Formed by 14 countries, Oceania is the smallest continent on Earth, occupying an area of approximately 8.5 million square kilometers. The continental economy presents a great disparity, a fact that can be analyzed through the difference in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries of this region.
|5||Auckland, New Zealand||1,606,675|
|7||Gold Coast, Australia||699,337|
Australia and New Zealand have a high degree of socioeconomic development, being among the richest countries and with the best quality of life on the planet. These two nations have strong industrialization and highly mechanized agriculture. The other countries have little economy, based on agriculture. Tourism is developed in virtually all countries.
The diversified Australian industrial park boosts the national economy, with emphasis on the segments of: chemistry, metallurgy, steel, petrochemical, machinery and equipment, etc. Mining is another important sector for raising financial resources. This activity is developed through the extraction of bauxite, gold, iron, lead and manganese.
New Zealand, the second richest nation on the continent, has a high level of industrialization (food, processing, metallurgical, steel, petrochemical, etc.). It also houses large reserves of oil, coal and natural gas. Another highlight of the national economy is the flocks of sheep, goats, cattle and pigs, boosting the production of wool, meat and dairy products.
The other twelve nations (Fiji, Marshall Islands, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu), unlike Australia and New Zealand, have a low degree of industrialization and little economy developed. The main activities to raise income are tourism, agriculture, with subsistence plantations and export monocultures, especially coconut, cocoa, coffee, cassava and bananas, in addition to fishing. Visit the official website of Abbreviationfinder.org to find abbreviations starting or ending with Australia.
Welcome to the top MBA directory in Australia and New Zealand. We have created the list of best Oceania business colleges that provide BBA, MBA or DBA programs. Most business schools offer full-time, part-time and executive education. Such rankings are based on the student surveys, alumni reviews, admissions profiles, employment rates, average starting salary and peer school assessment. To find out detailed information about admissions and career about each school in Oceania, just follow the link below.
|1||University of Melbourne||12 months||Melbourne||Australia|
|2||Australian Graduate School of Management at UNSW||16 months||Sydney||Australia|
|3||Monash University||22 months||Melbourne||Australia|
|4||UQ Business School||18 months||Brisbane||Australia|
|5||MGSM Macquarie||24 months||Sydney||Australia|
|6||University of Western Australia Business School||12 months||Perth||Australia|
|7||Australian National University||18 months||Canberra||Australia|
|8||Deakin University||18 months||Melbourne||Australia|
|9||Otago||15-24 months||Dunedin||New Zealand|
|10||RMIT University School of Business||24 months||Melbourne||Australia|
Note: Australia and New Zealand are the two largest countries in the continent of Oceania. According to Countryaah, there are other 12 countries where there is no famous business MBA programs.
Australia’s indigenous people have lived on the continent as hunters and gatherers for over 30,000 years. Together, the 145,000 Australians make up about 500 ethnic groups, separated in terms of language, culture and territorial organization. Each cultural area has its own specific art traditions, closely related to the group’s ritual life and philosophical-religious worldview.
A prominent feature of Australia’s traditional art is the memorial poles (pukamani) erected over the dead in Arnhem Land and among the tiwi on Melville Island. From Arnhem Land also come the works of art that go under the designations rangga and maraiin, ceremony poles and sculptures of mythical figures as well as realistically depicted animals. Sculpture art is otherwise uncommon, while painting in various forms is richly represented – rock paintings, bark paintings, body painting, decoration of weapons, shields and sacred objects such as the arand people’s bullring, flat stones or wooden boards with engraved designs that are considered loaded with supernatural power.
The oldest art forms are rock carvings and rock paintings made in yellow and red sugar, white clay and charcoal. They show the happenings in a mythical “dream time” (compare Australian religion), totem animals and mythical figures, such as the well-known wandering jinnesses on the rock paintings in the Kimberley region. A special style, called “X-ray painting”, which depicts animals and people with visible internal organs, is characteristic of Arnhem Land and again appears in the North Australian painting on eucalyptus bark.
Within the indigenous population, in recent years artists have emerged who, based on this bark painting and central Australia’s sand painting, have sought to create an art that caters to an audience outside their own group. Among these artists are Wandjuk Marika from Arnhem Land and representatives of The Western Desert School at Papunya such as Clifford Possum Tjapaltjari and Michael Nelson Tjakamara.
The development of a European embossed art in Australia began with the British colonization of the continent, begun in 1788. The painting art initially showed a draw to the documentary – in landscape painting (John Glover), in portrait painting (Richard Read) and in depictions of rural life (Conrad Martens). In the second half of the 19th century, a realistic painting by Samuel Gill was launched, and the sculpture art began to be developed by artists such as John Mackennal and Thomas Woolner. The foundations of an Australian impressionism were laid at the turn of the century by Tom Roberts, Charles Conder and Arthur Streeton, who together gave the landscape painting a new direction. Many Australian painters are now studying in Europe, including John Russel, who was close to van Gogh, and the sculptor George Lambert. A post-impressionist tendency, with elements of experimental formalism,
The year 1939 is usually highlighted as a turning point in Australian art. The Contemporary Art Societywas formed and several artists returned from Europe. Among them was William Dobell, who now began to paint his penetrating portraits of businessmen and representatives of the urban proletariat. The leading representative of a new kind of national painting became Russell Drysdale with his depictions of the Australian hinterland and its people, especially the indigenous people of the north. Now Albert Tucker and Arthur Boyd also appeared with their social-critical painting and their biblical and mythological images, which derived impulses mainly from German expressionism. Sidney Nolan, a traveler and cosmopolitan and perhaps the most well-known of the artists of modern Australia, came to represent a lyrical, visionary painting, deeply rooted in the Australian landscape, its people and myths. During the 1950s, a group of painters led by John Olsen developed an abstract impressionism built on French role models and on the traditions of indigenous predecessors such as Ian Fairweather, Godfrey Miller and John Passmore. This abstract art nowadays has new representatives such as Brett Whiteley. Otherwise, the post-war art has mostly followed the main international trends, but still a national painting with artists such as Fred Williams and his younger followers, who draw their inspiration in the Australian landscape.
Australia was already visited by European dancers in the 1830s. Dance teachers followed and opened schools. For a long time, it was only through guest games that the audience got to know the development of ballet art. It was not until 1942 that Edouard Borovansky founded a domestic ensemble, which in 1962 became The Australian Ballet. Under Peggy van Praagh and choreographer Robert Helpmann developed this ballet ensemble into one of the foremost contemporary. In 1982, British ballerina Maina Gielgud took over the post of artistic director. The ensemble often toured, and danced with Rudolf Nureyev in the ballet film “Don Quijote” (1986). Australia now has several ballet companies such as the West Australian Ballet and Sydney Dance Company, as well as the Australian Dance Theater, which is engaged in more experimental modern dance forms.
In contemporary dance art, there is also an interest in traditional dance among Australia’s indigenous people, where music and dance are closely associated with ritual life and community organization. Repertoire of so-called dance songs is owned by individuals or family groups, and various forms of song and dance are bought and sold between the groups. The term “corroboree” has come to mean occasions when these songs with associated dances are performed – dances that are often mimic and mimic the movements and behaviors of animals. Separate from these occasions are the exclusively male rituals with song and mimic dance that take place separate from the common dance venues.
The word “corroboree” nowadays has a greater spread among Australians at large than among the indigenous people, as does “bush-dance”, which stands for a type of folk dance that Europeans brought to Australia and originating from so-called country dances in England.