Until the end of the First World War, there were practically no
transnational companies (companies from one country that operate
in another), with the exception of some North American
corporations. After the Second World War, around 1950, many
companies expanded their areas of operation, installing
themselves in different countries of the globe.
With the dispersion of large companies around the world, Latin
America has been the target of many corporate corporations and
has been significantly influenced by these companies
economically. The transnational companies that have installed
themselves in the countries of Latin America are mainly of North
American, Japanese and European origin. These companies wanted
to take advantage of the favorable conditions that the Latin
countries offered, such as:
- Abundance of low-cost labor compared to wages paid in
- Wealth in raw materials (water, minerals, energy,
- Potential consumer market, that is, populations that
could consume the products of the companies.
- Infrastructure promoted by the government of the country
where the company is located.
- Soft environmental laws.
- Tax incentives, such as partial or total tax exemption.
- Permission to send profits to their country of origin.
These and other benefits have facilitated the dispersion of
TNCs across the world. Today, most of these companies dominate
the automotive, food, steel, metallurgical, electro-electronic,
pharmaceutical, chemical and agro-industrial segments.
In this way, we can say that these companies played an essential
role in the industrialization of Latin countries. However, the
predominance of transnational companies was negative because it
prevented the emergence of national companies.
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ending with South America.
Population in United States, North America
During the first hundred years of the United States,
the population center of gravity was near the east
coast. There, European immigrants settled, while the
Native American population was scattered across
different parts of the present United States. During the
early industrialization of the 19th century, the raw
materials and transport routes that existed in the
Appalachians and the Great Lakes were taken advantage of
and the population increased greatly. Population growth
was also rapid in the South, mainly among the African
American population. After the abolition of slavery,
more and more African Americans moved north to the
emerging industrial cities. Over the past fifty years,
growth has slowed down in old industrial areas, while
new industries with millions of jobs have emerged in
other parts of the United States. This has led to a
major relocation within the country, from the "rust
belt" in the north to the "sun belt" in the south and
west. There, the increase in population has also been
accelerated by the large immigration of Latin Americans
in recent decades, mainly from Mexico.
Usually, the United States is divided into four
regions. In the western states, 23 percent of the
population lives, in the south 37 percent and in the
Midwest 22 percent, while the states in the northeast
now have only 18 percent of residents. The most populous
states are California, Texas, Florida and New York. In
the prairie and mountain states there are very vast
sparsely populated areas.
In 2019, 82 percent of the population lived in the
336 metropolitan areas of the United States
(Metropolitan Statistical Areas, MSA). Urban growth now
occurs primarily in the West, in Texas, Florida and
Georgia as well as in North Carolina and South Carolina.
The fastest growing are Houston and Dallas – Fort Worth
in Texas and Atlanta in Georgia. The United States has
no metropolitan area by far, as most other countries
have. A total of about 10 percent of the country's
population lives in the two largest metropolitan areas
of New York – New Jersey – Long Island (19 million
residents in 2010) and Los Angeles – Long Beach – Santa
Ana (12.9 million). Data on the population of individual
large cities are rarely used, as older city centers have
grown together with newer suburbs into cohesive urban
Immigration and rather high birth rates during the
19th and 20th centuries caused the population to grow
faster in the United States than in Western Europe, and
so it still is; during the 00's as a whole by close to
During the 00's, the increase in population was
greatest in the south and west, while it was
significantly lower in the Midwest and in the
northeastern United States. Nevada was the fastest
growing state (35 percent). In the state of Michigan,
the population change during the 1990's was –0.6
percent, which was probably mainly a result of the
crisis of the old industrial areas during the recession.
Many rural areas have also been de-populated over the
In 2018, the US population increased by 6 per
thousand. The natural increase in population is 3 per
cent and the immigration surplus 3 per thousand. The
birth rate was highest among Hispanic, lowest among
immigrant Asians, while the death rate was highest in
the African American population. (For infant mortality,
see Social conditions).
As in most post-industrial countries, the United
States has an aging population. The largest proportion
of residents aged 65 and older have Florida (17.3
percent), where many move as pensioners, and the lowest
has Alaska (7.7 percent).
In 2010, there were 40 million foreign-born in the
United States, the highest number so far and almost
one-eighth of the population. Of these, 12 percent came
from Europe, 28 percent from Asia, 29 percent from
Mexico and 24 percent from the rest of Latin America.
The largest immigrant groups had come from Mexico,
China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, as well as from India and
the Philippines. Almost all of the ten states where the
proportion of foreign-born are increasing are located in
the southern and western United States.
In 2000–10, the proportion of whites declined from
75.1 percent to 72.4 percent. The proportion of African
Americans increased slightly to 12.6 percent and the
proportion of Asians increased significantly to 4.8
percent, while the proportion of Native Americans
remained largely unchanged, 0.9 percent. More than half
of African Americans live in the states of the South,
where they make up a fifth of the population. In
Washington DC, they make up more than half of the
population. In the Idaho and Montana states, only 1% of
residents are African American.
||Sao Paulo, Brazil
||Buenos Aires, Argentina
||Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
||Belo Horizonte, Brazil
||Porto Alegre, Brazil
The United States Census reports individuals with
Latin American backgrounds. They are called Hispanics or
Latinos, and in 2010 they made up 16.3 percent of the
population. Their share is gradually increasing, partly
as a result of increasing immigration and partly because
they have high birth rates. More than half of these live
in California and Texas (mainly Mexicans) and in Florida
US 20 most populous metropolitan regions
|New York – Newark – Jersey
|Los Angeles – Long Beach – Anaheim
|Dallas-Fort Worth – Arlington
|Houston – The Woodlands – Sugar Land
|Miami – Fort Lauderdale – West Palm Beach
|Atlanta – Sandy Springs – Roswell
|San Francisco – Oakland – Hayward
|Riverside – San Bernardino – Ontario
|Minneapolis – Saint Paul – Bloomington
|San Diego – Carlsbad