Europe, called the old continent, seems to have transferred that name to its population, given that the European population is aging. It is a result of the increase in life expectancy, which today is 77 years, and the low birth rate.
|3||London, United Kingdom||9,304,127|
|6||Saint Petersburg, Russia||5,467,919|
Natural or vegetative growth rates are at a declining stage. This fact had not occurred in history, except for catastrophes such as the black plague and wars. What is perceived in European countries are countries that present practically nonexistent or even negative vegetative growth rates. The number of births in European countries has not exceeded the number of deaths.
Italy is a clear example of an aging population – in the country the population over 60 years exceeds the number of people under the age of 20. This is due to the high purchasing power, urbanization and the new posture of women in society, which effectively entered the job market. Modern women seek professional qualification, so they spend more time studying, putting marriage and the formation of a family in the background.
Currently, couples are slow to have children and it almost always happens after the age of thirty. In some cases many decide not to have one. Until recently, countries in the world have been aiming for a drop in birth rates globally, but with the drop in birth rates and an aging population, countries have been concerned, due to the overcoming of the number of elderly people in relation to that of young people. In this way, the minority should support the majority. This will produce a great imbalance in the nations, due to the overload of the pension systems. Another worrying factor is the structural changes in services, such as healthcare, which is also overloaded, in addition to the high costs in the treatment of chronic diseases.
Visit the official website of Abbreviationfinder.org to find abbreviations starting or ending with Europe.
Welcome to the top MBA directory in Europe. We have created the list of best European business colleges that provide BBA, MBA or DBA programs. Most business schools offer full-time, part-time and executive education. Such rankings are based on the student surveys, alumni reviews, admissions profiles, employment rates, average starting salary and peer school assessment. To find out detailed information about admissions and career about each school in Europe, just follow the link below.
|1||London Business School||21 months||London||United Kingdom|
|3||HEC Paris||16 months||Paris||France|
|4||IE Business School||11 months||Madrid||Spain|
|5||Saïd Business School, University of Oxford||12 months||Oxford||United Kingdom|
|6||ESADE Business School||18 months||Barcelona||Spain|
|7||IESE Business School at the University of Navarra||19 months||Barcelona||Spain|
|8||Imperial College Business School||12 months||London||United Kingdom|
|9||Cambridge Judge Business School||12 months||Cambridge||United Kingdom|
|10||SDA Bocconi||12 months||Milan||Italy|
Note: According to Countryaah, there are 45 countries in Europe. Among these nations, only U.K. France, Spain, and Italy have the world leading MBA program. In other words, all famous European MBA programs are located in western Europe.
The contemporary history of Slovakia
Slovakia’s contemporary history is the country’s history after 1993. Between 1918 and 1993 Slovakia was part of the Slavic state formation Czechoslovakia, from 1969 with the status of state.
On January 1, 1993, the Republic of Slovakia became an independent state after the Czechoslovak Federation was peacefully dissolved. Slovakia had been the least developed part of Czechoslovakia and, when it was released in 1993, predicted a difficult future, but has a growth in GDP that is growing faster than the EU average.
The dissolution of Czechoslovakia
The Communist regime in Czechoslovakia was abolished in November 1989. In the first free elections in Slovakia in 1990, the loosely composed group “Public Against Violence” became the largest party, and Vladimír Mečiar became Slovak prime minister. Constitutional issues and relations with the Czechs came up early, among other things, there was an extensive dispute over the reintroduction of hyphens in the Czechoslovakia name. The desire to dissolve Czechoslovakia was initially not a common requirement in Slovakia, but gained increasing support as the Czechs were little interested in joining such a loose confederation that nationalist Slovak politicians eventually advocated.
In August 1992, Slovak and Czech politicians agreed to dissolve Czechoslovakia. A Slovak Constitution was passed in September 1992. After clarifying some practical issues, the resolution was passed by the Czechoslovak Parliament on November 25, and from January 1, 1993, Slovakia was an independent state.
The first years as an independent state
The political life in Slovakia during the first years was characterized by unstable conditions and strong conflicts, not least between Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar and President Michal Kováč. After the ruling party’s Democratic Slovakia Movement (HZDS) split in February 1994, Prime Minister Mečiar had to step down, but he formed a new government after the re-election that fall.
President Kováč’s term expired in March 1998, and when there was not a sufficient majority in parliament to elect his successor, the post remained vacant for a while before Mečiar became president again in 1999. The following year he was arrested and charged with abuse of power, but was later released. The controversial but popular politician also ran for president in 2004, but lost in another round of elections.
Although Mečiar’s government advocated the development of market economy and the integration of Slovakia into European structures, doubts were raised about how strong this desire really was. Mečiar was frequently accused of authoritarian tendencies and concentration of power, and there was several times uncertainty about his attitude to free speech and democratic processes.
Relationship with Hungary
Another contentious issue is the relationship with the Hungarian minority (around 10 per cent of the population). An agreement signed by Hungary and Slovakia in 1995 on “good neighborliness and friendly cooperation” secured minority rights at the same time as the Hungarian-Slovak border was declared inviolable. Nevertheless, Hungarian was dissatisfied with the language situation, and the two countries have long had a conflict about power development in the Danube (Gabčikovo-Nagymaros). The Beneš decrees have also been a matter of contention, and refer to the forced displacement of Hungarians from Czechoslovakia after the Second World War.
Under Robert Fico’s second government in 2012-2016, relations with Hungary improved, despite the fact that Fico is a social democrat and Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán right-wing populist. They have taken fairly similar positions with regard to EU internal politics and relations with Russia.
After the disintegration of Czechoslovakia, many feared that Slovakia would face additional major financial problems. But even though the country did not have as good economic development as the Czech Republic, economic growth was significant after Mečiar’s regime resigned.
Since the turn of the century, and especially after EU membership in 2004, economic growth has been significant. The country has attracted foreign investment and, among other things, established a significant automotive industry.
Elections and domestic politics after 2000
After the 1998 elections, Christian Democrat took over Mikulas Dzurinda as prime minister. He is the leader of the SDKU party and formed a center-right coalition government. The government and Dzurinda gained renewed confidence in the 2002 elections, and the government was honored to lead the country into NATO and the EU. Rudolf Schuster became president in 1999, and in the 2004 presidential election, nationalist Mečiar lost to his former party mate Ivan Gašparovic.
In the 2006 parliamentary elections, the first after EU membership, Dzurinda’s party SDKU went back in favor of the Social Democratic party Smer, which became the largest party with 29 percent of the vote and 50 (out of 150) seats in the national assembly. Smer, led by Robert Fico, opted to halt the country’s market liberalism course and establish new welfare schemes, as well as withdraw the country’s forces from Iraq.
After the Prime Minister’s term 2006-2010, with Robert Fico as leader of a coalition government, Fico was re-elected as Prime Minister in 2012 with 44.4 percent of the vote. Smer was now able to form government alone. At the 2016 election, Smer declined sharply, but was still the largest. Fico formed a coalition government of four parties, Smer, Most-Híd, SNS and Siet ‘.
On March 14, 2018, Fico resigned from the State Minister post and handed it over to party leader Peter Pellegrini. The background was the murder of investigative journalist Ján Kuciak, who was in the process of rolling up a case about the Italian criminal gang’s operation in eastern Slovakia. This gave rise to fierce protests against the government. Fico resigned on the grounds that he would avoid re-election and resolve the political crisis.
Together with the other Visegrád countries, Slovakia has been staunch opponents of EU quota schemes for the distribution of refugees that came during the 2015 migrant crisis. This position shares most Slovak parties.
Europe, foreign and security policy
After independence, Slovakia became a member of the Council of Europe and of the NATO Partnership for Peace. In 1999, the European Commission opened negotiations with Slovakia on EU membership. Doubts that the country fulfilled the desired democracy demands put it outside the first round of NATO accession, but the country nevertheless participated in military cooperation, including the KFOR force in Kosovo.
In 2002, Slovakia was invited as a new member of NATO and became a formal member from 2004 along with six other countries. During the Iraq war in 2003, Slovakia supported the US strategy and was among the states that expressed this most clearly, causing some disagreement with France and Germany. Slovakia participated in the Iraq war with a modest force of about 100 soldiers, who were experts in cleansing after chemical warfare.
Since then, Slovakia within NATO and the EU has been among those who have been mildest in the criticism of Russian foreign policy. It applied during the Georgia War in 2008 and the Ukraine crisis in 2013-2015 and the Russian annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014. The country rejected US plans for a missile shield in Central Europe and did not recognize Kosovo.
The membership negotiations with the EU started in 2000. In 2003, Slovakia signed the EU membership agreement, and the referendum on membership was held in May. As in the other eastern European candidate states, there was a great deal of excitement in voting; if turnout was below 50 percent, the vote would be void. Since the establishment of Slovakia in 1993, four referendums had been held, but all had been declared invalid due to low participation.
In the EU poll, 52.2 per cent of voters cast their vote, making it the first valid referendum in the country. There was no organized opposition to the EU, and the yes victory was as much as 92.5 per cent. Together with nine other countries, Slovakia joined the EU from 2004. In 2005, Slovakia approved the new EU Constitution and joined the euro zone in January 2009.