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Algeria

Algeria: Political System

Algeria is a presidential republic. The bicameral parliament consists of the National Assembly with 389 members elected every 5 years and the Council of the Nation with 144 members, 96 of whom are elected every 6 years by local councils and 48 are appointed by the head of state. Partial elections take place every 3 years. The direct election of the head of state takes place every 5 years; re-election is possible once.

Algeria: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

El-djumhuriya el-djazairiya ed dimukratiya esch-schaâbiya

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

National anthem

Kassaman or Qassaman (the pledge) has been the national anthem of Algeria since 1963. The text was written in 1956 by Mufdi Zakariah in prison during the colonial period. The music comes from the Egyptian Mohamed Fawzi.

In French In the English translation
Par les foudres qui anéantissent,

Par les flots de sang pur et sans tache,

Par les drapeaux flottants qui flottent

Sur les hauts djebel orgueilleux et fiers,

Nous juron nous être révoltés pour vivre ou pour mourir,

Et nous avons juré de mourir pour que vive l'Algérie!

Témoignez! Témoignez! Témoignez!Nous sommes des soldats pour la justice, révoltés,

Et pour notre indépendance nous avons engagé le combat,

Nous n'avon obéi à nulle injonction en nous soulevant.

Le bruit de la poudre a été notre mesure

Et le crépitement des mitrailleuse notre chant favori.

Et nous avons juré de mourir pour que vive l'Algérie!

Témoignez! Témoignez! Témoignez!Sur nos héros nous bâtrions une gloire

Et sur nos corps nous monterons à l'immortalité,

Sur nos âmes, nous construirons une armée

Et de notre espoir nous lèverons l'étendard.

Front de la Liberation, nous t'avons prêté serment

Et nous avons juré de mourir pour que vive l'Algérie!

Témoignez! Témoignez! Témoignez!Le cri de la patrie monte des champs de bataille.

Ecoutez-le et répondez à l'appel.

Ecrivez-le dans le sang des martyrs

Et dictez-le aux générations futures.

Nous t'avons donné la main, ô gloire,

Et nous avons juré de mourir pour que vive l'Algérie!

Témoignez! Témoignez! Témoignez!

"By the destructive lightning!

By the rivers of pure blood!

By the fluttering flags that

fly on proud heights!

We swore: Revolution to life and death!

We have vowed to die, that Algeria may live!

Testimony! Testimony!" Testify!We are soldiers of justice,

and for our freedom we went into battle,

we obeyed no one in the uprising.

The noise of gunpowder was our measure

and the bark of the mitral louse our favorite song.

And we swore to die that Algeria might live!

Testify! Testify! Testify!On our heroes a heroic ticket

For our bodies immortality,

On our souls we build an army

And from our hope we raise the standard.

We prayed to you for liberation

and we swore to do everything so that Algeria might live!

Testify! Testify! Testify!The cry of the fatherland rings out on the battlefields.

Hear him and answer the roll call.

Write it in the blood of the martyrs

And tell it to future generations.

We shook hands with you, oh glory,

and we swore to die so that Algeria might live!

Testify! Testify! Testify!

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national flag (national flag) of Algeria was introduced on July 3, 1962.

The colors are interpreted as follows:

- White symbolizes purity

- Green symbolizes Islam

The crescent moon comes from pre-Islamic times. However, since numerous states with a Muslim population have the crescent and star in their flags, the symbol has established itself as a symbol of Islam.

Algeria flag and coat of arms

Mediterranean Union

At the instigation of France, a "Union for the Mediterranean" - or Mediterranean Union for short - was founded in Paris on July 13th between the EU and the countries shown in the figure. This union is a loose association of the countries shown in the figure and has agreed on the following projects:

  • Energy, medium-sized and educational project
  • Keeping the Mediterranean clean
  • Establishment of transnational waterways and highways
  • Establishment of a common disaster control

The final declaration formulated the political goal of creating a Middle East free from weapons of mass destruction. In addition, the member states committed themselves to "strengthening democracy and political pluralism". Furthermore, every form of terrorism as well as attempts to associate a religion or culture with terrorism were condemned.

Algeria: Known People

Athletes

  • Hassiba Boulmerka (born 1968)

    The track and field athlete won Olympic gold in the 1500 m run in 1992.

  • Noureddine Morceli (born 1970)

    The athlete and multiple world record holder won Olympic gold in the 1500 m run in 1996.

  • Hocine Soltani

    The boxer received 1996 Olympic gold medal.

  • Nouria Merah-Benida

    The athlete won 2000 Olympic gold in the 1500 m run.

Writers

  • Mouloud Mammeri (1917-1989)

    writer, anthropologist and linguist from Algeria

  • Rachid Mimouni (1945-1995)

    Algerian writer, teacher and campaigner for human rights

  • Zhlam Mosteghanemi (born 1953)

    the daughter of the Algerian revolutionary leader Mohammed Chérif is a notable author and also the first woman writer in Algeria to have her works translated into English; she lives today in Beirut (Lebanon)

  • Lucius Apuleius Platonicus (123/125-180)

    Romanized Berber, who is remembered mainly because of his Latin novel “Metamorphoses” (Latin Aureus Asinus); the author was born in Madaurus (Mdaourouch), which today belongs to Algeria

  • Leïla Sebbar (born 1941)

    the French writer Sebbar, who spent her youth in colonial Algeria and now lives in Paris, deals in her works in particular with the relations between France and Algeria

  • Jean Sénac (1926-1973)

    the poet born in Béni-Saf, Algeria, addressed the hope of brotherhood in an Algeria open to all cultures in her poems; she was murdered in Algiers in 1973; her killer was never found

  • Kateb Yacine(1929-1989)

    Algerian writer who became famous for his novels and plays

Artists

  • Khaled Hadj Brahim (born 1960)

    this singer and songwriter is known simply as “Khaled”; he was born in Sidi-El-Houri in the Algerian province of Oran; his popularity, which is international, has earned him the title "King of Raï"

  • El-Hadj El Hachmi Guerouabi (1938-2006)

    Algerian singer and composer of the Chaâbi; he is considered a great master of this Algerian music

  • Cheb Mami (born 1966)

    Raï singer born in 1966 as Ahmed Khelifati Mohamed in Saida

  • Lounès Matoub (1956-1998)

    famous singer and prominent advocate of the Berbers and the secularization of Algeria

  • Lounis Aït Menguellet(born 1950)

    the Serbian singer, who was born in the Algerian Ighil Bouammas, is one of the most important and charismatic artists on the country's contemporary music scene

Philosophers and thinkers

  • Aurelius Augustinus, also: Augustinus von Hippo (354-430)

    philosopher and theologian; Bishop of the North African city of Hippo Regius; one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity; is considered one of the church fathers; he presented the concepts of original sin and just war; He was born in Tagaste, which was about 100 km from today's Algerian Annaba

  • Malek Bennabi (1905-1973)

    well-known Algerian thinker who wrote several works on human society and in particular on Muslim society

  • Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)

    French philosopher of Algerian origin; The author of many works, born in El-Biar (near Algiers), is considered the founder of deconstructivism and has (had) an enormous influence on the theories of continental philosophy.

Algeria: animals

Mammals

The population of wild animals in Algeria is mainly concentrated on the small mammals that are well adapted to desert life such as the gerbil and the desert hare.

Gazelles, wild boars and jackals

Gazelles, wild boars and jackals are comparatively common here.

Wild asses Wild

asses are also part of this fauna, although numerous domesticated donkeys are used as carrying and pack animals.

Rock hyrax

The rock hyrax are a specialty. Although the rabbit-sized mammals look more like marmots, their closest relatives are the elephants and manatees.

A clear sign of this are the constantly growing teeth of the upper jaw, which otherwise does not occur in rodents.

Leopards, cheetahs and desert lynxes

Leopards, cheetahs and the desert lynx are now among the species threatened with extinction.

Dromedaries

Dromedaries are also an indispensable part of the desert, as they are still very popular pack animals.

Since they belong to the camel family like the two-humped camel (trample), they are also referred to as single-humped camels for purposes of differentiation. The main difference is the fact that dromedaries only have one hump, while there are two humps in the trample.

Barbary macaques

The Barbary macaques, classified as endangered, are quite widespread in northern Africa and are still relatively common in the Atlas regions of Algeria. This species of macaque is the only one that is not native to Asia.

Mediterranean monk seal

The fate of the Mediterranean monk seal, which is now threatened with extinction, has a far more endangered fate.

There are no more than 400 individuals worldwide.

Some animals still exist on the Algerian coast, but their distribution is rather spotty.

Reptiles

Lizards and Geckos

Smaller reptiles such as lizards and geckos can be found practically everywhere in the desert.

Yellowish-brown sandfish

A type of lizard is the yellowish-brown sandfish, which owes its name to the way it moves just below the surface of the sand.

Monitor

lizards monitor lizards are also relatively common.

Poisonous animals

The desert is the habitat for many different animal species, including some that cannot be counted among the harmless species.

In addition to a number of snakes, scorpions are among the unpleasant poisonous animals.

In Algeria, one finds the following snakes are described in detail the imaged at Goruma:

- echis pyramidum

- Atlas Otter

- Common puff adder

- horned viper

- Vipera Latastei

insects

Like most animals in Algeria, insects such as beetles, ants, praying mantises and butterflies are mostly found in the desert.

Special attention is paid to the swarms of locusts, which appear at irregular intervals, whose normally devastating effect on the harvest has been contained with the help of pesticides.

You are bothered by flies almost everywhere.

Mosquitoes mainly live near water or in damp areas, but this can also be done in pools of water, etc. be.

Birds

Birds of prey such as vultures, booted eagles, buzzards and kites are particularly well represented.

Flamingos, herons, storks, ostriches, Egyptian geese, bustards and grouse are also quite common in Algeria.

Algeria: plants

The vegetation of Algeria is severely threatened by deforestation, bush fires, the transformation of the steppes into arable land, by overgrazing and the steadily increasing population growth.

Today much of the country is almost completely devoid of vegetation.

Trees

The few trees and forests are concentrated in the northern mountain regions of the Tell Atlas.

There are cork oak stocks here that are only gradually being reforested. You can also find Aleppo pines, holm oaks and cedars at altitudes over 1,600 m. At water points such as oases there are also trees with palms, acacias and tamarisks.

Argan tree

The argan tree (Argania spinosa) is a specialty and occurs in the southwest of Morocco and in the southeast of Algeria. The trees reach a height of up to about 12 m and have a widely spreading, dense crown that can be up to 14 m in diameter. Because of the tasty fruits and leaves, goats climb up to the top of the tree, so that the astonished viewer can admire a dozen of the animals in the crown of the tree.

Crops

Halfagras, which was discovered in the 19th century for papermaking and thus became famous, grows in the highlands and on the plains. The grass, better known under the name Esparto, has 90 cm long, cylindrical and stalk-like leaves that were used for paper production and wickerwork long before the discovery of grass.

The oases, as the few places in the arid landscape with an adequate groundwater supply, are used to cultivate date palms, which are one of the most important crops, grains and fruits.

Sugar beet is grown in the coastal regions and the valley plains of the Tell region.

Medicinal plants

In pharmacies, the fruit of the jujube is often known as “breast berries”, as the date-shaped fruits are often drunk in a dried form as tea for colds. Despite their toxicity, active ingredients obtained from the ripe, dried and peeled fruits of the coloquin (bitter gourd) are used in homeopathy for headache and body aches as well as for colic and cramps.

Poisonous plants

Oleander bushes are mainly found near water holes. It is a poisonous plant that grows both as a tree and as a shrub and reaches a size of up to 5 m. The leathery evergreen leaves and the white or pink flowers are characteristic.

All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the fresh leaves. After consumption, stomach pain, headaches, nausea, cramps and diarrhea can occur. In severe poisoning, cardiac arrhythmias can also be among the symptoms. In very bad cases, death from respiratory or cardiac paralysis can even result.

Contact can cause skin irritation.

Introduced plants

The jujube has its home in northern China, today it is a plant that is widespread worldwide and is widely cultivated.

Other plants

The dry plateaus are the habitat of shrubs, grass and wormwoods. Part of this typical vegetation is also half grass, which is also known as esparto grass. Cushion plants grow above the tree line at an altitude of 3,100 m.

In the southern coastal area there are iron trees and jujubes (Chinese dates), whereby the jujube is a shrub that grows up to 10 m high and whose fruits are small, oval, red-brown berries. They are edible and have a slightly sweet taste. The iron tree is also a shrub that is incredibly large, but grows very slowly and has a wood that goes down in the water. South of the Tell Atlas extends the Sahara with hardly any vegetation apart from a few dried-up bushes.

Most of the plants that survive here protect themselves from wild feeding by means of spines and thorns, and at the same time they reduce their surface in this way in order to protect themselves from excessive evaporation.

During the rainy season, the desert wakes up briefly and some plants bloom, only to fall back to sleep shortly afterwards. The parasite Cistanche is pretty to look at, but especially unwelcome in the oases with the useful plants. With its roots it taps into the roots of other plants and in this way gets the nutrients it needs.

 

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