Arizona [ærizo u ʹnə], abbreviated AZ, state of
southwestern United States; 295,000 km2, 7.2 million inhabitants
(2018).Arizona is one of the Mountain States. In the Northeast, the boundaries
between Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona meet, which is the only place in
the United States where four state boundaries meet (The Four States Corner). The
capital is Phoenix.
Arizona. State Map.
In the north, Arizona is occupied by plateaus that form part of the great
Colorado Plateau. Many individual landforms, e.g. mesa, butte, canyon valleys
and other erosion forms, have attracted much attention. Best known are the Grand
Canyon, Meteor Crater, Painted Desert and Petrified Forest.
Arizona. The Grand Canyon, which was listed on
UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1979.
Diagonally through the state, a mountainous area extends south of the plateau
region, which is an extension to the north of the Mexican mountain ranges. The
southwestern part is occupied by the so-called basin-and-back region, which is
widely distributed in this part of North America. Almost all of Arizona is
within the Colorado River drainage area. There are quite a few natural lakes,
but a good number of artificial ones, for example Meadsjön and Roosevelt Dam.
The semi-arid climate is warm and dry in almost the entire state. The
vegetation is therefore sparse, and in the arid parts most chaparral and cactus
About 5 percent of the population are Native Americans (including Apache,
Hopi and Navajo), who mainly live in reserves (1/4 of Arizona's area). The
historical influence of both Native American and Spanish-Mexican times has
affected Arizona in terms of, among other things, settlement and culture, and is
now mixed with the impetus of a powerful move from other parts of the United
States. Arizona's population has doubled since World War II. The most important
cities are Phoenix (1.6 million inhabitants, 2016) and Tucson (531,600
Simply put, Arizona's business is based on four Cs: Cattle, Cotton, Copper, and Climate. Agricultural
colonization began with livestock farming. However, large areas have been able
to cultivate large areas through irrigation. The Roosevelt Dam near Phoenix was
built in 1911, and many other irrigation and power plant projects have been
added later, such as the Hoover Dam in the Colorado River. However, the growing
needs of the growing population come into conflict with irrigated agriculture,
and groundwater reserves are being depleted slowly. In a commercially oriented,
partially high-mechanized economies of scale, in addition to cotton, cereals,
citrus fruits and lettuce are grown.
Arizona has rich mineral resources. Copper extraction in particular is
important. However, measured in terms of production value, the mining industry
comes after both agriculture and manufacturing. The latter, along with tourism,
is Arizona's most important industry. Industrial localization has been extensive
in recent decades, especially in the Phoenix region, but also in
Tucson. Electronic industries, aerospace and space research are important
industries in Arizona.
The climate has been utilized as a positive factor for both agriculture and
industrial location. In the first place, however, it is tourism that benefits
from the warm and dry climate, which in combination with the unique nature
attracts large numbers of tourists to the state.
Tourism and gastronomy
Arizona, one of the United States' foremost tourist states, offers visitors
unique scenery and many attractions from different historical eras. The most
well-known and popular tourist destination is the Grand Canyon on the Colorado
River, but the state's strange nature also attracts visitors to areas such as
the Petrified Forest and Painted Desert as well as the Meteor Crater between
Flagstaff and Winslow.
In southern Arizona there are large desert areas with distinctive
vegetation. The state's northeastern part, the Four Corners area, exhibits a
geologically distinctive landscape. The area constitutes Native American
reserves, and there are also interesting monuments from earlier Native American
cultures, such as large rock houses. Many western films have been partially
recorded in these regions. The most well-known place from the "lawless" colonial
era is Tombstone in southeastern Arizona, where the legendary settlement at OK
Corral took place in 1881 with Wyatt Earp as victor; that his efforts as a
classic wild west sheriff were questioned by historical research - Earp himself
contributed to the myth formation - does not make the impression. Many ghost
towns and former mining towns, as well as big cities such as Phoenix and Tucson,
attract many visitors.
In Arizona, the harsh conditions, the large land areas, the European
immigrants and the Mexican and Native American cultures met. The gastronomic
result has become huge steaks, preferably of lamb but most commonly of beef,
eaten at grand barbecue parties. But here are also spicy foods that can cause
many tourists to lose their spirits, cook with beans and corn, pancakes with
home-made jam (preferably on cactus fruits) or pickled fruit and a variety of
recipes for home-baked bread.
Not only chili pepper but also oregano, cumin, garlic and rosemary flourish
in the pots, which in many cases contain pinto beans cooked with zucchini and a
piece of dairy mostly for the sake of, or colache, vegetable stew. The
impression of some extravagant extravagance that the meat festivals often give
is thus dampened by the ubiquitous feature of thrift and enterprise which has
lived ever since the pioneer era.
Native American high cultures have long been in the area. In 1540, Spanish
conquerors arrived. They were followed by gold miners and missionaries, but
attempts at permanent settlement were backed by the Indians. Arizona became part
of Mexico in 1821, but the United States conquered most of 1848 and bought the
remainder in 1854. In 1912, Arizona became the 48th state of the United
States. Arizona was a very sparsely populated country for a long time, but the
mining deposits, dam construction and the pleasant climate led to a strong,
after 1945 almost explosive population increase. Politically, Arizona has a
conservative profile, especially since Republicans after 1950 broke the
previously strong Democratic dominance.