Texas [teʹksəs], abbreviated TX, US state; 695,676 km2,
28.7 million inhabitants (2018), the country's area of land as well as
population of the second largest state.The capital is Austin.
Texas. State Map.
The coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico is flat and is characterized by
swamps and sand barriers closest to the sea. Within the coastal plain are the
fertile interior plains, which occupy most of the state's surface.
Texas. Lake Travis is an artificial lake for water
regulation in the Colorado River, central Texas.
In western Texas these are replaced by the dry and flat high plains. At the
far west, outcrops from the Rocky Mountains reach Texas; highest reaches the
Guadalupe Mountains (2 667 m above sea level).
The climate shows great variations. Galveston on the coast has a subtropical
climate with average temperatures in January at 13 °C and July at 29 ° C. The
annual rainfall here is just over 1 100 mm. Corresponding values for El Paso
in the far west, which has a desert climate, are 7 °C in January and 27 °C in
July, as well as an annual rainfall of 240 mm.
In recent years, the increase in population has been strong, mainly due to
large numbers of immigrants. Many have Hispanic (Mexican) backgrounds and just
over 12 percent are African American. About 80 percent of the population lives
in metropolitan regions, the largest of which are Dallas – Fort Worth –
Arlington (7.2 million inhabitants, 2016), Houston – The Woodlands – Sugar Land
(6.8 million), San Antonio – New Braunfels (2.4 million) and Austin – Round Rock
The foundations of the Texas economy have been cotton, livestock and oil, but
the state is large and has gradually developed a diverse business
community. Agricultural production is extensive, and about 1/3 of the arable
land is irrigated. Cotton is still a leading crop, and rice, peanuts, vegetables
and citrus fruits are also produced. Texas has the largest livestock breeding in
the United States. Forestry and fishing (shrimp) also play a role.
Sulfur, salt, helium and magnesium are important mining products. However,
the most significant assets are the oil and natural gas assets, where Texas is
the United States leading state. Large oil refineries and extensive
petrochemical and chemical industries, mainly along the Gulf coast, dominate the
industrial economy. Texas has also developed into one of America's leading
renewable energy producers.
Texas. Webberville solar park in central Texas
covers 150 ha and has over 125,000 solar panels. It was inaugurated in 2012
outside the town of Webberville.
The state industry has long been based on local raw materials, and the
textile and food industries are still extensive. The electronic industry, as
well as the aerospace and aerospace industry in some respects, plays a very
important role. Economically significant are a number of federal facilities such
as military airbases. Tourism is also an important source of income. Texas has
good transport routes (roads, railways and canals) as well as a number of major
ports and airports.
Tourism and gastronomy
Texas size, more than 1.5 times Sweden's area, makes the number of
destinations and attractions many and varied. Texas offers visitors a variety of
climates, habitats and cultural environments, a number of major metropolitan
areas, entertainment and sports activities, etc. Among the major cities are
Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio and the capital Austin, which all
attract magnificent museums, not least art museums, various cultural
activities., shopping opportunities etc.
The European settlement began with various Spanish mission stations. Parts of
these are preserved, as are a number of fortified and settler communities from
the colonization and western periods. Many museums also reflect this era, and
the historically interested can find numerous rewarding sights throughout
Texas. The war historical monuments Alamo (in San Antonio) and San Jacinto (in
Houston), both from the 1836 war against Mexico, draw in particular American
visitor crowds. Among Texas's top sights is also the Houston Space Center
(Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center).
Texas. At the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is the
Space Center Houston, a space technology museum with objects from NASA's manned
space travel program. Among the highlights is this full-scale model of the space
shuttle Space Shuttle mounted on the back of a Boeing 747 Jumbo jet.
Rodeo competitions, originating in cowboy life, are commonplace and attract
Those interested in nature who want to live wilderness seek out the two major
national parks Guadalupe (about 150 km east of El Paso) and Big Bend (at the Rio
Grande, 400 km southeast of El Paso). Otherwise, there are a large number of
nature and recreation areas scattered throughout the state, such as Palo Duro
Canyon at Amarillo in the northwest and Padre Island on the coast in the
southeast. Along large parts of the 600 km long golf coast, with Galveston and
Corpus Christi as major tourist centers, stretches fine sandy beaches.
Texas. Galveston Island with its elongated sandy
Texas also has a large number of lakes, ponds and rivers, which offer good
opportunities for boating and fishing.
Corn, beans, citrus fruit, avocado, eggs, chilli and peppers as well as beef
and chicken in large quantities characterize the diet in Texas. The influences
are clear: Native American, Spanish, Mexican and the occasional German feature,
all mixed into large portions of uncomplicated food, often in the form of long
cooks. However, all food is not burning chili. Tasty but relatively mild dishes
dominate, where the spice consists of citrus fruits, cumin and coriander and
tomato. Beans appear as staple goods, frigoles (cooked pinto beans) are
severed to most things, perhaps as chuckwagon beans or the next day in
mashed form as refried beans. Guacamole, avocado ears, is
served to beans and tomato or egg dishes. Caldo de pollois chicken soup
with vegetables, pollo a salsa chicken in more or less strong tomato
sauce. Other meat dishes include Texas shortribs, short, fatty ribs in
a stew with tomato, beer and pepper, as well as chili con carne. Shrimp
occurs in the form of bacon wrapped barbeque shrimps on the
grill. Tacos and tortillas on cornmeal as well as tamale pie, meat pie
baked in cornmeal porridge, are just a few examples of the many recipes that
include corn. The popular and powerful peach cobber peach cobber is
said to have German origin.
The region was inhabited by several indigenous peoples when the first
Europeans, Spanish explorers, arrived there in 1519. Spain claimed supremacy
over the area, which had long been extremely sparsely populated. Texas attacked
Mexico after its liberation from Spain in 1821, but by this time had begun to be
colonized from the United States. This led to contradictions: in 1835 war broke
out and in 1836 Texas declared itself independent (see Alamo and San
Jacinto). For ten years, Texas was an independent republic, with Samuel Houston
as its first president. In 1845, Texas became the state of the United States,
which was recognized by Mexico only after a two-year war. Texas was a slave
state and participated on the South side in the Civil War.
The business sector was dominated for a long time by agriculture and
livestock farming, but since the discovery of oil in 1901, the income from oil
production started a rapid industrialization, culminating in the Second World
War. Since 1945, this development has continued, mainly through a greatly
increased population; In 1994, Texas became the second most populous state
Politically, the racial issue has at times been fiery, as have economic
contradictions between oil and industrial interests and the often poor small
farms. The Democratic Party was for a long time all-ruled but divided into
factions, where the Conservatives usually dominated. However, since the 1970s,
Republicans have grown in strength and have emerged as the stronger party since
the 1990s. Over the past few decades, Texas business has become increasingly
diverse and now includes high-tech and biomedical research.