New Mexico [now: meʹksiko u ], abbreviated NM, state of
southern US; 315,000 km2, 2.1 million inhabitants (2018).New Mexico
is one of the Mountain States. The capital is Santa Fe.
New Mexico. State Map.
New Mexico is one of the US mountain states, with an average elevation of
about 1,500 meters above sea level. The northwest part is occupied by the
Colorado Plateau with volcanic canoes and plateau mountains. In southwestern New
Mexico, the mountain scenery has the character of short ridges. The rocky
mountains extend in a north-south direction through central New Mexico, reaching
a maximum of 4,011 m above sea level. in Wheeler Peak.
The easternmost part of New Mexico is occupied by the grassy plain of the
Great Plains with its sedimentary rocks. The Rio Grande, which borders Mexico,
is the largest river.
New Mexico. Rio Grande near Abiquiú, northern New
New Mexico, on the whole, has a steppe climate, whose large temperature
variations depend primarily on the altitude of the sea. Santa Fe at 2,150 meters
above sea level has an average temperature of −2 °C in January. In July, the
average temperature rises to 21 ° C. The annual rainfall here is 360 mm.
New Mexico has had a rapidly growing population since 1940. During the 1990s,
the increase was 13 percent, but in 2010-16 it was just over 1 percent. More
than 48 percent of the population is of Spanish origin and 10 percent are Native
American. A large part of the population lives along the Rio Grande, mainly
within the three urban regions of Albuquerque, Las Cruces and Santa Fe.
Various federally funded businesses as well as mining and tourism are the
foundations for New Mexico's business. In agriculture, livestock management is
more important than arable farming, which usually requires irrigation. New
Mexico is one of America's leading producers of uranium, copper and pot ash, but
economically, the extraction of oil, natural gas and coal plays a significant
The importance of the industry is increasing. Federal investments in military
and technical research and development work in the nuclear, space and energy
sectors have also created various follow-on industries with the production of
electronic equipment and precision instruments. Development centers are
Albuquerque, Los Alamos (northwest of Santa Fe) and Alamogordo.
Tourism and gastronomy
Tourism is one of the state's most important sources of income. The varied
nature provides opportunities for skiing in the Klippiga mountains in the north
as well as for barefoot hiking on the "plaster dunes" of the White Sand National
Monument in the south. The largest natural attraction, UNESCO classified as a
World Heritage site, is the huge cave systems in the Carlsbad Cavern National
Park in southeastern New Mexico.
New Mexico. One of the entrances to the Carlsbad
The state also has a number of other interesting national monuments and
national parks, often including sights of both natural and cultural historical
significance, for example with memories from Native American cultures. Among
these are the large ruins of the Chaco Culture National Historical Park with
remains from the Anasazi culture, or the early Spanish colonization such as
Bandelier near Santa Fe, Gila Cliff Dwellings, El Morro and Aztec Ruins to the
west. Most famous are Taos and Pueblo de Taos with their old five-storey adobe
houses, which are still inhabited. Pueblo de Taos has been listed on UNESCO's
World Heritage list since 1992. Santa Fe, one of the oldest cities in the United
States (founded in 1610, former Native American settlement), is one of the major
tourist destinations and has in many ways (architecture, cultural life, etc.)
retained its mark of both Indian culture and colonial era.
The food in New Mexico is a mix of Mexican, Spanish and Native American
influences as well as cowboy influences. Corn, pumpkins and beans, which were
grown by the Native Americans, get a Mexican spice (chili pepper, garlic, cumin,
rosemary and oregano) and are combined with Spanish deep-fried art and a small
appetizer as well as with the great steaks and traditional stews of the
immigrant cowboys. Tortillas, colache (spicy vegetable stew)
and chili con carne are everyday foods, traditionally offered freoles (beans
with pork). Chillies rellenos are large chili fruits that are filled
with cheese and then deep fried.
The area was, until the 15th century, a center for Native American pueblo
cultures. Spanish explorers arrived there in the 1540s, and the first Spanish
settlements were founded in 1598. In 1821 New Mexico became the province of
Mexico but joined the United States after a war of 1846-48, became the territory
in 1850 and the state in 1912.
During the late 19th century, the Indians, especially the Apaches,
resisted. Difficult battles often occurred between peasants and cattle
kings. Railways began construction in 1878 and helped to develop mining and
livestock farming. During the 20th century, primarily the oil and defense
industry contributed to economic development. Politically, the Democratic Party