Vatican City Political System, Famous People, Animals and Plants

By | January 15, 2023

Vatican State: Political System

According to COMPUTERMINUS.COM, the Vatican is an absolute electoral monarchy. At the head of the state is the Pope, who as the head of the Vatican State has the abundance of legislative, executive and judicial powers. Except in cases that the Pope wishes to reserve for himself or other bodies, the legislative power is exercised by a commission made up of a cardinal-president and other cardinals, each appointed by the Pope for a period of five years. The “Governatorato” is responsible for the central administration. The Roman Curia, through which the Pope directs the Church as a whole, consists of: the State Secretariat and the Congregations, Pontifical Councils, Commissions, Courts of Justice and Offices responsible (for the various areas of the Church). These “dicasteries” (Central authorities of the Curia) are mostly headed by cardinals and their function can be compared with ministries. The term “Apostolic See” or “Holy See” means not only the Pope, but the entirety of the Roman Curia. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Vatican politics, and acronyms as well.

The official name of the country is:

Vatican City State

Swiss Guard

The Swiss Guard is a 110-strong troop of well-trained men. Since its foundation under Julius II in 1506, it has ensured the security of the Pope as well as the state borders, the entrances to the Vatican City and the Apostolic Palace. To become a member of the Swiss Guard, you have to be a Catholic Swiss citizen, between 19 and 30 years old and physically fit. One cannot be married up to the rank of non-commissioned officer. The service period lasts at least two years. During this time, the guardsmen had Vatican citizenship, which they were revoked after their service ended.

  • Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Vatican City.

National anthem

Based on flag descriptions by, the Vatican’s national anthem was written by Monsignor Antonio Allegra (1905-1969), and set to music by Charles Gounod (1818-1893). It became the state’s official anthem in 1950.

In Italian

Roma immortale di Martiri e di Santi,Roma immortale accogli i nostri canti:

Gloria nei cieli a Dio nostro Signore,

Pace ai Fedeli di Cristo nell’amore.

A Te veniamo, Angelico Pastore,

In Te vediamo il mite Redentore,

Erede Santo di vera e Santa Fede;

Conforto e vanto a chi combatte e crede,

Non prevarranno la forza ed il terrore,

Ma regneranno la Verità, l’Amore.Marcia Pontificale

Salve, Salve Roma, patria eterna di memorie,

Cantano le tue glorie mille palme e mille altari.

Roma degli apostoli, Madre e guida dei Rendenti,

Roma luce delle genti, il mondo spera in te!

Salve, Salve Roma, la tua luce non tramonta,

Vince l’odio e l’onta lo splendor di tua beltà.

Roma degli Apostoli, Madre e guida dei Redenti,

Roma luce delle genti, il mondo spera in te!

And in the English translation

Immortal Rome of martyrs and saints,Immortal Rome, receive our chants:

Glory in the heavens to God our Lord,

peace to the believers of Christ in love.

To you we go, you angelic shepherd,

in you we see the savior sent to us,

you holy heir of true and holy faith,

refuge and protection of those who fight and believe.

Violence and terror will not prevail,

but truth and love will prevail.Pontifical

march Hail, Rome, eternal fatherland of memory,

A thousand palm trees and a thousand altars sing your glory.

Rome of the apostles, mother and leader of the redeemed,

Rome, you light of the peoples, the world hopes for you!

Greetings Rome, your light will not go out.

The splendor of your beauty overcomes hatred and shame.

Rome of the apostles, mother and leader of the redeemed,

Rome, you light of the peoples, the world hopes for you!

Vatican State: Personalities

Architects and builders

  • Gain Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680), Baroque architect and sculptor. He built among others the huge colonnade in St. Peter’s Square, the oversized canopy over the grave of Peter and the Chair of Peter in the interior of St. Peter’s Basilica .
  • Bramante (around 1444 – 1514), builder of the Renaissance. From 1506 he oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica based on his designs.
  • Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536), builder and painter of the Renaissance. From 1520 he oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica.
  • Raffael (1483-1520), builder and painter of the Renaissance. From 1515 to 1546 he oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica together with Peruzzi and Sangallo.
  • Giuliano da Sangallo (around 1445 – 1516), builder and sculptor of the Renaissance. From 1514 to 1515 he oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica together with Peruzzi and Raffael.
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), painter, sculptor, builder and poet of the Renaissance. From 1547 he oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica. Under his direction the large central dome of the cathedral was built.
  • Giacomo (1507-1573), 16th century architect. He oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica from 1564.
  • Gaicomo della Porta (around 1532-1602), architect and sculptor. He oversaw the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in 1573.
  • Carlo Maderno (1556-1629), architect. He supervised the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica from 1607 to 1617.


  • Raffael da Uribino (also: Raffaelo Santo) (1483 – 1520)Italian painter and builder of the High Renaissance and to this day one of the greatest painters of all timewas commissioned to decorate the papal apartments (stamps) with wall paintings, between 1509 and 1517 he created his Probably the most famous works in the Stanza della Segnatura:”The Disputation on the Sacrament” – representation of the Trinity and the Last Supper in the center of the picture

    “The School of Athens” – representation of the representatives of well-known philosophical schools of antiquity, including Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Heraclitus, Pythagoras

    “Parnassus” – representation of the mountain seat of Apollo and the muses;

    Raphael also designed the Stanza di Eliodoro with the murals “The Mass of Bolsena”,

    “The Expulsion of Heliodorus”, “The Liberation of Peter”

  • Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (1475 – 1564)painter, architect and sculptor, was the most important representative of the Italian High Renaissance;he decorated the Sistine Chapel with frescoes (including “The Conversion Pauli”, “The Crucifixion of Peter”) and created the grandiose ceiling painting in the chapel, on which the story of creation is depicted,as well as his most famous painting “The Last Judgment”, also in the Sistine Chapel;

    While Pope Julios II was still alive, he began planning his tomb and had Carrara marble procured for this purpose, but the work was interrupted several times over longer periods of time and the Pope died before completion; three of the planned statues were completed between 1513 and 1516: Moses, and two slaves.

Popes and Pope Election

Pope election

Before the election

The election of the new Pope after the resignation of Benedict XVI. will be briefly explained as an example for the election of each pope, hence the change from the present tense to the past tense

. All cardinals under 80 years of age were allowed to elect the new pope. Before the actual election, the cardinals met in the Vatican to hold preliminary talks and to get to know each other. Cardinals who were not eligible to vote were also allowed to attend this meeting.

The election

On the day of the election – March 12, 2013 – the mass “Pro Eligendo Papa” (For the election of the Pope) took place at 10:00 am in St. Peter’s Basilica. At 4:30 p.m., the 115 cardinals eligible to vote then marched in a solemn procession to the Sistine Chapel – the conclave – where the actual election took place and is always taking place. There was only one ballot on the first day. On the second day and the following days, there were four ballots a day – two in the morning and two in the afternoon. 60 cardinals from Europe, 11 from Asia and Australia, 11 from Africa and 33 from North and South America are taking part in the election.

In the face of Michelangelo’s (1475-1564) fresco “The Last Judgment”, the ballot papers with the preprinted inscription “Eligo Summum Pontificem” (I choose the highest pontiff) are folded twice by the respective cardinal and placed in an urn with his hand raised Altar deposited. Then three electoral workers read the names written down for the new Pope aloud and write them down on a list.

If no one has achieved the required two-thirds majority (77 votes), the ballot papers are burned in a cast iron stove from 1939. At the same time, a second furnace, which has been in use since 2005, can be used to generate black or white smoke with the help of chemicals. After every two rounds of voting that did not produce the required majority, black smoke appears from a chimney specially built for the conclave on the roof of the chapel. If the required two-thirds majority has been achieved, white smoke will rise shortly after the relevant ballot. This happened on March 13, 2013 after the fifth ballot around 7:00 p.m.

After the election

After the election, the person elected must accept or possibly reject the election. In an adjoining room, the “Room of Tears”, after accepting the election, he dresses in the Pope’s white cassock and bids farewell to his previous life. Then he gives himself a “name” as Pope and the cardinals present pledge obedience to him in the Sistine Chapel. To the sound of the bells of St. Peter’s Basilica, he is announced by the Cardinal Dean from the central loggia of St. Peter’s Basilica with the words: “Habemus Papam” (We have a Pope). Then the newly elected Pope shows himself to the faithful and gives the blessing “Urbi et Orbi!” (The city and the world).

The New Pope

On March 13, 2013, around 7:00 p.m., white smoke rose. After a total of five ballots, the Archbishop of Buenos Aires “Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglio” was elected the 266th Pope. He gave himself the name “Francis”.


on Francis I he only becomes when another Pope is called Francis (Francis II)

Some rules of the conclave

During the entire conclave, the cardinals are not allowed to have any contact with the outside world – therefore telephones, cell phones, computers, laptops, radios, newspapers or televisions, etc. remain. left out. In addition, a jammer is said to have been put into operation to prevent any attempt at indiscretion.

All eligible cardinals were accommodated in the Vatican’s guest house during the conclave, from where they walked to the Sistine Chapel and returned there after the polls were over. The Vatican police made sure that they could not make contact with any strangers.

Something historical

The longest conclave there was with the election of Gregory X., who was elected Pope in March 1271, this conclave had lasted almost three years. One of the shortest conclaves took place in the election of Pius XII. only around 24 hours. He received the required majority in the third ballot and became the new Pope on March 2, 1939.

Sistine Chapel

Since the year the Sistine Chapel has been mandatory for the election of the Pope. It is located on the east side of St. Peter’s Basilica.

It was built between 1477 and 1480 under Pope Sixtus VI. built. The interior is richly decorated with frescoes by Michelangelo (1475-1564), Botticelli (1445-1510) and Perugino (1445-1523).

What does conclave mean?

The word is made up of the two Latin words com = with and clavis = key, bolt and means “lockable room

Popes of the 3rd millennium

John Paul II (1920 – 2005), Pope from 1978 to 2005.

He came from Poland and was, among other things, significantly involved in the liberation of Poland from communism and thus not least in the collapse of the Eastern Bloc under the rule of the Soviet Union.

You can find a detailed biography of this Pope at Goruma here >>>

Benedict XVI. (born April 16, 1927 in Marktl am Inn/ Bavaria)

On April 19, 2005, Cardinal Joseph Alois Ratzinger was elected in the 4th ballot by the conclave as the 265th Pope to succeed the deceased Pope John Paul II.

Joseph Alois Ratzinger began studying theology in 1946 and finished it in 1951.

He was ordained a priest that same year. In 1958 he became professor for dogmatics and fundamental theology at the Philosophical-Theological University in Freising/Bavaria. Just one year later, in 1959, he was appointed full professor for fundamental theology at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Bonn.

He gave up the Bonn chair in 1963 in favor of the chair for dogmatics and the history of dogma at the Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster. From this in turn, with the great support of Hans Küng, he moved in 1966 to the chair for Catholic dogmatics at the Catholic-theological faculty of the Eberhard-Karls-University in Tübingen.

In 1969 he was appointed from there to the University of Regensburg, where he taught dogmatics and the history of dogma until he was appointed Archbishop of Munich-Freising in 1977. Around two months after his appointment as archbishop, he received from Pope Paul VI. cardinal on June 27, 1977. On November 25, 1981, Pope John Paul II appointed him Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the successor organization to the Congregation of the Roman and General Inquisition, which had been renamed the Holy Office in 1908. Until his election as Pope, he was dean of the College of Cardinals and, among other things, was responsible for the organization of the conclave at which he was elected.

Benedict XVI. resigned from his post as Pope on February 11, 2013 with effect from February 28, 2013 (8:00 p.m.). After Celestine V, who resigned on December 13, 1294, he is the third Pope to take this step.

The first known resignation of a Pope came through Pontianus, who resigned as Bishop of Rome and thus as Pope in 235. However, it is denied that his resignation was voluntary. Then Benidikt would only be the second Pope to voluntarily resign from his office.

Francis (born 1936)

On March 13, 2013, the previous Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglio, was elected the 266th Pope and thus head of the approximately 1.2 billion Catholics.

Born in Buenos Aires on December 17, 1936, he gave himself the name Francis.

He only becomes Francis I when another Pope is named Francis (Francis II).

He is the first Jesuit and the first Latin American to serve as Pope.

His parents Jorge Bergoglios – a railway worker – and Regina Bergoglio, were immigrants from the village of “Portacomara” in Piedmont, Italy. After leaving school he first became a chemical engineer before turning to theology.

He even had a girlfriend before he turned to the priesthood. He is also considered a football fan.

In the course of his doctorate he even came to the St. Georgen University of Philosophy and Theology of the Jesuits in Frankfurt/Main for a few months. However, he could not successfully complete the doctorate because he was appointed auxiliary bishop in the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires by Pope John Paul II in 1992.

On March 19, 2013 he was officially introduced to his office in front of tens of thousands of believers, receiving the papal insignia, including the fisherman’s ring and the pallium – a kind of stole.


The camerlengo, the eunuch of the church, has the task of establishing the death of the Pope. During the vacancy, the camerlengo takes over the administration of the church. He is responsible for the funeral of the Pope and the correct election of the successor

Popes of the 2nd millennium

John XVII (died 1003), Pope in 1003.

John XVIII (died 1009), Pope from 1004 to 1009.

Sergius IV (around 970 to 1012), Pope from 1009 to 1012.

Benedict VIII (died 1024), Pope from 1012 to 1024.

John XIX. (died 1032), Pope from 1024 to 1032.

Benedict IX (died 1048), Pope from 1032 to 1048.

Gregory VI. (died 1046), Pope from 1045 to 1046.

Clement II (1005-1047), Pope from 1046 to 1047.

Damasus II (d. 1048), Pope in 1048.

Leo IX (1002-1054), Pope from 1049 to 1054.

Viktor II (around 1018 to 1057), Pope from 1055 to 1057.

Stephan IX. (around 1020 to 1058), Pope 1057 to 1058.

Nicholas II (died 1061), Pope from 1058 to 1061.

Alexander II (around 1010/1015 to 1073), Pope from 1061 to 1073.

Gregory VII (around 1020 to 1085), Pope from 1073 to 1085.

Viktor III (around 1027 to 1087), Pope from 1086 to 1087.

Urban II (around 1042 to 1099), Pope from 1088 to 1099.

Paschal II (d. 1118), Pope from 1099 to 1118.

Gelasius II (around 1058 to 1119), Pope from 1118 to 1119.

Kalixt II. (Around 1060 to 1124), Pope from 1119 to 1124.

Honorius II (around 1060 to 1130), Pope from 1124 to 1130.

Innocent II (around 1116 to 1143), Pope from 1130 to 1143.

Celestine II (d. 1144), Pope from 1143 to 1144.

Lucius II (d. 1145), Pope from 1144 to 1145.

Eugene III. (died 1153), Pope from 1145 to 1153.

Anastasius IV (died 1154), Pope from 1153 to 1154.

Hadrian IV (around 1100 to 1159), Pope from 1154 to 1159.

Alexander III (around 1105 to 1181), Pope from 1159 to 1181.

Lucius III. (around 1097 to 1185), Pope from 1181 to 1185.

Urban III. (around 1120 to 1187), Pope from 1185 to 1187.

Gregory VIII (around 1100 to 1187), Pope in 1187.

Clement III. (died 1191), Pope from 1187 to 1191.

Celestine III. (around 1106 to 1198), Pope from 1191 to 1198.

Innocent III. (1161-1216), Pope from 1198 to 1216.

Honorius III. (around 1160 to 1227), Pope from 1216 to 1227.

Gregory IX. (around 1167 to 1241), Pope from 1227 to 1241.

Celestine IV (died 1241), Pope in 1241.

Innocent IV (around 1195 to 1254), Pope from 1243 to 1254.

Alexander IV (around 1199 to 1261), Pope from 1254 to 1261.

Urban IV (around 1200 to 1264), Pope from 1261 to 1264.

Clement IV (died 1268), Pope from 1265 to 1268.

Gregory X. (1210-1276), Pope from 1271 to 1276.

Innocent V (1225-1276), Pope in 1276.

Hadrian V (around 1205 to 1276), Pope in 1276.

John XXI. (around 1205 to 1277), Pope from 1276 to 1277.

Nicholas III (around 1210/1220 to 1280), Pope from 1277 to 1280.

Martin IV (around 1210 to 1285), Pope from 1281 to 1285.

Honorius IV (around 1210 to 1287), Pope from 1285 to 1287.

Nicholas IV (1227-1292), Pope from 1288 to 1292.

Celestine V (1209 – 1296), Pope from July 1294 until his resignation in December 1294.

Boniface VIII (1235-1303), Pope from 1294 to 1303.

Benedict XI. (1240 – 1304), Pope from 1303 to 1304.

Clement V (around 1264 to 1314), Pope from 1305 to 1314.

John XXII. (1245/1249 – 1334), Pope from 1316 to 1334.

Benedict XII. (around 1285 to 1342), Pope from 1334 to 1342.

Clement VI. (around 1290 to 1352), Pope from 1342 to 1352.

Innocent VI. (1285/1292 to 1362), Pope from 1352 to 1362.

Urban V (1310-1370), Pope from 1362-1370.

Gregory XI. (1329-1378), Pope from 1370 to 1378.

Urban VI. (around 1318 to 1389), Pope from 1378 to 1389.

Boniface IX (1350 – 1404), Pope from 1389 to 1404.

Innocent VII (1336-1406), Pope from 1404 to 1406.

Gregory XII. (1335-1417), Pope from 1406 to 1415.

Martin V (1368 – 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431.

Eugene IV (1383 – 1447), Pope from 1431 to 1447.

Nicholas V (1397 – 1455), Pope from 1447 to 1455.

Kalixt III. (1378 – 1458), Pope from 1455 to 1458.

Pius II (1405 – 1464), Pope from 1458 to 1464.

Paul II (1417-1471), Pope from 1464 to 1471.

Sixtus IV (1414 – 1484), Pope from 1471 to 1484.

Innocent VIII (1432-1492), Pope from 1484 to 1492.

Alexander VI. (1430 – 1503), Pope from 1492 to 1503.

Pius III (1439-1503), Pope in 1503.

Julius II (1443-1513), Pope from 1503 to 1513.

Leo X (1475-1521), Pope from 1513 to 1521.

Hadrian VI. (1459-1523), Pope from 1522 to 1523.

Clement VII (1478-1534), Pope from 1523 to 1534.

Paul III (1468-1549), Pope from 1534 to 1549.

Julius III. (1487 – 1555), Pope from 1550 to 1555.

Marcellus II. (1501-1555), Pope in 1555.

Paul IV (1476 – 1559), Pope from 1555 to 1559.

Pius IV (1499-1565), Pope from 1559 to 1565.

Pius V (1504-1572), Pope from 1566 to 1572.

Gregory XIII. (1502 – 1585), Pope from 1572 to 1585.

Sixtus V (1521-1590), Pope from 1585 to 1590.

Urban VII (1521-1590), Pope in 1590.

Gregory XIV (1535 – 1591), Pope from 1590 to 1591.

Innocent IX. (1519 – 1591), Pope from 1591 to 1591.

Clement VIII (1536-1605), Pope from 1592 to 1605.

Leo XI. (1535-1605), Pope in 1605.

Paul V (1552-1621), Pope from 1605 to 1621.

Gregory XV. (1554-1623), Pope from 1621 to 1623.

Urban VIII. (1568-1644), Pope from 1623 to 1644.

Innocent X. (1574 – 1655), Pope from 1644 to 1655.

Alexander VII (1599-1667), Pope from 1655 to 1667.

Clement IX (1600 – 1669), Pope from 1667 to 1669.

Clemens X. (1590 – 1676), Pope from 1670 to 1676.

Innocent XI. (1611 – 1689), Pope from 1676 to 1689.

Alexander VIII (1610-1691), Pope from 1689 to 1691.

Innocent XII. (1615-1700), Pope from 1691-1700.

Clement XI. (1649-1721), Pope from 1700 to 1721.

Innocent XIII. (1655-1724), Pope from 1721 to 1724.

Benedict XIII. (1649-1730), Pope from 1724 to 1730.

Clement XII. (1652-1740), Pope from 1730 to 1740.

Benedict XIV (1675 – 1758), Pope from 1740 to 1758.

Clement XIII. (1693-1769), Pope from 1758 to 1769.

Clement XIV (1705-1774), Pope from 1769 to 1774.

Pius VI (1717-1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799.

Pius VII (1740-1823), Pope from 1800 to 1823.

Leo XII. (1760-1829), Pope from 1823 to 1829.

Pius VIII (1761-1830), Pope from 1829 to 1830.

Gregory XVI. (1765-1846), Pope from 1831 to 1846.

Pius IX (1792-1878), Pope from 1846 to 1878.

Leo XIII. (1810-1903), Pope from 1878 to 1903.

Pius X. (1835-1914), Pope from 1903 to 1914.

Benedict XV (1854-1922), Pope from 1914 to 1922.

Pius XI. (1857-1939), Pope from 1922 to 1939.

Pius XII. (1876-1958), Pope from 1939-1958.

John XXIII (1881-1963), Pope from 1958 to 1963.

Pope Paul VI (1897-1978), Pope from 1963 to 1978.

John Paul I (1912-1978), Pope in 1978.

Popes of the 1st millennium

The following list of popes only provides a brief overview of all the popes officially recognized by the Catholic Church. Only the incumbent Pope and his two predecessors were presented in more detail:

Simon Petrus (died at 65), Pope at 37 until his death.

Linus (died around 79), Pope around 67 to around 79.

Anaklet (died at 88), Pope at 79 to 88.

Clemens I (50 to around 97), Pope around 88 to around 97.

Evaristus (died around 105), Pope around 98 to 105.

Alexander I (died around 115), Pope around 106 to 115.

Sixtus I (died around 125), Pope around 115 to 125.

Telesphorus (died around 136), Pope around 126 to 137.

Hyginus (died around 142), Pope around 138 to 142.

Pius I (died around 155), Pope around 142 to 155.

Anicetus (around 100 to around 166), Pope around 154 to around 167.

Soterus (died around 175), Pope around 166 to 175.

Eleutherus (died around 189), Pope around 175 to 189.

Viktor I (died around 199), Pope around 189 to around 199.

Zephyrinus (died around 217), Pope around 198 to around 217.

Kalixt I (died around 222), Pope around 217 to around 222.

Urban (died 230), Pope from 222 to 230.

Pontianus (died 235), Pope from 230 to 235. He resigned shortly before his death.

It is controversial whether the resignation is to be regarded as voluntary

Anterus (d. 236), Pope in 236.

Fabianus (died 250), Pope from 236 to 250.

Cornelius (died 253), Pope from 251 to 253.

Lucius I (died 254), Pope from 253 to 254.

Stephan I (died 257), Pope from 254 to 257.

Sixtus II. (Died 258), Pope from 257 to 258.

Dionysius (died 268), Pope from 260 to 268.

Felix I (died 274), Pope from 269 to 274.

Eutychian (d. 283), Pope from 275 to 283.

Cajus (died 296), Pope from 283 to 296.

Marcellinus (d. 304), Pope from 296 to 304.

Marcellus I (died 309), Pope from 308 to 309.

Eusebius (d. 308/309), Pope in 308 or 309.

Melchiades (d. 314), Pope from 310 to 314.

Silvester I. (died 335), Pope from 314 to 335.

Marcus (d. 336), Pope in 336.

Julius I (died 352), Pope from 337 to 352.

Liberius (d. 366), Pope from 352 to 366.

Damasus I (around 305 to 384), Pope from 366 to 384.

Siricius (d. 399), Pope from 384/385 to 399.

Anastasius I (d. 401), Pope from 399 to 401.

Saint Innocent I (died 417), Pope from 401 to 417.

Zosimus (d. 418), Pope from 417 to 418.

Saint Boniface I (d. 422), Pope 418 to 422.

Celestine I (died 432), Pope from 422 to 432.

Sixtus III. (died 440), Pope from 432 to 440.

Leo I (died 461), Pope from 440 to 461.

Hilary (died 468), Pope from 461 to 468.

Simplicius (died 483), Pope from 468 to 483.

Felix II (died 492), Pope from 483 to 492.

Gelasius I (d. 496), Pope from 492 to 496.

Anastasius II (died 498), Pope 496 to 498.

Symmachus (d. 514), Pope from 498 to 514.

Hormisdas (d. 523), Pope from 514 to 523.

John I (died 526), Pope from 523 to 526.

Felix III. (died 530), Pope was 526 to 530.

Boniface II (died 532), Pope from 530 to 532.

John II (died 535), Pope from 533 to 535.

Agapitus I (died 536), Pope from 535 to 536.

Silverius (died 537), Pope from 536 to 537.

Vigilius (d. 555), Pope from 537 to 555.

Pelagius I (d. 561), Pope from 556 to 561.

John III (died 574), Pope from 561 to 574.

Benedict I (d. 579), Pope 575 to 579.

Pelagius II (died 590), Pope from 579 to 590.

Gregory I (around 540 to 604), Pope from 590 to 604.

Sabinianus (d. 606), Pope from 604 to 606.

Boniface III (died 607), Pope in 607.

Boniface IV (died 615), Pope from 608 to 615.

Adeodatus I (d. 618), Pope from 615 to 618.

Boniface V (d. 625), Pope from 619 to 625.

Honorius I (d. 638), Pope from 625 to 638.

Severinus (d. 640), Pope from 638 to 640.

John IV (died 642), Pope from 640 to 642.

Theodor I (d. 649), Pope from 642 to 649.

Martin I (around 600 to 655), Pope from 649 to 653.

Eugene I (d. 657), Pope from 654 to 657.

Vitalianus (d. 672), Pope from 657 to 672.

Adeodatus II (died 676), Pope from 672 to 676.

Donus (d. 678), Pope from 676 to 678.

Agatho (d. 681), Pope from 678 to 681.

Leo II (died 683), Pope from 682 to 683.

Benedict II (died 685), Pope from 684 to 685.

John V (died 686), Pope from 685 to 686.

Konon (d. 687), Pope from 686 to 687.

Sergius I (d. 701), Pope from 687 to 701.

John VI (died 705), Pope from 701 to 705.

John VII (died 707), Pope from 705 to 707.

Sisinnius (d. 708), Pope in 708.

Constantine I (d. 715), Pope from 708 to 715.

Gregory II (669-731), Pope from 715 to 731.

Gregory III. (died 741), Pope from 731 to 741.

Zacharias (around 679 to 752), Pope from 741 to 752.

Stephen II (died 757), Pope from 752 to 757.

Paul I (died 767), Pope from 757 to 767.

Stephan III. (died 772), Pope from 768 to 772.

Hadrian I (d. 795), Pope from 772 to 795.

Leo III. (died 816), Pope from 795 to 816. He crowned Emperor Charlemagne on December 25, 800.

Stephan IV. (Died 817), Pope from 816 to 817.

Paschal I (d. 824), Pope from 817 to 824.

Eugene II (d. 827), Pope from 824 to 827.

Valentin (d. 827), Pope in 827.

Gregory IV (died 844), Pope from 827 to 844.

Sergius II (d. 847), Pope from 844 to 847.

Leo IV (around 790 to 855), Pope from 847 to 855.

Benedict III (died 858), Pope from 855 to 858.

Nicholas I (820-867), Pope from 858 to 867.

Hadrian II (792-872), Pope from 867 to 872.

John VIII (died 882), Pope from 872 to 882.

Marinus I (d. 884), Pope from 882 to 884.

Hadrian III. (died 885), Pope from 884 to 885.

Stephan V (died 891), Pope from 885 to 891.

Formosus (816-896), Pope from 891 to 896.

Boniface VI. (died 896), Pope in 896.

Stephan VI. (VII.) (Died 897), Pope from 896 to 897.

Romanus (d. 897), Pope in 897.

Theodors II (d. 897), Pope in 897.

John IX (died 900), Pope from 898 to 900.

Benedict IV. (Died 903), Pope from 900 to 903.

Leo V (died 903), Pope in 903.

Sergius III. (died 911), Pope from 904 to 911.

Anastasius III. (died 913), Pope from 911 to 913.

Lando (d. 913), Pope in 913.

John X. (died 929), Pope from 914 to 928.

Leo VI (died 928), Pope in 928.

Stephen VII (VIII.) (Died 931), Pope from 929 to 931.

John XI. (died 935), Pope from 931 to 935.

Leo VII (died 939), Pope from 936 to 939.

Stephen VIII (died 942), Pope from 939 to 942.

Marinus II (d. 946), Pope from 942 to 946.

Agapitus II. (Died 955), Pope from 946 to 955.

John XII. (937/939 – 964), Pope from 955 to 963.

Leo VIII (died 965), Pope from 963 to 965.

Benedict V (d. 965/966), Pope in 964.

John XIII (died 972), Pope from 965 to 972

Benedict VI. (died 974), Pope from 973 to 974.

Benedict VII (died 983), Pope from 974 to 983.

John XIV (died 984), Pope from 983 to 984.

Boniface VII (died 985), Pope from 984 to 985.

John XV (died 996), Pope from 985 to 996.

Gregory V (972-999), Pope from 996 to 999.

New Year’s Eve II (around 950 to 1003), Pope from 999 to 1003.

Vatican City Politics