of the referendum on March 16, 2014
- Ivano Frankivsk
- Lviv (Lviv)
The national anthem of Ukraine, неЩевмерлаУкраїна, means something like “Ukraine is not yet dead” in the English translation. The Catholic priest and composer Mykhailo Verbytsky, composed the music for a poem by the patriot Pavlo Chubynsky, written in Kiev in 1862, in 1863. In 1917 the resulting song became the national anthem of the young Republic of Ukraine. The anthem was replaced under the Soviets, but reinstated unchanged in 1992 by the new Ukrainian parliament.
|In Cyrillic script
|In the English translation
|Ще не вмерла України і слава, і воля,Ще нам, браття молодії, усміхнеться доля.
Згинуть наші воріженьки, як роса на сонці.
Запануєм і ми, браття, у своїй сторонці.
Душу й тіло ми положим за нашу свободу,
І покажем, що ми, браття, козацького роду.
Станем, браття, в бій кровавий від Сяну до Дону
В ріднім краю панувати не дамо нікому;
Чорне море ще всміхнеться, дід Дніпро зрадіє,
Ще у нашій Україні доленька наспіє
|Fame and freedomhave not yet died to Ukraine,
nor is fate
friendly to us, young brothers.
Our enemies will disappear
like dew in the sun,
and we too, brothers, are masters of
our own land.We want to
give body and soul for our freedom
and show that we, brothers, are of the
The Ukrainian flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the upper half is blue, the lower half yellow. Blue and yellow are said to symbolize the colors of the sky over golden wheat fields. This means that the Ukrainian national flag has the same colors as the Swedish.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Ukraine.
The flag has its origin in the colors of the emblem of the Varangian dynasty of the Rurikids, who ruled over Kievan Rus and the Russian Empire from the 9th – 16th centuries.
In July 1990 the state independence of the Ukrainian SSR was declared and the national flag was hoisted on the building of the Kiev City Council next to the state flag of the USSR. The national flag was allowed to fly over the Ukrainian parliament for the first time in August 1991 after the declaration of independence from the Soviet Union.
Ukraine: writers and poets
Hrihorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda (1722-1794)
Hrihorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda an important Ukrainian philosopher, musician, poet and musician. He was and is often referred to as the “Wandering Philosopher”, as he traveled the country as a pilgrim and teacher in the last decades of his life. His philosophical writings were strongly influenced by the writings of the Neoplatonists, stoicism and mysticism, whereby he himself dealt mainly with biblical subjects.
Jurij Ihorewytsch Andruchowytsch (born 1960)
The works of this writer, poet, essayist and translator have been translated into several languages and he is considered one of the most important intellectuals in Ukraine. His works include the volumes of poetry “Heaven and Places”, “Downtown”, “Exotic Plants and Birds” as well as several novels and essays. He has been awarded several national and international prizes.
Michail Afanasjewitsch Bulgakow (1891 – 1940)
This writer from Kiev is one of the great satirists of Russian literature.
Ivan Franko (1856 – 1916)
This Ukrainian poet and writer is one of the most famous in his country. Among other things, he translated Goethe’s “Faust” and Heine’s “Germany” into Ukrainian. He worked for several magazines and dealt with the national and literary history of Galician Ukraine. In Vienna he defended his dissertation “On Barlaam and Josaphat and the Unicorn Parable”.
Ljubko Deresch (born 1984)
The young Lemberger has already published four novels and numerous short stories. In October 2005 the English translation of his novel “Kult” was published by Suhrkamp Verlag. Deresch studies economics in Lviv.
Ilja Grigoryevich Ehrenburg (1891 – 1967)
The writer and journalist was born in Kiev and came from a Jewish-German family. From 1909 he lived in Paris and Berlin. As a Jew and an intellectual he could not feel safe in the Soviet Union and was repeatedly confronted with the disappearance of people from his environment. He wrote for the army press, reported from the front. In the meantime he was banned from writing, and in 1952 he was awarded the international Lenin Peace Prize.
Nikolai Wassiljewitsch Gogol (1809 – 1852)
This Russian writer of Ukrainian origin dealt with the humorous depiction of devils and witches, but later his works became increasingly demonic. He was also a professor at the Department of General History at the University of Saint Petersburg.
Heorhij Ruslanowytsch Gongadze (1969 – 2000)
This Georgian-Ukrainian journalist founded the Internet newspaper “Ukrajinska Pravda”. He disappeared in September 2000, and in November his decapitated body was found near the city of Tarashcha.
Michail Jefimowitsch Kolzow (1898 – 1940)
The older brother of the cartoonist Boris Jefimowitsch Jefimow was a columnist and journalist who was best known for his reports on the Spanish Civil War. He was Stalin’s court journalist, but was executed by the Stalinist apparatus in 1940 for alleged sympathy for Trotsky.
Lev Zinowjewitsch Kopelew (1912 – 1997)
The Germanist and writer was born in Kiev and sentenced to camp imprisonment under Stalin. After Stalin’s death he was released and started working as a literary scholar. During a trip abroad to Germany, he and his wife were expatriated and from then on they lived in Cologne. Kopelew campaigned for international understanding and fought against human rights violations.
Alexander Kostinsky (born 1946)
The Ukrainian-Jewish poet, writer and illustrator wrote children’s books, developed cartoons and worked as a broadcaster. His important children’s books include “The Wind Embraces Me”, “My Yiddish Luck” and “The Star Seller”.
Ivan Petrowytsch Kotljarewskyj (1769 – 1838)
This Ukrainian poet renewed the written Ukrainian language. His subjects included, for example, the transfer of Greek classics to the realities of life of the Ukrainian people. The Kharkiv State University of the Arts “Kharkiv State Kotlyarevskyi University of the Arts” was named in his honor.
Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin (1844-1930)
Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin (Ukrainian: Ілля Юхимович Рєпін) was one of the most important representatives of Ukrainian and Russian realism as a painter. In his earlier pictures he primarily depicts the life of the Ukrainian and Russian people and denounces the social grievances of the time. Later he devoted himself more to portraits of famous Russian writers and composers.
A trip to the Volga in 1870 inspired him to create his wonderful painting: “The Wolgatreidler”.
Taras Hryhorowytsch Schewtschenko (Shevchenko) (1814 – 1861)
This poet first became famous for his painting, but from 1840 he only published his literary works and became a kind of “voice of the people”, a little later “the” Ukrainian romantic.
Hryhorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda (1722-1794)
Hryhorij Sawowytsch Skoworoda (Ukrainian Григорій Савович Сковорода) was a philosopher, poet and musician. He was also called the “Wandering Philosopher” because he spent the last decades of his life as a traveling pilgrim and teacher.
Between 1741 and 1744 he was a singer in the court choir at the Tsar’s court in St. Petersburg because of his excellent voice.
Lev Nikolajewitsch Count Tolstoy (1828 – 1910)
The main works of this Russian writer are “War and Peace” and “Anna Karenina”. The literary genre of the historical novel was decisively shaped by these works. In accordance with the enormous popularity of Tolstoy in Russia, a modern Russian coin was dedicated to him.
Lesja Ukrainka (1871 – 1913)
This Ukrainian was a well-known poet, dramaturge and translator. Her poetry was folkloric, traditional, impressionistic and historical and is considered an important contribution to neo-romanticism.
Architects and builders
- Grigorij Ivanovich Kotoff (1859, 1942), Russian architect, restorer, art historian and scientist. From 1878 he attended the Petersburg Art Academy. After graduating, he studied abroad for four years on a scholarship, and then from 1888 on, teaching at his graduation academy in Saint Petersburgto accept. From 1889 he taught art history, was the head of the renovation of the academy building from 1891 to 1893 and finally received the chair of architecture in 1894. At the age of 35 he was a professor at the Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, from which he had just completed his academic degree. Shortly afterwards, Kotoff became director of the Baron Stieglitz drawing school. Kotoff is known for his work as a restorer (he restored the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, the Wladimiro-Wolynskij-Cathedral in Moscow and the Christ-Transfiguration-Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky), as the general curator for numerous sacred buildings and also as an architect (building of the Moscow City Duma with Preobrazhensky, design for an embassy church in Vienna, which was built from 1839 to 1899).
- Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin(born 1844 in Ukraine, died 1930 in Kuokkala in Finland; today: Repino near Petersburg in Russia) studied at the Academy in Petersburg from 1864 to 1871. In1870 he found his most important motive while traveling on the Volga – the motif for the painting “Burlaken an der Wolga” or “Wolgatreidler” from 1870-73.The painting becomes the program picture of the artist group Peredwischniki (Wanderer), which Repin joined in 1878. In his pictures Repin, who is considered the most important representative of the Russian realists in the second half of the 19th century, denounces the social grievances. His works are characterized by strong colors, dramatic scenes, psychological insights and historical representations.
They are considered to be the model of Soviet realism.
- Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (born in Kiev in1878, died in Leningrad in 1935) studied at the art schools in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.At the beginning of his artistic career, Malevich orientated himself towards the Fauves, Cubists and Futurists, but especially towards their rural scenes. In 1915 in the manifesto “From Cubism to Suprematism” he defined the term Suprematism (the pure non-objectivity) and took the abstraction begun by Cubism to the extreme. His abstract artistic language was based on geometric shapes and pure colors. In 1929 he finally returned to the USSR.Like other Russian painters, he devoted himself (probably) to figurative painting under political pressure; his works at this time were peasant pictures and portraits.Until the 80s, his abstract paintings were not valued in the USSR. His most famous works are “Black Square” (1912) and “Eight Red Rectangles” (1914).
- Boris Jefimowitsch Jefimow (born 1900)The artist and cartoonist initially designed posters for the CPSU propaganda organization Agitprop in Kievand Odessa, then he moved to Moscow. As a cartoonist, he worked for several newspapers and collaborated with his brother, who was an editor. His caricatures were critical and often criticized the Western world.
- Anatoly Solovyanenko (1791-1844)opera tenor, people’s artist of the USSR. Solovianenko was born in Donetsk, and it was here that his artistic career began.
- Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (1791 – 1844)The son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was also a composer and piano virtuoso, but could never live up to the demands placed on him. He did not marry and left no offspring.
- Reinhold Moritzewitsch Gliére (1875 – 1956)The Russian composer came from Kiev. He wrote orchestral works (also for wind orchestra), ballet music and chamber music.
- Swatoslaw Richter (1915 – 1997)The Soviet pianist became famous primarily for his legendary recordings: he played works by Tchaikovsky, Schumann, Liszt, Bach and Rachmaninoff.
- Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin (1844 – 1930)The Russian painter has become the model of Soviet socialist realism. He painted the life of the Ukrainian people and denounced the social grievances.
- Igor Markevitch (1912 – 1983)The composer and conductor went to France in 1914 and became one of the most important Russian composers there in the 1930s. He composed orchestral pieces, chamber music works, choral works, piano pieces as well as a piano concerto and a sinfonietta.
- Misha Mengelberg (born 1935)The Kiev-born Dutch pianist heads the Instant Composers Pool Orchestra, which combines European music with elements of free jazz.
- Ruslana Lyschytschko (born 1973)The Ukrainian singer, dancer, producer and composer sang in a music group as a child and studied at the conducting faculty of the Lviv Conservatory. She writes texts and music for her pieces herself and also produces them, in 2000 she was voted Personality of the Year. In 2003 “Wild Dances” was the first Ukrainian album to go platinum. In 2004 she won the Eurovision Song Contest in Istanbul. In the same year she became a symbol of modern Ukraine and the Orange Revolution when she stood up for Viktor Yushchenko. She is running for Yushchenko’s party in the Ukrainian parliamentary elections in 2006.
- Ilja Iljitsch Metschnikow (1845 – 1916)The Ukrainian was a zoologist, anatomist and bacteriologist. He became famous for discovering immune defense mechanisms and fighting them
of cholera. For the discovery of phagocytosis, he and Paul Ehrlich received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908
- George Bogdan Kistiakowsky (1900 – 1982)The chemist was born in Kiev and was head of the explosion department at “Los Alamos National” during the Second World War
Laboratory “. Under Dwight D. Eisenhower he was involved in the construction of the first atomic bomb. From 1977 he was chairman of the” Council for a
Livable World “, a society that is committed against nuclear war.
- Yevgeny Oskarowitsch Paton (1870 – 1953)The Ukrainian scientist invented arc welding and also worked as an engineer in bridge construction. His method of
electric welding, the so-called “Paton method”, made him an expert in steel bridges. He built a 1,492 km in Kiev
long bridge over the Dnieper, which was inaugurated in 1953.
- Lucja Frey (1889 – 1942)Frey’s syndrome was named after this Jewish physicist and doctor from Lemberg. From 1941 to 1942 she worked in the
At the time, so-called Ghetto Polyclinic in Lemberg, in 1942 she was executed in Lemberg for political reasons.
- Stefan Banach (1892 – 1945)The Polish mathematician was born in Lemberg, Ukraine, and studied there at the Polytechnic. After that he studied mathematics and
finally worked with the mathematician Hugo Steinhaus, who found him an assistant position at the chair of mathematics.
His dissertation dealt with functional analysis, with which Banach created a new area of mathematics. He was born in 1924
Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 1930 also of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic. He will
considered a math genius.
Politicians and rulers
- Ivan Stepanowitsch Maseppa (1644 – 1709)This captain of the Ukrainian Cossacks was an important henchman in the fight against the Turks under Peter I. Soon after, he left
but independent ways, whereupon Peter I had his portrait hung on the gallows and Maseppa from the Russian Orthodox Church
- Mikhail Sergejewitsch Gorbachev (reign: 1985-1991) (born 1931 in
joined the CPSU in 1952 as a lawyer. He made a rapid career within the party and was born in 1971
Member of the Central Committee, Secretary of the Central Committee in 1978 and member of the Politburo in 1980. In 1985 he was at the head of the Soviet Union, he became
General Secretary of the party. His election not only brought about a generation change at the top of the CPSU, but also one
Change of style in Soviet politics. Gorbachev changed cadres and appointed new members of the Politburo. He
Since his appointment as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1988, initiated a program of reform that would reduce the political
Should loosen up structures and ascribe partial independence to economic activity within the USSR.
The decisions of the bodies in power should be brought closer to the population in their decision-making process. The leading role
the party should be within this reform movement, which with the keywords “Perestroika” (conversion) and “Glasnost” (transparency and
Openness) went down in history, remain untouched. Gorbachev’s “revolution from above” led to one so far
impossible socio-political diversity of opinion, but also to a radicalization of this. Non-Russian peoples and
Nations strove to leave the Soviet Union, the spirit of “perestroika” and “glasnost” also wafted into the communist ones
Countries of Europe. Especially in the GDR, the Soviet reform idea developed a momentum of its own, which ultimately led to the change in 1989
contributed. Without Gorbachev’s political rethinking, this quick turnaround on the German-German question would not have been possible.
Gorbachev’s reform movement was an autonomous “revolution from below” that led to the dissolution of the Union in December 1991
Soviet Socialist Republics and Gorbachev’s resignation.
- Leonid Brezhnev (reign: 1964-1982) (born 1906 in Kamenskoje, today
Dnjeprodzerzhinsk, died 1982 in Moscow)
was an engineer by training and became after the fall of Khrushchev (1964)
General Secretary (from 1966) of the CPSU. Brezhnev had been a member of the CPSU since 1931 and took part after being a supporter of NS Khrushchev
had risen in the Ukrainian Communist Party organization as a political commissar in World War II. Brezhnev’s political
Rise accelerated with his membership in the Central Committee from 1952. Brezhnev was secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU from 1950 to
1952, 1956 to 1960 and 1963 to 1964. From 1957 he was a member of the Presidium, 1966 of the Politburo of the CPSU and from 1960 he stood as
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet for the first time at the head of the Soviet regime. His was important for Brezhnev
Participation in the fall of Khrushchev in 1964, succeeding him as First Secretary and later from 1966 as General Secretary of the CPSU
Brezhnev expanded his domestic political power in the following decade, so that he in 1976 the title of one
Marshal of the Soviet Union received and in the following year in addition to the party leadership as chairman of the Supreme Soviet
second time occupied the post of Soviet head of state.
During his reign, Brezhnev worked domestically like
once Stalin sought stricter regulation of cultural life and, through the Final Act of Helsinki (1975)
The Soviets that arose and encouraged partial cooperation between East and West through the turnaround heralded in Helsinki
To suppress civil rights movement. The “Stalin Constitution”, which had been in force since 1936, was replaced in 1977 by the “Brezhnev Constitution”. In
among other things, the social conditions in the Soviet Union were redefined. Another (personal) domestic political goal
was the careful rehabilitation of Stalin in the Soviet Union, not least because Brezhnev was already a member of Stalin’s senior leadership
belonged to. In terms of foreign policy, Brezhnev increased political influence on the internal affairs of the communist
Satellite states, especially in Europe. The violent ending of the Prague Spring by the Warsaw Pact troops was made possible by the so
called Brezhnev Doctrine justified. This doctrine basically nullifies the sovereignty of the socialist countries as soon as
“There is a danger to the security of the whole socialist community”. Brezhnev also invaded Afghanistan in 1979, what that
Long-term damage to the reputation of the Soviet Union in the world. In the East-West conflict, Brezhnev sought a détente and
Disarmament policy to keep the power of the Soviet Union on the world political stage by having the Federal Republic
Germany and the existing borders in Europe recognized in the Moscow Treaty of 1970. A year later, im
Four Power Agreement of 1971 West Berlin confirmed as part of the Federal Republic. At the end of the Brezhnev era (1964-1982) was the
The Soviet Union was marked by intensified political and social differences and general stagnation.
- Nikita Sergejewitsch Khrushchev (reign: 1954-1964) (born 1894 in
Kalinowka, died in Moscow in 1971)
was originally a trained locksmith and later an engineer. The one from the rural-proletarian
Soviet politicians who came by circumstances began his political career as a member of the Central Committee in 1934. Memberships followed
of the Politburo (1939 to 1952), the Presidium of the CPSU (1952 to 1964), followed by offices such as First Secretary of the Muscovites (1935 to
1937) and the Ukrainian party organization (1938 to 1945 and 1947 to 1949). During World War II, Khrushchev was
political commissar on various sectors of the front (1941 to 1945). After Stalin’s death (March 5th, 1953) Khrushchev rose to the ground
a brief period of collective leadership and became First Secretary of the CPSU. By taking over the key offices in
Party and state he could on the XX. CPSU party congress of 1956 – extremely cautiously – Stalin’s methods of rule and the order
criticize and counteract the cult of personality that has arisen. With his open criticism, he initiated de-Stalinization – the
Autonomy practiced by Stalin should be reduced in favor of a collective leadership – which ultimately leads to changes in the
economic and cultural policy area.
From 1958 Khrushchev also took over the leadership of the government. He had
continuously removed its internal party critics from the party leadership and could thus its political goals, among other things the reform
economic administration and the expansion of the armaments industry.
Foreign policy and especially in the
East-Western confrontation under the Khrushchev government was also the thesis of peaceful coexistence of states
different social order. This policy of détente led to other wrong political decisions in the eyes
his critics to Khrushchev’s disempowerment in 1964. After his disempowerment, Khrushchev was considered a “non-person” by the Soviet
- Jossif Wissarionowitsch Stalin (reign: 1924-1953) (born 1879 in
Gori/Georgia, died in Moscow in 1953)
was not originally called the “Steely One”, but JV Dschugaschwili and was more Georgian
Origin. During his time in the Orthodox seminary (from 1894), the young Stalin also dealt with revolutionary literature
(including the writings of Karl Marx), which ultimately led to his entry into the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party in 1898
led. His assistance in organizing strikes and demonstrations gave rise to expulsion from the seminary in 1899. Stalin,
devoted to the Bolsheviks, was exiled to Siberia in 1903. After his escape (January 1904) he learned at the Bolshevik party congress
In 1905 he met the delegate Lenin, who valued him as an organizer, and Stalin was accepted into the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks in 1912
caused. Stalin’s influence in the party grew, among other things through the publication of his work “Nationalities Question and Social Democracy”
(1913), in which the solution of the nationality question in the territory of the Russian Empire on the basis of the revolutionary concept of
Bolsheviks was discussed. In the course of Lenin’s determined preparations for a proletarian revolution, Stalin became a member in 1917
the Office for the Political Direction of the Uprising. After the successful October Revolution, Stalin was the government’s People’s Commissar
Lenin’s responsibility for nationality issues (1917 to 1923) and for the workers ‘and peasants’ inspection (1917 to 1924).
Renaming of the party in Communist Party of Russia (Bolsheviks) and its reorganization (1919) Stalin increased his
political power that culminated in 1922 when he assumed the newly created post of general secretary of the party. Although this office
originally only involved organizational preparatory tasks, it became a key position under Stalin’s influence
Party and his personal instrument of struggle in dealing with internal political opponents. After Lenin’s death could
Stalin maintained his political supremacy and switched his political opponents such as Trotsky and allies between 1924 and 1929
Currents out. Stalin used his power to validate his thesis of “building socialism in one country” both in the party (from 1925
CPSU) as well as in the state. From 1929 he had the collective leadership of the country against his personal dictatorship over party
and state exchanged. The consequences were excesses of state or party patriotism through a bloody purge (Great Chistka) in
the 1930s, which presumably killed more than 15 million people through the GULag (head office of the camps) penal system
fell. Furthermore, a consistent Russification followed, which the national-cultural independence of the non-Russian
Peoples in the folklore and the building of socialism in the cultural area, resulting in a unification of
Art as a means of popular education. Art was only allowed to thematize Soviet patriotism.
In the economic sector
Since 1928, Stalin has been pushing industrialization of the country with the five-year plans. At the same time were also in the agricultural sector
ideological changes made; between 1930 and 1933 the farmers were subjected to forced collectivization,
Long-term food crises and millions of hunger victims followed.
In terms of foreign policy, Stalin led one in the 1930s
careful balance and contract policy. However, this policy ended with the invasion of Hitler’s Germany in 1941.
The so-called “Great Patriotic War”, the defensive struggle against the Germans, united the previously fragmented Soviet
Population, because not Bolshevism but “Mother Russia” should be defended. 20 to 30 million human lives
demanded the war on the Soviet side. Stalin used the start of the war to deport entire nations and population groups
because of actual or alleged collaboration with Hitler’s Germany.
After the end of World War II and the territorial
The expansion of the USSR resulted in alienation between the Stalin government and the Western powers – not least because of the
“Two-worlds theory”, which excluded a peaceful conflict between socialist and capitalist camps. The cold
In 1953 Stalin died. He left behind a country marked by repression and stagnation. The territorial enlargement of the
Land and the status of world power made many overlook Stalin’s violent crimes.
- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (reign: 1917-1924) (born 1870 in Simbirsk,
died 1924 in Gorky near Moscow)
was called Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov before his adaptation of the political alias. Lenin was from
from the educated middle class and could look back on Russian, Jewish, German and Tatar ancestors. Boy
Intellectuals came into contact with the revolutionary movement early on, and he soon headed it as one of the leading figures.
In 1895 Lenin traveled to Switzerland and was arrested on his return for political agitation among workers. 1897 was
he was exiled to Siberia for this. He spent a few years of his life in exile and later in exile in Germany and Switzerland. During this time he wrote some of his basic work. So posed
In 1899 he stated in his book “The Development of Capitalism” that Russia was already in the hands of the capitalists and that
no bourgeois-liberal, but only a proletarian revolution could change this situation.
Lenin emerged in exile from 1900
Concept of the revolutionary cadre party, which as the vanguard of the proletariat in the struggle for the creation of a socialist state and
Social order should exist. In 1903 Lenin’s party concept split the Russian social democracy into
two camps: the Bolshevik camp led by him and the Menshevik camp.
Tried in the 1905 revolution
Lenin to disempower the Russian government by all means. His failed coup attempt forced him again into exile, from which he
Returned to Russia in 1917 after the February Revolution. In this revolution he saw his chance to act and worked
single-minded towards the proletarian revolution. His April theses, a revolutionary, uncompromising program of action, always found
more resonance in the Russian population, so that in July 1917 it again became one of the Bolsheviks, however
unsuccessful revolt of workers and peasants came. Lenin fled to Finland. There he prepared for another armed man
Uprising in Russia and wrote his policy on the form and methodology of a Bolshevik rule (“State and
Supported by Trotsky and Stalin, Lenin established after a successful and violent change of power in
On October 25, 1917, Russia adopted a dictatorial system of government based on its political ideals, and the use of it to enforce it
violent means and brutal severity was legitimate. Lenin pursued a long-term policy of world revolution and foreign policy
tried through the “Communist International” (Comintern) founded in March 1919, the revolutionary movements in Europe and the
national currents in Asia for his political goals. His undisputed authority through a thorough knowledge of the
Writings by Marx and its further development (Marxism-Leninism) made it possible for him to counteract the opposing forces of the domestic politics
To hold the party together and to tackle the development of the party, state and economic apparatus.
With the establishment of the Politburo
and the Secretariat in 1919 and the ban on the formation of factions in 1921, he centralized political power in the hands of his
Leadership cadre and created crucial conditions for the bureaucratization of the party. Through this centralization, he paved the way
Stalin, before whose takeover he had warned, the way.
Lenin was assassinated twice: in 1918 and 1920. In May 1922
and in 1923 he suffered two strokes and succumbed to their consequences. Before his death he saw the replacement of Stalin in the 1922 newly created
Can no longer enforce the office of general secretary, so that Stalin at the memorial service for Lenin in January 1924 for the first time in
Name of the party leadership appeared. After Lenin’s death, Stalin headed the “Union” that had already been proclaimed on December 30, 1922
of the Socialist Soviet Union “(USSR) – consisting of the four Bolshevik-ruled individual republics RSFSR, Ukrainian,
Belarusian and Transcaucasian Republic.
- Peter I the Great (1672-1725)liberated the during his reign
Tsarist empire out of self-isolation and achieved a cautious opening towards the West and its technical innovations, the
especially the military, craft and manufacturing benefited. Shaped by his being burdened by internal conflicts
Youth, the young tsar turned away from old Moscow society and traveled – which no tsar has done before him – to
Study abroad “incognito”. In the opera “Zar und Zimmermann” by Albert Lortzing his incognito journey into the
The Netherlands sung about.
After taking office, he implemented his knowledge and experience from his travels in Russia,
whereby he completely restructured many areas of life. One of the major achievements was that of careers in government services
were no longer linked to the origin but to the performance of the candidate. The upper echelons of reading should also
Be proficient in writing and arithmetic. On the cultural level, he created the first Russian museum, the Kunstkammer, and founded the in 1725
first academy of science.
His internal and external renewal of Russia from a worldly-pragmatic perspective
did not stop at the Russian Orthodox Church either. He broke the tradition that after the death of a patriarch the
The patriarchal throne was replaced. He gave to his newly established highest church organ, the “Holy Governing Synod”
added a secular person to control and made the Russian Orthodox Church de facto a state church. Even the church
Property and finances were under state control. From now on it was the task of the church, in the absolutist and enlightenment sense
To act as an institution for popular education and for the maintenance of an ethics that is useful to society. This so-called
The “synodal period” of the Russian Orthodox Church lasted until 1917.
- Catherine II (1729-1796),also known as Catherine the Great, was named after the
Death of her husband Tsar Peter III. (Grand Duke Peter Fjodorowitsch) crowned Tsarina of Russia in 1726. She was born in 1729 as
German Princess Sophie Auguste Friederike von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg in Stettin. She was considered intelligent, versatile
interested, determined and power-oriented Tsarina who, to compensate for her foreign origin, is “Russian” and
showed more consistent in asserting the interests of their empire than most of their predecessors and successors. She died in 1796
- Nikolaus II.,Born Nikolay Alexandrovich, was born in Tsarskoe Selo in 1868
born and died in the aftermath of an attack by the Bolsheviks in Yekaterinburg in 1918. The eldest son of Tsar Alexander III. and the
Tsarina Marja Fjodorovna came from the Romanov dynasty, the Romanov-Holstein-Gottrop family. By marrying Alexandra Fedorovna
In 1894, a German from the house of Hessen-Darmstadt, he was with Queen Victoria I of England, the German Kaiser Wilhelm II.
and related to the British King George V. His reign (1894-1917) is marked by two symbolic events.
During his festive coronation in Moscow there was a mass panic that killed several hundred people. Until his
At the end of his life, his son, the heir to the throne, who suffered from a blood disease, was almost enthusiastic about the monk Grigori Rasputin
Piety accompanies. The connection to the monk and his influence brought the environment of the tsarist family and also the population to it
During the First World War against the tsarist couple and their five children.
After the February Revolution of 1917 the tsarist family lived
in captivity, where they were murdered by the Bolsheviks in Yekaterinburg in 1918. The bones of the murdered were not revealed until July
In 1998, under the government of Boris Yeltsin, she was solemnly buried in the family crypt in Saint Petersburg. The Russian Orthodox Church
canonized the last tsar in August 2000, from now on his icons can be admired in every Russian Orthodox church.
- Lev Dawidowitsch Trotsky (Leon Trotsky, 1879-1940)Trotsky was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician. Along with Marx and Engels, he was one of the most important
scientific socialists. He founded Trotskyism and is considered the founder of the Red Army.
- Golda Meïr (1898 – 1978)The Israeli politician was born in Kiev and became the first in 1969 after having been Israel’s Foreign Minister for many years
Prime Minister of Israel. During her childhood the family had to flee to America, where Golda Meïr became a teacher; only moved in 1921
she and her husband to Palestine, where they first lived in a kibbutz. They then lived in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, where that
The couple had two children.
Golda Meïr was involved in Israeli politics from 1923, and from 1946 she headed political affairs
Department of the Jewish Agency. She was Israel’s ambassador in Moscow from 1948 and a member of the Knesset from 1949. In 1969 she became
Israeli Prime Minister elected; she resigned towards the end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973 because of severe domestic political criticism
- Leonid Kravchuk (born 1934)The first president of Ukraine after the country’s independence from the USSR studied economics in Kiev. Since 1960
he worked for the CPSU, in 1990 he became a candidate for membership in the party’s Politburo. When Ukraine moved away from the
The Soviet Union began to break away, Kravchuk was parliamentary president of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic and later of Ukraine. In December
In 1991 he was elected the first president of independent Ukraine and was replaced by Leonid Kuchma in 1994.
- Leonid Kuchma (born 1938)Leonid Kravchuk’s successor in the office of President of Ukraine studied missile technology in Dnepropetrovsk. It was between 1990
and 1992 member of the Ukrainian Parliament and from 1992 Prime Minister. He resigned from this office in 1993 to work for the des
To run for president. He won the elections and was re-elected in 1999. In 2004, he could constitutionally not a third time
elected, which is why his term of office ended after ten years. He was also from his political opponents participating in the
Accused of murdering journalist Heorhiy Gongadze and curtailing freedom of the press. In the presidential election
In 2004 he supported Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych.
- Jurij Iwanowytsch Jechanurow (born 1948)The Ukrainian politician was Prime Minister of the country from September 2005. Parliament already spoke to him and his government
in January 2006 the suspicion. He had initially taken over the office of Julija Tymoshenko on a provisional basis.
- Viktor Fedorowytsch Yanukovych (born 1950)This Ukrainian politician from Donetsk was Prime Minister of the country from 2002 to 2005. In young adulthood he became several times
sentenced to several years imprisonment for theft and bodily harm. His criminal record was canceled in 1978,
however, his political opponents often used his past against him. He started out as a racing driver for his
Country and ran his own fleet of vehicles. From 1996 Yanukovych was chairman of the administration of Donetsk and from 2002 a deputy in the
Parliament of Donetsk. In 2002 he was elected Prime Minister of Ukraine, on December 31 he announced his resignation, the five
Days later it was adopted by President Kuchma. Yanukovych ran for president in 2004 and held elections
at first just won. However, due to the irregularities in the elections, there were massive allegations of election fraud against him and him
New elections were called for, and there were mass protests by the Ukrainian population for weeks, which became known as the Orange Revolution
History has gone down. The Kiev Supreme Court declared the runoff election void and ordered it to be repeated
Viktor Yushchenko won with 51.99%. Yanukovych accepted the election result.
- Viktor Andrijowytsch Yuschtschenko (born 1954)This Ukrainian politician has been President of Ukraine since January 2005. He had finished his studies in Ternopil and in the department
worked for Marxism and Leninism. At the age of 21 he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. From 1997 it was
Yushchenko chaired the National Bank of Ukraine and was known for his successful fight against inflation in the country
which he also received the “Global Finance Award”. Between 1999 and 2001 he was Prime Minister of Ukraine and came across market economy
Reforms and fought corruption. In 2002 a vote of no confidence was put against him and he was forced to resign. From
In 2002 he was a Member of Parliament and a member of the Committee on Citizens’ Affairs, National Minority Issues and International
Relationships. In 2004, Yushchenko ran for the office of president of the opposition party “Our Ukraine”. At first he lost
against Viktor Yanukovych, but the elections were repeated and Yushchenko won the second runoff. It
There had been weeks of peaceful protests by the Ukrainian people (“Orange Revolution”), whereupon it was repeated
had been decided.
Since December 6, 2004, Viktor Yushchenko has suffered from dioxin poisoning. The symptoms were so severe that
the election campaign had to be interrupted for several weeks. The doctors of Yushchenko go after thorough examinations of one
Poisoning that Yushchenko must have contracted while eating. His organs were critically injured and
disfigured his face.
During his tenure as president, Yushchenko campaigned against the division of Ukraine. He also undertook
numerous state visits and lifted the visa requirement for EU citizens and Swiss. In September 2005, Yushchenko broke his
Government, as its advisors had repeatedly been accused of corruption.
- Anatoly Kyrylowytsch Kinach (born 1954)The first vice-president of independent Ukraine was born in Moldova. He studied shipbuilding in Leningrad and works
initially as a shipbuilding engineer. In 1990 the workers at his shipyard proposed him as a member of the Ukrainian parliament, he
was elected and served on an economic reform commission. In 1999 he was already Deputy Prime Minister of the
Ukraine, following the 2001 vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Yushchenko, President Kuchma appointed him as his successor.
During the “Orange Revolution” he supported Viktor Yushchenko. In February 2005 he was named the first deputy prime minister
appointed by the government of Yulia Tymoshenko.
- Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (born 1960)The politician from Dnepropetrovsk was Prime Minister of Ukraine between January and September 2005. she studied
Economics in Dnepropetrovsk and initially worked as an industrial engineer. From 1989 she headed a youth center.
In 1991 she founded the company “Ukrainian Gasoline” and was the company’s director; because of this it still becomes the today
Called “Gas Princess”. Between 1995 and 1997 she also headed the energy company EESU.
In 1996 she was elected to the Ukrainian parliament. Under Prime Minister Yushchenko she was responsible for the
Energy range. She was involved in the market economy reforms of the Yushchenko government, which were unpleasant for the oligarchs
were. It is believed that for this reason she was dismissed from the government and persecuted by the Ukrainian authorities. Since the
Parliamentary elections in 2002 her “Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc” has some seats in parliament. Along with Yushchenko, she was one of the most important
Opposition members and was finally appointed Prime Minister of the country by Yushchenko after the 2004 election.
In September, the president had to fire her and his entire government on corruption charges. Your party is however
since the elections of the upper council in March 2006 with 129 seats the second largest parliamentary group in the new parliament.
List of other Prime Ministers of Ukraine:
- Vitaly Massol (born 1928)
- Witold Fokin (born 1932)
- Juchym Swjahilskyj (born 1933)
- Valentin Symonenko (born 1940)
- Mykola Azarov (born 1947)
- Jurij Ivanovych Jechanurow (born 1948)
- Pavlo Lassarenko (born 1953)
- Anatole Litvak (1902 – 1974)The filmmaker from Kiev wrote numerous films, and later shot and produced himself. Before the Second World War he took
Acting lessons, then had to flee from the National Socialists because of his Jewish origins. He worked in France and
England, in Hollywood from 1937. He has received several Oscar nominations, his most famous film is “Anastasia” with Ingrid Bergmann. He
got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- Andrzej Zulawski (born 1940)The Polish film director from Lemberg emigrated to France when his second film was banned by the Polish government
was. One of his most famous films is “Nachtblende” with Romy Schneider and Klaus Kinski. With the French actress Sophie
Marceau he had his son Vincent in 1995.
- Milla Jovovich (born 1975)Born in Kiev, she now lives in the USA. She is a well-known photo model and works as an actress, musician and
- Igor Ivanovich Sikorski (1889 – 1972)The aviation pioneer built the first four-engine aircraft, which are considered the foundations of modern passenger aviation
he had significant successes in building helicopters.
- Sergei Pawlowitsch Koroljow (1906 – 1907)The Ukrainian designer developed rockets and spaceships and was one of the founders of Soviet space travel. His Soyuz missile and
the Soyuz spaceships are still in use today in a modernized form.
- Friedrich Georg von Bunge (1802-1897)The founder of Baltic legal history was a professor at the University of Dorpat and moved to Germany in 1865. He wrote about the provincial rights of Estonia, Courland and Livonia and about the Baltic
Legal history, he also drew up a civil code.
- Zino Davidoff (1906 – 1994)The Ukrainian-Swiss entrepreneur learned to make cigars in Cuba and became the best cigar address in Geneva.
In addition to cigars and cigarettes, the Davidoff brand now also produces leather goods, glasses, perfumes and cognac.
- Edward Gottlieb (1898-1979)was also called “the Mughal” and was
Co-founder of the NBA’s predecessor, the “BAA”. He was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame.
- Dimitri Pawlowitsch Grigorowitsch (1883 – 1938)The Soviet aircraft designer founded his own company in 1917, but one year later it became state property, so that he
had to manufacture agricultural implements. He then went to Sevastopol and was building up Soviet aviation
entrusted. He constructed float planes and flying boats. He died of leukemia in 1938.
- Jacob Marschak (1898 – 1977)The American economist is considered to be the founder of team theory. He worked as a business journalist, as an editor for the Frankfurter
Newspaper and as a consultant for economic policy at the General German Trade Union Confederation. In 1977 he was supposed to be President of the American
Economic Association, but died shortly before of a heart attack.
- Ludwig Fleck (1896 – 1961)The pioneer of the “Polish School” in terms of science policy was a microbiologist, physician and scientific theorist. He was in
Ukrainian born in Lviv. During the Second World War, he and his family were deported to Auschwitz, in the Buchenwald concentration camp
He was forced to develop a vaccine against typhus for the SS. It is said that he was ineffective at the SS
Delivered fluids and only passed his vaccine directly to inmates. In 1952 he moved to Warsaw with his wife and became
there member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, where he mainly researched agglutinating leukocytes.
- Serhij Nasarowytsch Bubka (born 1963)The former pole vaulter has been chairman of the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine since 2005. He was the most successful pole vaulter of all time and was Olympic champion in Seoul in 1988. He set 34 world records and overcame the 6-meter mark 43 times. He still holds the world record in his discipline with 6.14 meters.
- Valery Lobanovsky (1939 – 2002)The Russian and Ukrainian soccer coach worked after his playing career as a coach at Dynamo Kiev and coached the Ukrainian and Soviet national soccer teams. After his death from a stroke in 2002, he was given the title “Hero of Ukraine”, the highest honor in the country.
- Vitali Klitschko (born 1971)The former Ukrainian professional boxer initially studied sports science and philosophy, but began his boxing career at the age of 13. In 1996 he became a professional boxer; In 1999 he won the world title, in 2004 he was again world heavyweight champion, but announced his resignation in November 2005 due to several knee injuries.
- Oleh Blochin (born 1952)The former Ukrainian soccer player now trains the Ukrainian national soccer team. In 1990 he ended his active career and in 1975 he was voted Europe’s Footballer of the Year.
- Oleh Romanischin (born 1952)The Ukrainian chess player is also a trained Germanist. He won numerous titles at major chess tournaments, including the Olympic Games and World Championships. He has lived in Lviv since he was born.
- Wassyl Ivanchuk (born 1969)The Ukrainian chess grandmaster won the European Championship in 2004 and was vice world champion in 2001/2002. He learned to play chess at the age of six and has since won countless international tournaments.
- Tatjana Lebedewa (born 1973)The former Russian ski racer was born in Kiev and, along with other placements, won second place in the Super-G in 1992. After an accident at the 1996 World Ski Championships, she did not return to the World Cup.
- Andrej Medvedev (born 1974)The Ukrainian tennis player won eleven tournaments during his professional career, three of them the German Open. In the final of the French Open 1999 he lost to Andre Agassi.
- Wladimir Klitschko (born 1976)Vitali Klitschko’s younger brother is also a world-famous boxer. Like his brother Vitali, he received his doctorate in sports science and philosophy, but began his career as a professional boxer together with his brother in 1996. It is considered to be technically superior to its brother, even if it could never reach the hardness of the stroke. In April 2006 he became world champion in the IBF and IBO associations.
- Andrij Shevchenko (born 1976)The Ukrainian national soccer player is one of the most expensive soccer players in the world. He used to play for Dynamo Kiev, since 1999 with AC Milan. He has already been five times Ukrainian champion, four times he won the Ukrainian Cup, was once Italian champion, won once the Italian Cup, once the UEFA Champions League, once the European Supercup, was Ukrainian top scorer and European Footballer of the Year 2004.
- Yevgeny Valeryevich Aldonin (born 1980)The Russian national soccer player was born in Kiev. In 2004 he played at the European Championship.
- Jana Oleksandriwna Klotschkowa (born 1982)The Ukrainian is one of the best medley swimmers in the world. In 1998 she won the silver medal in Perth, in Sydney she set the world record in 400 m individual medals as well as two gold and one silver medal. At the 2001 World Championships she also won the gold medal in the 400 m freestyle, and in 2003 in Barcelona she also won all disciplines. At the Olympic Games in Athens, she also won the gold medal in the 200 m and 400 m medley, so she is currently considered the most outstanding female swimmer in the world.
- Andrei Wolokitin (born 1986)The Ukrainian chess master was first Ukrainian youth champion, 1998 youth world champion and 2001 vice-champion of Ukraine. In the same year, at the age of 15, he was made grandmaster.
Well-known Ukrainian football players are also:
- Serhiy Beschenar
- Olexander Holowko
- Andrij Hussin
- Viktor Leonenko
- Oleh Luzhny
- Yuri Maximov
- Andriy Nesmachnyj
- Serhiy Rebrow
- Andrij Shevchenko
- Olexander Schowkowskyj
- Viktor Skrypnyk
- Anatoly Tymoshchuk
- Wladyslaw Waschtschuk
- Andrij Vorobej
- Andriy Voronin
Theologians and philosophers
- Marian Jaworski (born 1926)The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lemberg is the city’s second archbishop alongside Cardinal Husar. Jaworski became like Hussar
Appointed Archbishop and Cardinal in 2001.
- Lyubomyr Cardinal Husar (born 1933)The cleric, who was born in Lviv, holds the office of Grand Archbishop of the Greek Catholic Church of the Ukraine, which is associated with Rome
is united. In 1944 his parents went with him from the Ukraine to the USA, where he was ordained a priest in 1958. 1969 followed Husar
Rome. Since 2001 he has been Grand Archbishop of Lemberg and Pope John Paul II elevated him to the rank of cardinal. 2005 chose Husar with the
Conclave the new Pope.
The mammals in the forests include elk, foxes, red deer and especially wild cats, which are quite numerous. The steppe is mainly populated by rodents such as mice, hamsters and polecats.
On the Crimean peninsula, which has been annexed by Russia, where steppes are extremely large, also dwarf and pearl pebbles and mulled lemmings live. Predators are not uncommon here because of the abundant food supply, including red foxes, steppe iltiss, badgers and raccoon dogs.
In addition to wolves and brown bears, there are also lynx in the Carpathian Mountains, which can be easily recognized by their characteristic brush ears and whiskers, which are used for intra-species communication.
The mammals of the Crimean Mountains include wild boars and red deer as well as mouflons, which live in Europehave a large distribution area, but are rather small in their existence. They are also known as European wild sheep. Mouflons reach a size of 65 to 90 cm and live on average 8 to 10 years. Characteristic is the gray to yellowish colored saddle spot on the brown fur and the horns of the males, which grow throughout life and can reach a length of 0.45 m. The horns of the females are much shorter or nonexistent.
The mouflons have a well-developed sense of hearing and smell, but the sense of sight is best developed. Their diet includes grasses, herbs and woody plants, but also mushrooms and fruits.
One of the few lizards found in Ukraine is the sand lizard, which has a very wide distribution area, as well as the eastern green lizard, which is hard to miss because of its striking green color.
One of the harmless specimens is the non-poisonous and not very biting leopard snake, which is one of the 15 non-poisonous species of adder in Europe. In addition, the slender snake is considered the most beautiful snake in Europe.
Their range is relatively small, and their occurrence in Ukraine is limited to the Crimean peninsula, which has been annexed by Russia.
Among the poisonous snakes that comes in Ukraine viper before. The local steppe otter is a subspecies of the adder.
Typical mountain birds include the alpine swifts nesting in rocks, red chalk and stone fowl, as well as birds of prey such as golden eagles, imperial eagles and vultures. Birds are particularly numerous on the Black Sea. Here you can meet egrets, silk egrets, purple and great egrets as well as sickles, spoonbills and white storks.
The Great Bustards, which are also represented in Ukraine, belong to the order of the crane birds and are very shy and sensitive to disturbance birds. They live in the original steppe areas or in areas used for agriculture. But despite this closeness to humans, you rarely see them, not least because of the inconspicuous coloration outside of the courtship. Both males and females have brown-black patterned plumage and a light gray head and neck. The main difference between the two is in size.
The males weigh 8 to 16 kg, while the females weigh just 3 to 5 kg. However, during courtship the male changes significantly. Its underside is colored white, and this is turned upside down, so that it finally turns into a white pile of feathers.
The great bustard’s diet includes buds, shoots, leaves, seeds, but also mice, lizards, grasshoppers and other small animals. Despite a relatively wide distribution, the great bustard is on the red list. A main reason for the massive decline is the industrialization of agriculture.
Some of the birds of prey have started to nest on the ground, which can be seen especially on the Crimean peninsula in steppe areas with steppe eagles, sucker falcons, buzzards and steppe harriers.
A large number of songbirds also live here, but crows, eagle owls, owls, woodpeckers, jays and magpies are also native to the country.
The tarantula, which occurs on the Crimean peninsula, which is claimed and occupied by Russia, belongs to the wolf spiders, grows to 3 to 5 cm in size and is light brown in color with dark markings on its back. The nocturnal spider lives in caves and tree crevices. It is interesting that it does not catch its prey in the net, but rather actively hunts. Lizards and smaller rodents are then on the menu.
The poison sting poses only a minor threat to humans, whereby the symptoms after a bite are almost always only expressed locally. There may be moderate to mild pain and local inflammation with redness, itching and swelling. The tarantula is widespread in the Mediterranean region, the tropics, subtropics and in south-east Europe.
The black widow, on the other hand, who can be found in the Karadah reservation, is a completely different case. The female can be dangerous not only for the male, which is often eaten after mating. The black widow owes its name to this fact and to its deep black color.
The red markings on the belly are also characteristic. Bite accidents are rare, but they can happen occasionally, especially in places where it’s dark and cool. In the case of outside toilets in particular, the seats should be carefully examined before you sit down on them.
It is not uncommon for the black widow to stay in these places, as the smell of faeces attracts insects and thus their nutritional basis. The main symptom of a bite is sweating and general, severe body ache. A sure sign is sweating of the skin at the bite site. Allergy sufferers have to be particularly careful here, as a bite can be fatal for them.
Life in the Black Sea only takes place above the 200 m limit, as hydrogen sulfide deposits near the sea floor make life at this depth impossible.
Regardless of this, there are still numerous species of fish that have found a home in the Black Sea. The most common are sardines, sprat, mackerel, bluefin tuna and anchovies, and flounder, turbot, sturgeon and sea catfish live near the coast. There are even sharks in Ukrainian waters, but these are small dogfish that are harmless to humans.
Special features such as dolphins, porpoises and seals can mainly be admired in the dolphinariums.
It takes a lot of luck combined with the right timing to see these animals in their natural environment.
The Carpathian Mountains and the Crimean Mountains on the Crimean peninsula, which have been annexed by Russia, are particularly rich in forests. The forest fauna of the Crimean Mountains is based on the three zones of the outer, inner and higher main mountain range. At an altitude of 250-300 m, the juniper-oak forests dominate, followed by the Crimean pine forests. Beech forests offer a typical picture at heights of 500 to 1,300 m, while the southern slope of the mountains is the habitat of the hooked pine. In the direction of the north, mixed forests alternate with marshland. The dominant tree species in these areas are alder, oak, hornbeam, pine and spruce. There are also linden, maple, mountain ash, birch and rowan berries in the country.
Much of the original vegetation is used for agriculture today. The country mainly focuses on wheat cultivation, but the cultivation of sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets, corn and vegetables is an important part of Ukrainian agriculture. Wine is also grown.
The alkaloids of the deadly nightshade, which in itself are highly poisonous, have an effect on the central nervous system and are used in the correct dosage in some cases for nausea and vomiting, a certain alkaloid is also used to dilate the pupil.
In homeopathy it is used for febrile illnesses. However, all drugs require a prescription.
Despite its high toxicity, monkshood is also used in medicine and homeopathy.
It is used for rheumatism, pleurisy and nerve pain, as well as homeopathically as a tincture for colds, pneumonia and sciatica.
Peony, which is also poisonous, was previously used as an antispasmodic and against epilepsy. However, this effect has not been proven. It can allegedly also be used for skin and mucous membrane inflammation, fissures, gout, rheumatism and diseases of the respiratory tract. In homeopathy, it is used for hemorrhoids.
The common thorn apple is a bushy annual plant. The plants reach a height of 0.2 to 1.2 m, rarely up to 2 m. All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the roots and seeds.
Besides Europe, the deadly nightshade also has its home in the Balkans, Iran, North Africa and Ireland. It grows to a height of 1–2 m and blooms from June to August with purple and bell-shaped flowers. The cherry-sized fruits are still green at the beginning, but turn black over time. Due to the alkaloids contained in all parts of the plant, this plant is very poisonous, so that even small amounts can be fatal. However, the deadly nightshade is also used as a medicinal plant in medicine.
The rhododendron, also known as the golden yellow alpine rose or rose tree, grows in the central zone of Ukraine and is very poisonous due to the diterpenes contained in the flowers, leaves, fruits and nectar. The plant, which belongs to the heather family, causes stomach irritation and symptoms of paralysis to vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, cramps and in very severe cases even death from respiratory paralysis. The rhododendron, which comes from North America, has its origins in Asia and is also the main distribution area there.
From Eisenhut there are different types that occurring in Ukraine kind of pale yellow monkshood. All species are very poisonous, so that the monkshood is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe.
It is 1 to 2 m high and has light purple flowers that are arranged in dense clusters. The poisonous alkaloid aconitine is found in all parts of the plant, but the roots are particularly enriched with the poison.
Just a few grams of it are fatal for an adult. What is special is that the poison can also be absorbed through the skin, where it then has a local anesthetic effect. Oral ingestion of the poison leads to sweating, vomiting and diarrhea after an initial tingling sensation in the fingers and toes.
Eventually death occurs from cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest.
In the past, monkshood poison was used as an arrow poison and quite often also in poisonous murders.
Apart from the toxicity, the monkshood must not be picked because it is strictly protected.
The rare holly from the holly family is an evergreen shrub or tree that can reach a height of 6 m and live up to 300 years. Other names are piercing sleeve, piercing oak and palm thorn. It is named after its leathery and thorny toothed leaves, which are brightly colored on the underside and dark green on the upper side. It blooms with inconspicuous small white flowers between May and June, so that the fruits ripen in autumn. These are first green, later coral red.
Both the leaves and the fruit are poisonous, and children in particular should be careful as a dose of 20-30 berries is considered fatal to them. The symptoms of poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea and drowsiness.
The holly can be found in beech and spruce forests on moist, lime-poor soils.
The diptame from the rhombus family, which is also under conservation, is also known as the “burning bush” or “woodpecker root”. It grows up to four feet and blooms with white or pink flowers between May and June.
The family characteristic of the rhombus family is the presence of secretion canisters on the leaves with strong-smelling essential oils. On hot and windless days, the diptam’s fruit bunches evaporate so large amounts of the essential oils, which have a strong lemon smell, that they can be ignited over the plant. This is why the diptame has been given the nickname “Burning Bush”. Indian fire-worshipers worship it as a sacred plant. It grows widespread on calcareous soils on sunny, rocky slopes, on dry meadows and in sparse oak forests. However, the diptame is poisonous, and leads to skin irritation when touched, which only heals very slowly.
The peony from the buttercup family is between 50 and 100 cm tall and flowers from June to May. The large red flowers with a diameter of 12 cm and petals with a length of 5 to 8 cm are striking.
Most types of peony are common in Europe, Asia, and North America. It prefers light and rocky mountain slopes to grow. Due to the alkaloid paenonin, this plant is poisonous and causes gastrointestinal complaints and vomiting and colic in excessive doses. In the correct dosage, however, it can also be used as a medicinal plant.
The steppe is widespread in the whole of Ukraine, especially on the Crimean peninsula there are several different steppe types such as the dry steppe, forest steppe and meadow steppe.
Grasses are an essential part of all steppe species, but the flora between the different steppe species is anything but identical. In the forest steppe, cinquefoil, flat peas as well as the Crimean and poisonous peonies dominate.
Characteristic of the meadow steppes are the gray sun rose, the ear spoon catchwort, thyme and the scarlet sage.