Rwanda: Political System
Rwanda is a presidential republic. The bicameral parliament consists of the
House of Representatives with 53 elected and 27 indirectly elected members and
the Senate with at least 52 indirectly elected members. Parliamentary elections
take place every eight years. The head of state is directly elected every seven
Immediately after the Hutu murder of the Tutsi in 1994, only around 15% of
the 100 residents of the country were men. As a result, women held and still
hold leadership positions at almost every level of government administration,
including state television; this even applies to the chairmen of the village
courts. In the House of Representatives, women take up around 50% of the seats!
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|République du Rwanda
Republic of Rwanda
From 1962 to 2001 "Rwanda rwacu" was the national anthem of Rwanda. It was
based on an old folk song, text and music are from Michael Habarurema and
"Abanyuramatwi", a society for spiritual songs. On December 31, 2001, Rwanda
changed its signs and symbols as a sign of breaking with its bloody
past. Faustin Murigo wrote the text of the new national anthem, the music of
Bosco Hashakaimana is in the African musical style.
|In Kinyarwanda (in Latin letters)
||In a free English translation
|Rwanda nziza gihugu cyacu
Wuje imisozi, ibiyaga n'ibirunga
Ngobyi iduhetse gahorane ishya.
Rekatukurate tukuvuge ibigwi
Wowe utubumbiye hamwe twese
Abanyarwanda uko watubyaye
Berwa, sugira, singizwa iteka.Horana Imana murage mwiza
Ibyo tugukesha ntibishyikirwa:
Umuco dusangiye uraturanga
Ururimi rwacu rukaduhuza
Ubwenge, umutima, amaboko yacu
Nuko utere imbere ubutitsa.
Baraguhanga uvamo ubukombe
Utsinda ubukoroni na mpatsebihugu
Byayogoje Afurika yose
None uraganje mu bwigenge
Tubikomeyeho uko turi twese.
Komeza imihigo rwanda dukunda
Ngo amahoro asabe mu bagutuye
Wishyire wizane muri byose
Urangwe n'ishyaka, utere imbere
Uhamye umubano n'amahanga yose
Maze ijabo ryawe riguhe ijambo
|Rwanda, our beautiful and dear country
Adorned by hills, lakes and volcanoes
home, you will always be full of happiness
For us, your children: Banyarwanda
Let us sing about your splendor and cry out your praise
You, motherly breast of all of us,
will always be admired and to be covered with praise.Wonderful valuable
inheritance, that God protects
you You have given us valuable gifts
Our common culture identifies us
Our one language unites us
That our intelligence, our conscience and our powers
fill you with a lot of wealth
For a constant development.
Our brave ancestors gave
their body and soul
just as they made a great nation out of you.
You overcame the colonial-imperialist yoke that had
You acquired the joy of independence
so that we could defend it constantly.
This, beloved Rwanda,
we trust you in dignity
that there will be peace nationwide, That you are free from all
and your determination will inspire progress,
That you have good relations with all countries
And finally that your pride is worthy of your reputation.
The national flag (country flag) of Rwanda was officially introduced on
October 25, 2001. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are to be interpreted as follows: - Green symbolizes
hope for prosperity - Yellow stands for economic development. - Blue symbolizes
happiness and peace. The golden sun with its 24 rays represent the light that
illuminates the people of Rwanda.
Rwanda: Known People
Elizaphan Ntakirutimana (1924-2007)
The Seventh-day Adventist pastor, born in Kibuye, Rwanda, in 1924, was found
guilty of genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda together
with his son Gérard. Ntakirutimana reportedly ordered armed forces to kill
hundreds of Tutsi refugees, earning him ten years in prison.
Mathias Ntawulikura (born 1964) In
1964, Mathias Ntawulikura, the future Rwandan long-distance runner, was born,
who still holds three national records over 3,000 m, 5,000 m and the marathon
Juvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)
Habyarimana served as President of Rwanda from 1973 until his death. His tenure
was marked by the unabashed support of the Hutus. He was killed when his plane -
which also contained his Burundian counterpart Cyprien Ntaryamira and army chief
Déogratias Nsabimana - was hit by two rockets while approaching Kigali in
1994. The death of Habyarimana prompted radical Hutu to carry out a systematic
genocide against Tutsi and moderate Hutu. The end of this genocide resulted in
between 800,000 and 1,000,000 deaths.
are a special feature mountain gorillas in the Virunga -Vulkanen.
The "Gorillas in the Fog" film, which was awarded the "Golden Globe", brought
the animals into the consciousness of people around the world. The film shows
the life and work of the American Dian Fossey (1932-1985) with the gorillas in
Rwanda. Fossey was discovered in her hut at the Karisoke Research Center on
December 27, 1985 with her head bashed in. The murder was never solved. At her
request, which she had expressed before her death, she was buried in the gorilla
cemetery she had set up near her hut.
Other mammals In
addition to the mountain gorillas and chimpanzees, vervet monkeys and baboons,
there are 9 other species of monkeys, especially in the national parks.
Other animals include antelopes, including eland, buffalo, elas, elephants,
hippos, hyenas, impalas, cats, leopards, lions, Maasai giraffes, Nile
crocodiles, topis, waterbuck, as well as zebras and civets.
African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus)
This non-poisonous snake can also be found in
Boomslang (Dipholidus typus)
The boomslang (tree snake) is a very poisonous snake.
You can find a detailed description of the snake here >>>
No other names are known of the non-poisonous snake
Rock python (Python sebae)
The rock python is a large strangler snake.
A detailed description of the rock python can be found here >>>
Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica)
The Gaboon viper is relatively sluggish and lazy to bite.
But if she bites it means a life-threatening situation.
You can find a detailed description of the snake here >>>
Banded water cobra (Naja annulata)
The banded water cobra belongs to the genus of real cobras.
This cobra reaches a length between 1.50 to 2.10 m - rarely more. It is both
diurnal and nocturnal and often stays in the water, where it can dive up to 25 m
deep and for 10 minutes. She looks for hiding in crevices at the edge of the
water. The snake is divided into the following two subspecies:
- Naja annulata annulata
- Naja annulata stormsi
Common puff adder
The common puff adder (Bitis arietans) is a venomous snake. You can find a
detailed description of the snake here >>>
Günther's Green Tree Snake (Dipsadoboa unicolor)
This snake is non-toxic
Laurent's green tree-snake (Dipsadoboa viridis)
This snake is non-toxic
Jameson mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni)
The Jameson mamba belongs to the same genus as the green mamba and is comparably
Olive-colored house snake (Boaedon olivaceus)
The olive-colored house snake is a non-poisonous snake.
Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).
The Nile crocodile is probably the best-known species from the genus of real
crocodiles. It is found in large parts of Africa, including Rwanda. However, it
has been exterminated in the lower Nile in Egypt. Their body length is around 3
to 4 m.
A detailed description of the Nile crocodile can be found here >>>
In Rwanda you can find ants, bees - including honey bees - numerous
butterflies as well as wasps, flies and mosquitoes.
The following are particularly unpleasant:
- The Anopheles mosquito, the carrier of malaria
- The yellow fever mosquito (Egyptian tiger mosquito), the carrier of yellow
fever and dengue fever
- The tsetse fly, the carrier of sleeping sickness.
Also worth mentioning are the pair of leeches in fresh water, which lead to
Not to be forgotten are the numerous local birds, around 350 different
species of which fly around here. These include hummingbirds, crowned cranes,
nectar birds or the beautiful blue, green and red colored Rwenzori Turacos.
The crowned crane is the heraldic animal of Uganda.
Due to the different altitudes, the flora of Rwanda is very diverse. It is
not without reason that Rwanda is called the land of 1,000 hills.
The flora ranges from the tropical rainforest in the west to the savannah
landscapes in the east. The rainforest turns into bamboo forest in the west. In
the highlands, where there is more precipitation, one can find more humid
Since Rwanda is heavily populated, more and more forest areas are turning
into arable land, and around 80% of the land is now used for agriculture. So it
is only in some areas of the central highlands and in the three national parks
(Nyungwe National Park, Virunga Volcanoes National Park, Akagera National Park)
nor the original vegetation of the land
in the floodplain of the Akagera, a source river of the Nile, there are marsh
grasses, Papyrus plants and water hyacinths.
In Nyungwe National Park, the largest contiguous mountain rainforest in East
Africa, around 1,500 different plant species grow, including 150 species of
orchids. An exotic species of orchid is the Liparis harketii, which occurs only
here and was named after Morten Harket, the singer of a-ha and orchid lover.
Acacia trees dominate the grass, shrub and bush savannahs of Akagera National
The crops grown in the country include beans, potatoes, corn, tobacco and tea.