It took more than four centuries to structure European colonies in the world, counting from the period of trading posts to the second half of the 20th century.
The independence of the Asian continent was due to two causes: the weakening of European nations after World War II and the emergence of movements for the struggle for independence.
The Asian decolonization process had American and Soviet support. This is explained by the fact that the Cold War was taking place at that time. In this way, both wanted to expand their areas of influence of capitalism and socialism, respectively, in countries that would emerge with independence.
Asian decolonization took place almost simultaneously with World War II. Many colonies became independent between 1945 and 1950, of which we can mention: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos. China promoted the socialist revolution, as a result of which it put an end to English, German and Japanese domination in its territory. In 1945, Korea stopped submitting to Japanese domination. This former Japanese colony split in 1948, forming two countries: North Korea and South Korea.
Cambodia became independent from France in 1953. Malaysia and Singapore managed to break free from English colonization between 1957 and 1965 . The colonies where the Middle East is today have been subject to European dominion for a long time. Countries such as Lebanon and Syria became independent in 1943 and 1946, respectively. The rest of the countries that make up the Middle East achieved independence only after World War II. With the exception of Iran, which theoretically was never a colony of any European metropolis. Due to many years of intense exploitation on the part of European metropolises, the colonies have become independent, however they have inherited many socioeconomic problems, which are still perceived today.
Visit the official website of Abbreviationfinder.org to find abbreviations starting or ending with Asia.
Welcome to the top MBA directory in Asia. We have created the list of best Asian business colleges that provide BBA, MBA or DBA programs. Most business schools offer full-time, part-time and executive education. Such rankings are based on the student surveys, alumni reviews, admissions profiles, employment rates, average starting salary and peer school assessment. To find out detailed information about admissions and career about each school in Asia, just follow the link below.
|2||CEIBS, Shanghai||18 months||China|
|3||University of Hong Kong||14 months||Hong Kong|
|4||National University of Singapore||17 months||Singapore|
|5||IIM Ahmedabad, India||12 months||India|
|6||Nanyang Business School||12 months||Singapore|
|7||The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology||16 months||Hong Kong|
|8||The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)||12 months||Hong Kong|
|9||IIM Bangalore, India||12 months||India|
|10||Indian School of Business, Hyderabad||N/A||India|
Note: According to Countryaah, there are 48 countries in Asia. Among these countries and regions, China, Singapore, and India host the Asian leading 10 famous business MBA programs.
As a barren and vast outpost of Central Asia, the autonomous region of Xinjiang is located in China’s northwest corner. The influx of Han Chinese has been extensive in recent decades as the extraction of oil and gas in the resource-rich region, for example, has increased. Tensions have arisen between the Han Chinese and resident Uighurs, who have been disadvantaged in economic development and feel that they are being prevented from practicing their religion Islam. After the Uighur separatists performed a series of acts of terror, the Uyghurs’ possibilities to exercise their rights were further restricted.
Geography and population
The Autonomous Region of Xinjiang (Sinkiang) is located in the northwest of China. With an area more than three times the size of Sweden, the region makes up a sixth of China. More than 90 percent of the area consists of mountains, deserts and difficult terrain.
Of Xinjiang’s approximately 21 million residents (census 2010), most of the Turkish-speaking, Muslim ethnic groups belong, of which Uighurs – one of China’s 55 officially recognized minority people – is the largest with 8-10 million. Chinese immigration in the region has been strong in recent decades and just over 40 percent are estimated to be male Chinese. A few years into the 2010s, China’s leadership announced that Uighurs would begin to move to provinces in China’s interior, as a way to increase integration with Han Chinese and reduce Xinjiang’s separatist efforts.
History and politics
The Uighurs in Xinjiang have often felt a greater ethnic and cultural affiliation with their Central Asian neighbors and strived for independence. In the early 2000s, several terrorist attacks, both in Xinjiang and other parts of the country, were blamed on Muslim “terrorists”. From mid-2010, Beijing has tightened surveillance in the region and launched a campaign against “extremism” that has been heavily criticized in the outside world.
Historically, Xinjiang has been an important link between east and west. Here the desert caravans passed with monks and traders on the mythical Silk Road. On several occasions throughout history, Uyghurs have tried to create a Muslim East Turkestan, but since the takeover of the Communist forces in China in 1949, Xinjiang has been incorporated into the People’s Republic. However, not all Uighurs have accepted the Chinese regime, which is partly due to the fact that they often did not receive the income from Xinjiang’s rich natural resources to the same extent as the native Chinese. The dissatisfaction has been compounded by the fact that the Chinese leadership restricted the Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities’ opportunities to practice their religion.
Following the terrorist act in the United States in September 2001, the Beijing Central Government accused Uighur separatists in the region of staying in touch with the al-Qaeda terrorist network. The regime thus wanted to legitimize the fight against Xinjiang separatists as part of the US-led global “war on terrorism”. In 2002, the UN labeled the separatist organization the East Turkestan Islamic Movement as a terrorist movement.
In 2005, the Chinese authorities launched a tough campaign to eradicate “the three evil things”: terrorism, separatism and religious extremism. But violence and unrest continued. In 2007, 18 suspected terrorists were killed in a police raid against a suspected terrorist training camp and in 2008, 16 police officers were killed in an attack in the city of Kashgar. Extremist Uighur groups were suspected of being behind the act.
In the summer of 2009, extensive clashes broke out between Uighurs and Han Chinese in the city of Ürümqi. About 200 people were killed and nearly 1,700 were injured. The unrest began with around 3,000 Uighurs protesting conflicts several weeks earlier in a factory in southeastern China that resulted in the death of two Uighurs. More than 1,400 people were arrested by the police. 200 of them were later brought to trial for participation in the riots. Following the riots in Ürümqi, the Chinese regime responded by tightening surveillance in the region.
During the first half of the 2010, several attacks occurred, which according to the authorities had been carried out by Uighur separatists. Violence also took place outside Xinjiang. In the fall of 2013, a car of Uighurs drove into a crowd of tourists at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, and in the spring of 2014, 31 people were killed in a knife attack by five Uighurs at Kunming Railway Station in southwestern China. In Xinjiang, an attack in Ürümqi when cars drove straight into a market square with Han Chinese led to 39 people losing their lives. The perpetrators were Uighurs according to the authorities.
Security forces continued at the same time as the strike against Uighurs. In the summer of 2014, some 60 “terrorists” and a large number of civilians were killed in connection with such a strike. China’s leadership claims that movements outside the country with links to extreme Islamist movements are behind the violence in Xinjiang and elsewhere in the country. Some analysts believe that the authorities are exaggerating the threat to have an excuse to strike against Uighur opposition.
Following the 2014 attacks, the Beijing government switched to a new, broader tactic aimed at stopping all “extremism” in the region in order to maintain stability and order. The primary means to achieve this was to try to assimilate Uighurs and other ethnic minorities. This meant counteracting various forms of religious and cultural expression even more than before. The possibilities for Uyghurs to use Uyghur in society were tightened and it was forbidden to teach Uyghur in the school. In addition, the police’s grip on the region was further strengthened and various forms of surveillance were implemented such as camera surveillance and face recognition technology.
From 2016, regular Uighurs who had shown signs of some “abnormal behavior”, such as reading a lot in the Qur’an or dressing in an Islamic manner, began to be taken to special so-called retraining camps where they could be locked up for a year or longer without any legal investigation. Reports that leaked from these camps to the outside world towards the end of the 2010s testified to difficult conditions and abuse. According to human rights organizations, including Human Rights Watch, nearly one million Uighurs and other ethnic minorities were detained in such camps.
China’s detention camps have been severely criticized by human rights organizations and admitted to the UN. When the UN Human Rights Council met in the summer of 2019, 22 countries wrote a joint letter demanding that the blockade in camps and abuses be stopped. In the fall of 2019, the United States imposed restrictions on obtaining visas for Chinese regime officials linked to the detention of Uighurs and other minorities in Xinjiang. Chinese companies that, for example, provide the security service with technical monitoring equipment, were also blacklisted.
The Chinese leadership initially denied the existence of the camps, but after a while changed strategy by claiming that it was in fact a form of boarding school providing training in various professions and in Chinese as a way to prevent terrorism and extremism from becoming attached among vulnerable groups. Many Uyghurs find it difficult to get a job, and the dominance of the Chinese by the Chinese continues to be high, which ignites tensions between the two ethnic groups.
Xinjiang is rich in natural resources. Here are several important minerals such as coal, iron, zinc, chromium and nickel and, not least, China’s largest reserves of oil and natural gas. Agriculture also plays an important economic role with, among other things, large cotton and lavender crops. Sheep management is widespread and the region produces wool for the rest of the country. For several years, major investments have been made in developing industries and expanding infrastructure in the region.
Xinjiang’s geographical location on the northwestern border of China has meant that the region has long been of great importance for China’s trade westward with other Asian countries and Europe. The city of Kashgar was an important hub for trade along the historic Silk Road as camel caravans carried goods back and forth between China and Europe. Today, the city and the entire Xinjiang region are an important link in China’s new so-called Silk Road Initiative (BRI). The huge prestige project was launched in 2013 and will link and build transport routes, gas pipelines, power plants, ports and more to facilitate trade and transport between Asia, Europe and Africa, across both land and sea. From Kashgar, one of the Silk Road Initiative’s so-called economic corridors runs to Pakistan and two more such corridors start from Xinjiang. As part of this, Beijing has invested considerable resources in infrastructure investments in the region. These include highways and lines for high-speed trains.