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Bolivia

Bolivia: Political System

Bolivia is a presidential republic. At the head of the state is a president who is directly elected by the people every 5 years. Due to the uncertain political situation, however, only a few presidents ruled for the full term of office. The parliament is a bicameral system. It consists of a lower and upper house, the Cámara de Diputados with 130 deputies and the Senado with 27 senators (three each from the 9 provinces).

Bolivia: Political System

Like the country's president, MPs are elected every 5 years in a free, equal and secret ballot. The head of government is the president elected by the people. The president can dissolve parliament and force new elections.

The seat of government and parliament is La Paz.

The President and the Supreme Court are based in the capital Sucre.

According to the constitution, the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church is the state religion. However, the citizens are granted religious freedom.

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

República de Bolivia

National anthem

The national anthem of Bolivia was written by José Ignacio de Sanjinés (1786-1864) and set to music by Leopoldo Benedetto Vincenti (1815-1914). The hymn was sung for the first time on November 18, 1845 in the Teatro Municipal de La Paz on the four-year anniversary of the Battle of Ingavi. In 1952 the song became the official national anthem.

In spanish language

Bolivianos el hado propicio

Coronó nuestros votos y anhelo;

Es ya libre, ya libre este suelo,

Ya cesó su servil condición.

Al estruendo marcial que ayer fuera

Y al clamor de la guerra horroroso,

Siguen hoy en contraste armonioso

Dulces himnos de paz y de unión.

Siguen hoy en contraste armonioso

Dulces himnos de paz y de unión.Refrain:

De la Patria, el alto nombre

En glorioso esplendor conservemos

Y en sus aras de nuevo juremos

¡morir antes que esclavos vivir!

¡Morir antes que esclavos vivir!

¡Morir antes que esclavos vivir!Aqui alzó la justicia su trono,

Que la vil opresión desconoca.

Y este timbre glorioso legóse.

Libertad! Libertad! Libertad!

Que los hijos del grande Bolívar

Han ya mil y mil veces jurado,

Morir antes que ver humillado

De la Patria el augusto pendón.Refrain:

De la Patria, el alto nombre

En glorioso esplendor conservemos

Y en sus aras de nuevo juremos

¡morir antes que esclavos vivir!

¡Morir antes que esclavos vivir!

¡Morir antes que esclavos vivir!Loor eterno a los bravos guerreros,

Cuyo heroíco valor y firmeza,

Conquistaron las glorias que empieza

Hoy Bolivia feliz a gozar.

Que sus nombres el mármol y el bronce

A remotas edades transmitan

y en sonoros cantares repitan:

Nuestros hijos y nietos a par.Refrain:

De la Patria, el alto nombre

En glorioso esplendor conservemos

Y en sus aras de nuevo juremos

¡morir antes que esclavos vivir!

¡Morir antes que esclavos vivir!

¡Morir antes que esclavos vivir!

In the Indian language Aymará

"Bolivianos" samiw yanapistu,

jiwasan munañasax phuq'asiwa.

Uraqisax qhispiyataw, qhispiyataw,

pakuñas, mit'añas tukusitaw.

Nayrapacj¡ha ch'axwawin sarnaq'ata,

axsarkañ chhijtaw nuwasiñana.

Jichast mä chuymak saskakiwa

muxsa mayacht'ir q'uchuwina.Refrain:

Qullasuyu jach'a sutipa,

qhapax suma k'axañapa imañani.

Sutiparu wastat SURAÑANI,

¡jiwañan janirkuch táq'iskasin.!

¡Jiwañan janirkuch táq'iskasin.!

¡Jiwañan janirkuch táq'iskasin.!

In the English translation

Bolivians, a fortunate fate,

crowned our desires and our pursuits.

It is already free, yes free, it

has already shed its slavish state.

The martial noise that sounded yesterday

and the cruel screams of war are

followed today in harmonious contrast,

sweet hymns of peace and unity.Refrain: Let us keep

the high name of the Fatherland

in glorious splendor

and let us swear again on its altars:

Better to die than live like slaves!

Better to die than live like slaves!

Better to die than live like slaves!

National flag

The national flag (national flag) of Bolivia was introduced in 1851. Since 2009 the flag of the indigenous population, the Wiphala, has been assimilated to the national flag. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors have the following meanings:

- Red symbolizes the bravery of the Bolivian soldiers

- Yellow stands for the wealth of mineral treasures

- Green symbolizes the fertility of the land.

Bolivia flag and coat of arms

Bolivia: Known People

doctors

  • Frank Beck

    Missionary Doctor and Doctor of the Poor, he came to Bolivia from the USA in 1912.

    Today, thanks to Beck's help, there are 18 Methodist schools on the shores of Lake Titicaca, as well as a small hospital. Schools and a hospital provide for 26,000 Indians living within a 50 km radius. The settlement bears the name: 'Beck Gedächtniswerk

painter

  • Guzmán de Rojas (1900-1950)
  • René Cadena
  • Javier Salgueiro
  • Gustavo Lara Torres
  • Juan Ignacio Revollo
  • Roxana Trujillo
  • Ramon Tito
  • Narda Alvardo
  • Lucio Guarachi Baltazar
  • Mary Martínez
  • Jesús Florido Villafani

Musician

  • Juan de Araujo (1646-1712)
  • Siméon Roncal (1870-1953)
  • Jose Maria Velasco Maidana (1899)

Politicians and rulers

  • Monika Ertl

    from Germany (GDR) native guerrilla fighter

  • Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar (1783 in Venezuela to 1830 in Colombia)

    he led the freedom movements of Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and Peru against the Spanish. In the countries concerned, he is celebrated as a freedom hero.

  • Ismael Montes Gamboa (1861-1933)

    President from 1904 to 1909

  • Eliodoro Villazón Montaño (1848-1939)

    President from 1909 to 1913

  • Ismael Montes Gamboa (1861-1933)

    President from 1913 to 1917

  • José Gutierrez Guerra (1860-1929)

    President from 1917 to 1920

  • Junta

    ruled from 1920 to 1921

  • Bautista Saavedra (1869-1939)

    President from 1921 to 1925

  • Felipe Segundo Guzmán (1879-1932)

    President from 1925 to 1926

  • Hernando Siles Reyes (1883-1942)

    President from 1926 to 1930

  • Junta under General Carlos Blanco Galindo (1882-1943)

    ruled from 1930 to 1931

  • Daniel Salamanca Urey (1868-1935)

    President from 1931 to 1934

  • José Luis Tejada Sorzano (1882-1938)

    President from 1934 to 1936

  • General David Toro Ruilova (1888-1977)

    President from 1936 to 1937

  • Teniente Coronel (Lieutenant Colonel) Germán Busch Becerra (1904-1939)

    President from 1937 to 1939

  • General Carlos Quintanilla Quiroga (1888-1964)

    President from 1939 to 1940

  • General Enrique Peñaranda Castillo (1892-1969)

    President from 1940 to 1943

  • Coronel Gualberto Villarroel López (1908-1946)

    President from 1943 to 1946

  • Tomás Monje Gutiérrez (1884-1959)

    President from 1946 to 1947

  • Dr. med. Enrique Hertzog Garaizábal (1897-1981)

    President from 1947 to 1949

  • Mamerto Urriolagoitia Harriague (1894-1974)

    President from 1949 to 1951

  • General Hugo Ballivián Rojas (1901-1993)

    President from 1951 to 1952

  • Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001)

    President from 1952 to 1956

  • Hernán Siles Zuazo (1913-1996)

    President from 1956 to 1960

  • Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001)

    President from 1960 to 1964

  • Air Force General René Barrientos Ortuño (1918-1969)

    President from 1964 to 1965

  • General Alfredo Ovando Candia (1918-1982) and Air Force General René Barrientos Ortuño (1918-1969)

    Co-Presidents from 1965 to 1966

  • René Barrientos Ortuño (1918-1969)

    President from 1966 to 1969

  • Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas (born 1925)

    President from April 29 to September 26, 1969

  • General Alfredo Ovando Candia (1918-1982)

    President from 1969 to 1970

  • General Juan José Torres Gonzáles (1921-1976)

    President from 1970 to 1971

  • General Hugo Banzer Suárez (1926-2002)

    President from 1971 to 1978

  • Air Force General Juan Pereda Asbún (born 1931)

    President from 21.07. until November 24th 1978

  • General David Padilla Arancibia (1927)

    President from 1978 to 1979

  • Walter Guevara Arze (1912-1996)

    President from 08.08. until November 1st 1979

  • Colonel (Colonel) Alberto Natusch Busch (1927-1994)

    President from November 1 to November 16. 1979

  • Lydia Gueiler Tejada (born 1921)

    Interim President from 1979 to 1980

  • General Luis García Meza Tejada (born 1929)

    President from 1980 to 1981

  • General Celso Torrellio Villa (1933-1999)

    President from 1981 to 1982

  • General Guido Vildoso Calderón (1937)

    President from July 22nd until October 10, 1982

  • Hernán Siles Zuazo (1913-1996)

    President from 1982 to 1985

  • Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001)

    President from 1985 to 1989

  • Jaime Paz Zamora (born 1939)

    President from 1989 to 1993

  • Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (born 1930)

    President from 1993 to 1997

  • Retired General Hugo Banzer Suárez (1926-2002)

    President from 1997 to 2001

  • Jorge Quiroga Ramirez (born 1960)

    President from 2001 to 2002

  • Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (born 1930)

    President from 2002 to 2003

  • Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (born 1953)

    President from 2003 to 2005

  • Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born 1956)

    President since 2005

  • Simón Iturrí Patiño (1860-1947)

    tin baron and temporarily one of the 10 richest men in the world

Writer and poet

  • Augusto Céspedes (born 1904)

    his novel "Teufelsmetall" about the tin baron Simón Patiño made him world famous.

  • Rene Poppe (born 1943)

    his first novel Después de las calles (1971) is about the life of the revolutionary students in La Paz. Poppe went to work in the Siglo XX mines in 1971. There he gained insight into the world of miners, which has been the subject of his stories ever since.

Others

  • José Antonio Arze (1904-1955)

    Marxist sociologist, he founded the Instituto de Sociología Boliviana (ISBO) in Sucre

  • Klaus Barbie (1913-1991)

    German war criminal who had gone into hiding under the name Klaus Altmann in Bolivia since 1951 was arrested and extradited to France in 1983.

Bolivia: animals

Mammals

The most common animals of the highlands are llamas, alpacas, vicuñas and guanaco s. They serve as pack animals as well as milk, meat and wool suppliers. The guanaco is a South American wild camel with a shoulder height of about 120 cm.

Its woolly and dense fur is light brown on the top and white on the underside. It lives at heights of up to 4,000 m and is always exposed to danger from pumas, Andean condors and Andean jackals.

In red foxes and chinchillas can meet on Lake Titicaca.

The lowland tapir, the largest land mammal in the Amazon, lives in Chaco, a region in southeastern Bolivia. It is also one of the oldest mammals, as its ancestors lived 40-50 million years ago. The solitary vegetarian lives mainly in the dense rainforest, always looking for the vicinity of water. The red-brown fur is only provided with white stripes in the young animals.

Chako peccaries can also be found in the forests of the southeast. They should be avoided, however, as they can become very aggressive and aggressive, especially when it comes to defending their territory.

This largest peccary species is a vegetarian and feeds on cacti by rolling the trunks on the ground to free them from their spines. Characteristic are the black stripes on the back and the white band around the neck, which can be seen on the otherwise gray-brown fur. The Chako peccary, like the lowland tapir, is now considered endangered and protected.

The maned wolf, which is mostly found in grasslands, will hardly be seen because it has become very rare. It is clearly recognizable by the black spot on the red-brown fur on the neck and on the legs, which are black up to the knees.

The great anteater lives in open forests and savannahs.

The marsh deer is typical of the flood savannahs, where huge areas are flooded during the rainy season. It can be found on the banks of rivers and on swamps. Unfortunately, it is now classified as endangered.

The fauna and flora are more species-rich in the lowlands than in the highlands. Numerous species of monkeys, armadillos, jaguars and the now rare pumas live here.

The pampas fox and pampas cats have their distribution area, as the name suggests, in the pampas.

The Andean cat lives in dry and rocky areas of the middle and upper Andean regions, and rodents are their main source of food. There are smaller populations of the spectacled bear in the west of the country.

The ocelot is a nocturnal predator from the real cat family and can grow up to 160 cm long. Although it is also excellent at climbing, the ocelot mostly moves on the ground. Its diet consists of small deer, monkeys, snakes, small rodents and reptiles.

The animal lives mainly in the humid jungle, in the mountain forest, in the mangrove forests and in thorn bush savannas. Because of its yellowish-brown fur with black spots, the ocelot is still hunted today and is therefore on the red list of endangered species.

Miniature guinea pigs

The dwarf guinea pigs (Microcavia) are a genus of mammals in the family of guinea pigs and the subfamily of the actual guinea pigs (Caviinae). The family consists of three species: Microcavia australis, Microcavia shiptoni and Microcavia niata.

The dwarf guinea pigs weigh up to about 450 and are about 20 cm tall, making them the smallest members of the guinea pig family. The color of their fur is brownish to gray-brown. The animals are found in the arid regions of Argentina and Bolivia. Their diet consists largely of leaves and fruits, with the help of fleshy plants for their water needs. You can climb up bushes and smaller trees.

The animals are diurnal and spend the night in self-dug earthworks, where the females also give birth to their offspring. Their age is between four and seven years.

Poisonous snakes

General information on coral snakes

This mostly very pretty snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter) with its black and white or yellow and red rings occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.

They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America - with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions.

They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short.

The nocturnal snakes live mostly hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles - more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.

Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses).

In addition, numerous species have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected .

Amazon coral snake

With a length of over 1.50, the Amazon coral snake (Micrurus spixii) is the largest species of the coral snake genus. It is also known as the giant coral snake.

They can be found in the south of Argentina, in Brazil (Amazonas, Para, Tocantins, Mato Grosso), in the south of Colombia and Venezuela and in the north-west of Bolivia

Andes black-

backed coral snake The Andes black-backed coral snake (Micrurus narduccii).

The snake is found in northwest Bolivia, northwest Brazil, east Ecuador, south Colombia, and north and east Peru.

There are two subspecies of the snake:

- Micrurus narduccii narduccii

- Micrurus narduccii melanotus

Annellated

Coral Snake The Annellated Coral Snake - in English Annellated Coral Snake (Micrurus annellatus) - can be found in the southeast of Ecuador, in the east of Peru, in the west of Brazil and in Bolivia.

It has dark blue to black rings, which are interrupted by narrow white rings.

There are three subspecies of the snake:

- Micrurus annellatus annellatus

- Micrurus annellatus balzanii

- Micrurus annellatus bolivianus

Bolivian coral snake

This Bolivian coral snake (Micrurus serranus) lives only in Bolivia

Bolivian coral snake

This Bolivian coral snake (Micrurus obscurus) can be found in northern Bolivia, in the northwest of Brazil (in the upper Amazon region) and in the east of Ecuador.

Also in the south and east of Colombia and in the east of Peru

Diana`s coral snake

The Diana`s coral snake (Micrurus diana) occurs in Brazil in the west of Mato Grosso and in Bolivia in Serrania de Santiago and in Serrania Huanchaca.

Hemprich's coral snake

Hemprich's coral snake (Micrurus hemprichii) is found in Bolivia, Brazil (Para, Rondonia), Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

There are two subspecies of the snake:

- Micrurus hemprichii hemprichii

- Micrurus hemprichii ortoni

South American coral snake

The South American coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus) is found in the north of Bolivia and in Brazil in the states of Amazonas, Goias, Rio Grande do Sul, Acre and Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore in the east of Ecuador, in Colombia, in French Guyana and Guyana.

Also in Argentina. it can be found in Suriname, eastern Peru, Paraguay, Trinidad and Venezuela.

There are five subspecies of the snake.

Vermejo Coral Snake

The Vermejo Coral Snake (Micrurus pyrrhocryptus) is found in the north of Argentina (Santa Fe, Mendoza and Formosa), in the south-west of Brazil in the state of Mato Grosso, in the west and south-west of Bolivia and in Paraguay

Water coral snake

The water coral snake (Micrurus surinamensis) is also known as the surimam coral snake.

The 1.3 m long snake feeds mainly on eels that live in the local waters. The snake can be found in Brazil (Mato Grosso, Pará), Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, in the Amazon region of Colombia and in Peru.

Desert coral snake

The desert coral snake (Micrurus Tschudii) is found in the north-west of Bolivia, in the west of Peru and in the south-west of Ecuador.

General

information about lance

vipers The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).

The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies.

The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.

Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.

It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.

The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.

Bolivian lance viper

The Bolivian lance viper (Bothrops sanctaecrucis) occurs only in Bolivia and there in El Beni and Santa Cruz.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Brazilian lance

otters The Brazilian lance otters (Bothrops moojeni) are found in Argentina (Misiones), Brazil (Piaui, Parana, Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goias, Maranhao and Bahia) as well as in Bolivia and Paraguay

Brazilian lance viper

This lance viper (Bothrops brazil) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Brazilian lance

viper This Brazilian lance viper (Bothrops moojeni) is native to Brazil (Piaui, Parana, Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goias, Maranhao and Bahia).

Also in the east of Bolivia and Paraguay as well as in Argentina (Misiones)

Chaco lance

viper The Chaco lance viper (Bothrops diporus) occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Diporus lance viper

The Diporus lance viper (Bothrops diporus) is found in Argentina (La Rioja, La Pampa, Cordoba, San Luis, Mendoza, Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, Jujuy, Salta, Formosa, Chaco, Santa Fé, Corrientes and Misiones, Rio Negro).

Also in Brazil (São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul) as well as in Bolivia and Paraguay

Speckled Wood Lance Viper

The Speckled Wood Lance Viper (Bothrops taeniatus), known in English as Speckled Forest Pit Viper, occurs in Bolivia, Brazil (Amazon, Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Roraima, Maranhão, Pará and Acre), Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela before.

There are two subspecies of the snake:

- Bothrops taeniata taeniata

- Bothrops taeniata lichenosa

Common lance viper

The common lance viper (Bothrops atrox) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

Also on Trinidad, an island that belongs to the Lesser Antilles.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Green Jararaca Lance Viper

The Green Jararaca Lance Viper (Bothrops bilineatus) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela.

There are two subspecies of the snake, Bothrops bilineata bilineata

and Bothrops bilineata smaragdina

Jararacussu lance viper

The Jararacussu lance viper (Bothrops jararacussu) occurs in Argentina (Misiones), in the south of Bolivia, Paraguay and

Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia).

There are no subspecies of the snake

Jonathan`s lance otter

The Jonathan`s lance otter (Bothrops jonathani) lives in Argentina and Bolivia.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Matogrossa Lance Viper

The Matogrossa Lance Viper (Bothrops matogrossensis) occurs in Argentina (Salta), Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas, Rondonia, Goias, Tocantins, São Paulo), Paraguay and Peru.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Paul's lance viper

The Paul's lance viper (Bothrops pauloensis) occurs in Brazil in the states of Goiás, West Minas Gerais, São Paulo, South Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and in North Paraná.

Also in Bolivia and Paraguay

Peruvian wood lance viper

The Peruvian wood lance viper (Bothrops oligolepis) occurs in Bolivia and Peru.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Black-

faced lance viper The black-faced lance viper (Bothrops pauloensis) occurs in Brazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná) as well as in Bolivia and Paraguay.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

More venomous snakes

South American Bushmaster

The South American Bushmaster (Lachesis muta) is not a lance viper and occurs in the following countries:

In the north of Bolivia, in Brazil (Minas Gerais, Acre, Amapéa, amazonas, Pará, Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Alagoas, Ceará, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro), Eastern Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana,

in the northeast and east of Peru, in Suriname, as well as in Trinidad and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Tropical or shower rattlesnake

The tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) can be found in Argentina (Mendoza, La Pampa, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fe, Córdoba, La Rioja, Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones).

On the Caribbean island of Aruba, in Brazil (including in Rio Grande do Sul, Roraima, Amapá, Roraima, Goias, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro), in Guyana and French Guyana.

Also in Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela (Cojedes).

The snake is the most venomous of all valve snakes.

There are seven subspecies of the tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

Reptiles, amphibians (without venomous snakes)

Idol snake

The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.

The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.

The snake can be found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Amapá, Pará, Rondonia, Bahia, Sergipe, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Federal District, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Goiás, S Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte)

in Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia (Valle del Cauca).

Also in Mexico (Yucatan, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Quéretaro, Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco, Morelos and Hidalgo), in Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay.

The snake is also at home in Peru (Pasco), Suriname and Venezuela (Merida, Isla Margarita), as well as in Florida/USA - where it was released.

They can also be found in Trinidad, Tobago, Martinique, Aruba and Antigua.

There are six subspecies of the snake:

You can find a detailed description of the snake at Goruma here >>>

Bolivian anaconda

The Bolivian anaconda (Eunectes beniensis) - also known as the Beni anaconda - is only found in Bolivia .

The snake reaches a length of just over 3 m.

Yellow anaconda

The yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) is up to approx. 4 m in length - and weighs approx. 40 kg - somewhat smaller than the large anaconda.

The yellow anaconda can be found in the northeast of Argentina (Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fé, Corrientes), in the southeast of Bolivia, in the southwest of Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná São Paulo) as well as in Paraguay and Uruguay.

You can find a detailed description of the yellow anaconda at Goruma here >>>

Large anaconda

The large anaconda (Eunectes) can in rare cases be over 9 m long and is therefore the largest snake in the world alongside the reticulated python. Your prey is entwined and strangled or crushed by the contraction of the muscles.

It can also be life-threatening for humans. In addition to northern Bolivia, the Great Anakondo can also be found in Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Colombia, eastern Paraguay, northeast Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.

A detailed description of the local Great Anaconda can be found at Goruma here >>>

There are a total of four species of the genus.

Peni

An endangered species of lizard in the open grasslands of the plain of Bolivia is the peni.

Caimans Caimans,

which belong to the group of alligators, are also represented in Bolivia and live in the country's lakes, swamps and rivers.

The caimans (Caimaninae) are a subfamily of the family of the alligators (Alligatoridae.

Caimans occur, with the exception of the crocodile caiman, whose distribution area extends to Central America, only in South America.

Since caimans have a slower metabolism than the "real crocodiles") they are almost twice their age at 100. The local crocodile caiman reaches a maximum length of 3 m and has four subspecies.

Birds

The Andean condor will most often be seen circling over the Andes.

It belongs to the New World vulture family and lives on cliffs and mountains at heights of 3,500 m. The males reach a length of 120 cm and a wingspan of up to 320 cm.

The females, on the other hand, are smaller and lighter. One can distinguish the females from the males not only by their height but also by the color of their eyes, since their eyes are red and those of the males are gray.

The Andean condor is mostly black in color with a downy white ruff, but is naked and dark red on the neck and head. It has an excellent sense of smell, which is unusual for birds, and can reach top speeds of 55 km/h. The bird can live to be over 65 years old.

His food consists of carrion dying animals or animals killed by predators, which he then eats directly at the place of discovery.

The natural distribution of the harpy eagle is South and Central America. With a wingspan of 190-240 cm and a length of 80-100 cm, it is considered the most powerful bird of prey in the world and is now threatened with extinction. Their distinguishing feature is a broad head of feathers on the back of the head, which lies smoothly in normal condition, but struggles when excited. She hunts along the woods and along river banks. Their diet consists of large vertebrates such as monkeys, sloths, possums, coatis, snakes, and iguanas. The bird of prey got its name from a mythical creature in Greek mythology. First storm demons and later ugly giant birds with female heads were called harpies.

Another very special bird is the rhea, which belongs to the order of ratites. With a top height of 130-150 cm, a back height of approx. 100 cm and a weight of 20-25 kg, it is the largest bird in the New World.

In addition to long, strong feet, it has soft plumage and surprisingly long wings for a flightless bird about 250 cm long. Thanks to these properties, it can escape speeds of 50 km/h and quickly and unexpectedly change direction by alternating the right or left wing.

It can be found in the pampas (open, wide grasslands of South America), savannahs, but also at forest edge zones and bush-strewn regions. It feeds on grasses and herbs of all kinds, but also fruits and seeds as well as grasshoppers, frogs, lizards and smaller rodents are on the menu.

Parrots and storks will be found in the lowlands, flamingos, on the other hand, are rare and only present on the highland lakes. They form a family of their own and are common in Africa, western Asia, and southern France. The up to 130 cm tall birds are immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by their thick, downwardly curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos. The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are. The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, since one leg is hidden in the warm plumage and thus less heat loss occurs. This feat is not strenuous for the flamingos (as well as for storks).

The black and white colored Andean geese are also typical of the plateau.

The giant hummingbird is also found in Bolivia. It is about 25 cm tall - with a wingspan of 14 cm and a weight of about 20 g. The hummingbird is actually one of the smallest warm-blooded animals and not only can it stand in the air, but it is also the only bird that can fly backwards. Its low weight and the very fast flapping of the wings (approx. 80 beats/sec.) Contribute to these flying skills. Hummingbirds mainly feed on nectar to provide the energy they need for strenuous flying. What is striking is their very long beak, which is a perfect adaptation to their diet, as the nectar required is usually deep in the calyx of the flower. The giant hummingbird feeds mainly on the nectar of the agave,

Most of the birds will be found in the uppermost canopy of the forest. In addition to hummingbirds, ornamental birds, turquoise birds, toucans and macaws also live here. The red-eared macaw has become very rare. This is predominantly olive-green in color, with an orange-red shade over the beak and a red spot behind the eye.

insects

The ants that you will mostly find in the rainforest have proven to be particularly successful survivors. The most common species are the leaf cutter ants and the wanderer ants.

Cicadas and termites in the savannah are also not uncommon. Mosquitoes, flies, bees and wasps as well as numerous species of butterflies can also be found here.

Bolivia: plants

Trees

Virtually no trees grow in the highlands due to the climatic conditions. Instead, the vegetation of the lowlands is all the more species-rich. Here are rubber trees, mahogany trees and palm trees.

The image of the lowland rainforest is shaped by many different tree species, it is estimated that there are 300-500 tree species on one hectare each. One of these species is the ant tree, which belongs to the nettle family. Together with the Aztec ants, to which it offers a home in its hollow trunk, it forms a symbiosis that is useful for both partners. While the tree feeds the ants with nectar glands, these keep all pests away from it.

Cinchona trees shape the image in the mountain and cloud forests, so-called yungas, while rubber and palm trees predominate in the lower tropical zone.

Crops

Grains such as wheat, oats, barley and maize as well as potatoes and quinoa are grown in the Bolivian plateau. The latter belongs to the goosefoot family and grows up to 2 m. They are also known under the names Reismelde, Heidenkorn or Inca rice. The very robust and weather-resistant quinoa grows at an altitude of up to 4000 m and is also increasingly found in Ecuador and Peru. The plant used to be the staple food in the South American Andes and was revered as sacred by the Incas until it was displaced by European grains in the course of colonization.

Both the seeds can be used as a kind of rice and the leaves can be used as vegetables.

The Azorella, a cushion plant that also grows in this area, is used as fuel.

In the mountain rainforest region, coffee thrives, there are pineapple and lemon trees as well as bananas.

Medicinal plants

The quebracho (bitter bark), an evergreen tree up to 20 m high, has healing properties.

It is easy to recognize because it has the growth of a weeping willow. The bark is used after it has been peeled from the tree and then dried.

It is used for breathing difficulties, febrile illnesses, liver disorders and for potency weakness.

Poisonous plants

The coca bush that grows in the region around the mountain rainforest is not necessarily poisonous, but in any case not without danger. With its reddish bark and inconspicuous yellow flowers, it belongs to the redwood family. Both coca and cocaine are extracted from the leaves. Chewing coca leaves along with plant ash is very common and promotes endurance. It also decreases hunger, lifts mood, increases alertness, and suppresses pain. On the other hand, it also causes ulcers in the mouth and stomach and constricts the vessels of the oral mucosa. In medicine, cocaine is used as a pain-numbing agent. However, it has to be taken in ever larger amounts in order to develop its effect and is therefore considered to be highly addictive.

More plants

The biodiversity is not very pronounced in the highlands. Ichu grasses and dwarf shrubs, which are perfectly adapted to the climate, as well as lichens, cushion and rosette plants grow here. Puya raimondii, the largest bromeliad in the world, is an exception. It grows at an altitude of 3500-4500 m near Lake Titicaca. What is special about this plant, which belongs to the pineapple family, is not only its size of around 10 m, but also the fact that it takes 70 to 100 years to fully develop before flowering. It blooms only once in its life and then dies.

An example of a cushion plant is the yareta. It belongs to the umbellifer family and is also found in the Andes of Peru and Chile. It is rock-hard, grows very slowly (1mm per year) and forms large lumps. The Yareta is a hermaphrodite (hermaphrodite) and forms pink to lavender colored flowers.

In the eastern Andes you will find dry valleys with predominantly dry forests as well as thorn bushes and cacti. There are laurel and myrtacean forests on the eastern edge of the Andes.

The coca bush is not native, but originally comes from the Andes of Peru.

 

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