Tunisia: Political System
Tunisia is a presidential republic with Islam as the state religion and a
president as the head of state. The parliament, the national assembly (Assemblée
Nationale) is a unicameral system and has 182 members. 34 seats are reserved for
the respective opposition. The election takes place every 5 years, as does the
direct election of the head of state by the council.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|El Djumhuriya El Tunisiya
Humata l-hima is the national anthem of Tunisia. The text
was written by the Egyptian Mustafa Sadik el-Rafii. It served as the
revolutionary anthem for a long time before becoming the country's national
anthem in 1987. The country's previous national anthem was Ala Khallidi (Oh
The English translation
|Defender of the Fatherland, Defender of the Fatherland!
Well on, well on, for the glory of time,
the blood is already screaming in your veins,
let us die, let us die so that the fatherland may live!Let the heavens
with thunder, Let thunderbolts rain with fire!
Out of love for Tunisia and its fame.
You men and young people from Tunisia,
stand up for the strength and glory of your fatherland.No
one lives in Tunisia who betrays the country,And nobody lives there who
does not defend it.
We live and die faithfully to Tunisia,
a dignified life and a glorious death!If one day the people decide to
Then fate must bow
The night must give way
And the fetters will be broken
The national flag (country flag) of Tunisia was first introduced in 1835 and
has only been slightly modified since then. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, after independence from France on March 20, 1956 and the abolition of the
monarchy on July 25, 1957, the flag became the national flag of Tunisia.
The crescent moon with the star in the red flag are symbols of Islam. Both
symbols are also a reference to Tunisia's past as a province of the Ottoman
Empire, with red being a symbol of rule in the Ottoman Empire.
Tunisia: Known People
Ahmad I al-Husain (d. 1855)
Ahmad I al-Husain, who ruled as the Bey of Tunis from 1837 to 1855, led his
country into the modern age by concentrating first the army and then the
navy. He continued to abolish slavery and all restrictions on Jews in 1846.
Muhammad III al-Husain (1814-1882)
Muhammad III. al-Husain was known as Sadok Bey and ruled his country from 1859
to 1882 as Bey of Tunis. Under him a modern Arab constitution was established,
but there was also considerable national debt.
Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali (born 1936)
From 1987 to 2011, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali was the President of the Republic of
Tunisia. Previously he was head of security and interior minister under
Bourguiba. In 2002, Ben Ali had the constitution changed in order to remain in
office. In the opinion of many election observers, the elections did not meet
the requirements of democracy. In the 2004 elections, for example, which were
often referred to as a farce, Ben Ali was supposedly able to unite 95% of the
votes. In Europe, he is accused of violating human rights and denying
democracy. Mass protests broke out in 2011, which eventually toppled Ben Ali. He
left the country for Saudi Arabia. An international arrest warrant has now been
issued against him, his wife Leila Trabelsi and other family members.
Mohamed Bouazizi (1984-2011)
Born in 1984 in Sidi Bouzid, the Tunisian greengrocer became famous for his
self-immolation on December 17th, 2010 in the city of Sidi Bouzid. With this act
of desperation, he triggered the revolution in Tunisia, which in 2011 should
lead to the overthrow of Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali.
Habib Bourguiba (1902 - 2000)
The first President of the Tunisian Republic ruled the country from 1957 to
1987. Before that, he was involved in the founding of the Independence Party
(Néo Destour Party). His policy was oriented towards the West. In 1981
opposition parties were admitted for the first time. The splendid boulevard in
the new town of Tunis was named after him.
Beji Caid el Sebsi (born 1926)
el Sebsi has been Prime Minister of Tunisia since February 27, 2011. His
predecessor Mohamed Ghannouchi had resigned due to the ongoing protests.
Mohamed Ghannouchi (born 1941) In
1999, this Tunisian politician was appointed Prime Minister of the
country. Previously, he was Minister of Finance, Minister for Economic Affairs
and Minister for International Cooperation and International Investment. Hamilkar (?
To 229 BC) The victorious Carthaginian general during the First Punic War
conquered from 237 BC. The east and south of Spain.
Hannibal (247 to 183 BC)
As one of the most important commanders of antiquity, the Carthaginian, who
grew up in Spain, almost defeated the Roman Empire in the Second Punic War after
he had crossed the Alps with his army and 37 war elephants.
Ibn Chaldun (1332-1406)
Ibn Chaldun, born in Tunis in 1332, was a famous Islamic politician and
historian who was well known for his monumental work al-Muqaddima. With his way
of looking at and assessing social changes and tensions, Ibn Khaldun became a
forerunner of sociological thought.
Husain I. ibn Ali (d. 1735)
The Husainid dynasty was in power in Tunisia until 1957. It was established by
Husain I ibn Ali, who ruled the country from 1705 to 1735 as the Bey of
Tunis. Husain pacified the country and expanded the administration. The
resulting upper class became an important power base for him.
Fouad Mebazaâ (born 1933)
The Tunisian politician, who was born in Tunis in 1933, has been the fourth
President of Tunisia since January 15, 2011. He replaced President Ben Ali, who
was on the run in Saudi Arabia. Mebazaâ only acts as interim president, who is
supposed to prepare new elections, among other things.
Albert Memmi (born 1920 in Tunis)
Memmi is a Tunisian-French writer and sociologist who examined the
decolonization, racism and emigration of Tunisians in his books. He also
described the feelings of alienation and uprooting of those affected.
The most common sight in Tunisia's desert regions are undoubtedly
the camels and dromedaries, which are mostly used as work animals. Camel
tours through the desert are also offered, which can then take several days.
Other typical desert animals are the gerbils, the fennec and
the caracal. This belongs to the cat family and has a
lynx-like appearance with its pointed and brushed ears, which has earned it the
nickname "desert lynx". The black and white drawing of the face and the black
colored back of the ears are characteristic. The coat color varies between ocher
yellow and reddish tones. It is not only common in deserts, but also in
semi-deserts, steppes and dry forests throughout Africa, Arabia and Western
Asia. The nocturnal big cat hunts rabbits, rodents, birds and dwarf
antelopes. The longer rear legs make it a powerful jumper, which is not only an
enormous advantage when hunting birds.
The atlas deer, which are reddish-brown in summer and rather gray-brown in
winter, have become very rare in the north-western forests. They like to live
isolated, so the chance of meeting them is rather low.
Wild boars and porcupines also live in the forests.
There are a few gazelles - and Reharten and antelope and wild
sheep in Bou HEDNA National Park. The latter are very shy animals and
are also known as European wild sheep. They reach a size of 65 to 90 cm and live
on average 8 to 10 years. Typical are the gray to yellowish colored saddle spots
on the brown fur and the horns of the males, which grow throughout life and can
reach a length of 0.45 m. The horns of the females are much shorter or
nonexistent. The mouflons have a well-developed sense of hearing and smell, but
the sense of sight is best developed. Their diet includes grasses, herbs and
woody plants, but also mushrooms and fruits.
The water buffalo in Ichkeul National Park are a rare and
unusual sight. Mountain gazelles and striped hyenas also live here.
Reptiles (without snakes)
In the deserts, semi-deserts and savannahs, it can happen that one encounters
the desert monitor, which is a subspecies of the Komodo
dragon. The European pond turtle is widespread. It has a
shell length of less than 25 cm, rarely 30 cm. Her belly armor has a transverse
joint, which enables her to fold this armor in front and rear in case of danger
and thus protect herself from predators. Their habitat is limited to standing or
flowing water with dense bank vegetation. Their diet consists mainly of animal
food such as tadpoles, small frogs, newts, water snails, crabs, dead or dying
In addition to Tunisia, it is also represented in Algeria, Morocco, the Iberian
Peninsula, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, France, Sicily, Hungary, Romania, Turkey,
northern Iran, Cyprus, Israel and northern Lebanon. But despite this widespread
distribution, the number of European pond turtles is in decline.
Poisonous snakes are mainly found in the south of the country, including:
The Atlas otter (Daboia mauritanica) belongs to the genus of the oriental vipers
(Daboia) in the subfamily of the real vipers (Viperinae) in the family of the
The snake reaches a size between 100 to 150 cm.
The animals are light gray to reddish gray in color and have a drawing on their
back made of a wavy band that can dissolve into individual spots. The belly is
gray with a black mottling. A dark band of temples extends over the eyes and
extends to the corners of the mouth, while a second band extends vertically from
the eyes to the mouth. You can find the snake in the south of the Atlas
Mountains on sunny mountain slopes with stones and vegetation up to a height of
over 2,000 m.
The snake is found in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and western Libya.
A detailed description of the Atlas otters can be found here >>>
In English the Avicennaviper (Cerastes viper) is called Sahara Sand Viper.
The snake belongs to the genus of African horned vipers in the subfamily of real
vipers (Viperinae) in the family of vipers (Viperidae). Despite its generic name
(Ceraste) and in contrast to the other species of the Cerastes genus, it usually
has no horns above the eyes. The snake reaches a length of 35 to a maximum of 50
cm. It has a potent hemotoxic poison.
Boehmer's horned viper
The Boehmer's horned viper (Cerastes boehmei) belongs to the genus of the
vipers in the subfamily of the real vipers (Viperinae) in the family of the
vipers (Viperidae). The snake reaches a length of up to 40 cm. They are
monochrome yellowish to sand-colored with a series of dark patterns in the
middle and back. The snake got its name in honor of the German herpetologist
Wolfgang Böhme (born 1944)
Desert horned viper
The desert horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) belongs to the genus of African
horned vipers in the subfamily of the real vipers (Viperinae) in the family of
vipers (Viperidae). The snake reaches a size of 50 to 60 cm - rarely more.
It is sand-yellow to rust-brown and has over 30 brown spots or transverse
bands. The tip of the tail is dark in color, while the belly side is rather
light. The two "horns above the eyes" are striking. The snake's venom affects
A detailed description of the desert horned viper can be found here >>>
The poisonous Sahara otter (Daboia deserti) belongs to the genus of the oriental
vipers (Daboia) in the subfamily of the real vipers (Viperinae) in the family of
the vipers (Viperidae). The snake reaches a maximum size of about 160 cm. Its
triangular head stands out clearly from the body. It is gray to yellowish in
color with up to 26 black spots that form a pattern on its back, but which
gradually fades with age. The nocturnal snake can be found in the higher deserts
of Libya and Tunisia and on the edge of the Atlas Mountains. She lays around 20
eggs. A well-known representative of the genus is the atlas otter (Daboia
mauritanica). A detailed description of the Sahara otters can be found here >>>
Tunisia's scorpions are some of the most poisonous scorpions in the world, and
although rare, they should be watched out for. Worth mentioning are the Sahara
scorpion and the field scorpion.
Most of the birds in Tunisia are migratory. Most of them can be seen at Lake
Ichkeul. Greylag geese and shovelers
are particularly common here , but also numerous waterfowl, bee-eaters, whackes and flamingos settle
at the lake.
The latter form a family of their own and are also common in parts of South
America, western Asia and southern France. The up to 130 cm tall birds are
immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by
their thick, downwardly curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a
sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all,
They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos. The red dye
absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the
birds have eaten, the more pink they are.
The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, as one leg is hidden in
the warm plumage and thus less heat loss occurs. This feat is not strenuous for
the flamingos (as well as for storks).
Birds of prey such as the bearded vulture in the Atlas
Mountains, the long-eared owl or the peregrine
falcon in the Chaämbi National Park are also represented. The Bon Hedma
National Park is home to numerous mammals as well as birds such as the golden
eagle and the ostrich, which has almost been extinct
One of the rarer birds is the white stork, which can occasionally be seen by
Most of the forests are in the northwest of the country, especially in the
Kroumirie Mountains there are numerous cork oaks, pines, juniper
trees and strawberry trees. Aleppo pines
can be found in the Chaambi National Park in western Tunisia, bush and umbrella
acacias characterize the savannah landscapes in the south.
In the south of Tunisia the steppe vegetation dominates with acacia
bushes, prickly pear cacti, shrubs, wild
grasses and esparto grass. This was discovered in
the 19th century for papermaking and has thus made itself
indispensable. The grass, also known as Halfagras, has 90 cm
long, cylindrical and stalk-like leaves that were used for weaving paper long
before the discovery of grass. Most plant species can be seen at a glance
in Bon Hedma National Park. However,
a permit from the forest administration is required for a visit.
The most important crops in Tunisia are olive and date
The latter are mainly cultivated in the oases, as their roots are long enough to
penetrate the deep water reserves. The few spices that have asserted themselves
in Tunisia include lavender, thyme, mint and myrtle. There
are also said to be vineyards in the north.
Lavender grows as a heavily branched and partially woody,
20 - 60 cm large shrub. The purple flowers are collected in July and
August. Used internally, they have a calming effect and are often recommended
for restlessness and difficulty falling asleep. Lavender also has a diuretic,
gas-inducing and antispasmodic effect. Applied externally, however, it is
skin-irritating. It is also said that lavender pillows are supposed to protect
against moths in between washings.
Thyme supports the digestion of fatty and heavy foods, it
relieves coughs and is expectorant. The essential oil is used as a
disinfectant. Even the Egyptians are said to have used the plant to embalm the
dead. Externally, thyme is used for inflammation of the mouth and throat mucosa.
One of the most important crops, the date palm, was
discovered as early as 600 BC. introduced to Tunisia.