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Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe: Political System

Guadeloupe is an overseas department and therefore belongs to France and is therefore also a member of the European Union. The region and the department are responsible for the same territory, but have separate institutions: the Conseil général des Departements with its 45 members. The representative of the central government is the prefect. The country sends four representatives to the French National Assembly and two to the Senate. According to Article 73 of the French Constitution, the local characteristics of the overseas departments must be taken into account.

Guadeloupe: Political System

In Guadeloupe, the region and the département are separate local authorities that exercise their respective competences independently of one another. There is also the regional council - Conseil régional-, with 41 members, who are elected every 6 years according to the same voting rights as in metropolitan France, and the Generalrat- Conseil général- des Département with 42 members, which is elected every 3 years. The prefects represent the central government, so that the executive in Guadeloupe is divided into a total of three institutions.

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Département Guadeloupe

National anthem

The national anthem of Guadeloupe is that of France.

The national anthem of France comes from the time of the French Revolution. It was written and set to music by the composer and poet Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle (1760-1836) on the night of April 25th to 26th of the year 1792 during the declaration of war on Austria. It initially had the title "Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin", in English translation "the war song of the Rhine Army". This song was then sung on July 30, 1792 by the Republican soldiers on their march from Marseille to Paris. Since then the anthem has been called the Marseillaise. On July 14, 1795, it was declared the French national anthem. During the restoration around 1814, the hymn was even banned. It was not until the Third Republic in 1879 that it finally became the national anthem again. Stefan Zweig described the circumstances of the creation of the Marseillaise in his work "Great moments of mankind".

Allons enfants de la Patrie,

le jour de gloire est arrivé

Contre nous de la tyrannie

L'étendard sanglant est levé,

L'étendard sanglant est levé!

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes

Mugir ces féroces soldiers!

Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras

Égorger vos fils et vos compagnes.

Refrain:

Aux armes citoyens,

Formez vos bataillons.

Marchons! Marchons!

Qu'un sang impur

Abreuve nos sillons

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national flag of Guadeloupe is the French tricolor, but the country also has the following regional flag.

Guadeloupe flag and coat of arms

Personalities

Musician

Joseph Boulogne (Bologne), Chevalier de Saint-George, b. 1739 in Baillif near Basse-Terre and died June 10, 1799 in Paris, violin virtuoso, composer, conductor, fencer and rider of the guard of King Louis XVI.

His actual paternal origin and his year of birth are controversial. The fact is that his mother was a young colored slave named Manon from Senegal, who became famous for her beauty not only in Guadeloupe but also in Paris. It is believed that his father was Guillaum-Pierre Tavernier de Blollongne.

In 1748/49 Joseph and his family arrived in Paris, where his presumed father quickly made a career as a financial advisor to the court and was known as the "Treasurer of the Antilles". This also promoted the training of the 13 year old as a violinist, rider and fencer. His musical teachers were Jean-Marie Leclair and Francois-Joseph Gossec. Because of his artistic and athletic abilities, he was an adored personality at the French court in Versailles. He taught the young Marie Antoinette. In addition to his numerous duties as a violinist, conductor and rider in the National Guard, he composed a number of sonatas, songs and operas. Musically, his style can be classified in the early classical period, it was strongly based on Mozart and Haydn.

Saint-George took over the direction of the Concerts des Amateurs in Paris from his old teacher Gossecs for eight years and was able to lead the orchestra to world fame. He was also under discussion as musical director of the Paris Opera, but because of the opposition of some female singers who did not want to sing under a mulatto and the concerns of the court that there should be no white French other than Saint-George to fill the position could, he was denied this position.

Saint-George was still a member of the Masonic Lodge to the Nine Sisters and directed the orchestra of the Lodge "de la Prfaite Estime et Société Olympique". With 65-70 members it was the largest of its time. During the revolution he fought for the Lille area and led his own army with soldiers from the colonies and a lay orchestra. In the aftermath of the revolution, he was denounced and spent 11 months in prison.

In 1797 he accompanied a friend to Haiti, where Francois-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture had set up a regime of mulattos, which allowed purebred blacks and whites to be persecuted. Saint-George returned to France disappointed, where he later died impoverished.

His works include around 25 violin concertos, symphonies, string quartets, and harpsichord and violin sonatas. In 1780 the opera "L'Amant Anonyme" appeared, which was the only one of his six operas to survive.

Politicians and rulers

Victor Schoelcher (born July 22, 1804 in Paris and died December 25, 1893), politician

He is one of the most important historical figures in Guadeloupe. He actually came from an upper-class family; his father was a china manufacturer. He traveled to Mexico on business in 1830 and visited Cuba from there, where a slave revolt was taking place. Sensitized to the problems of slavery, he returned to Paris and published various articles on the subject and called for its abolition. In 1848 he became a member of the National Assembly and Senator of Martinique and Guadeloupe and initiated the decree "Le décret d'abolition de l'escalvage du 27 avril 184" 8. The decree abolishing slavery in the French colonies. In Martinique, a library in Fort de France and a parish were named after him.

Writer and poet

Saint-John Perse Alexis Léger or Alexis Saint-Léger, (born May 31, 1887 in Pointa- à-Pitre and died September 20, 1975 in France), poet, Nobel Prize laureate and diplomat

Léger, as his maiden name was Born into an upper-class family in Guadeloupe. His father owned a sugar cane and a coffee plantation.

When the first native governor came to power in 1897 and worked against the colonists, the family returned to France.

Young Alexis does not feel comfortable in France and spent most of his time in sporting activities such as hiking, fencing, horse riding and sailing.

In 1904 he started his law studies at the University of Bordeaux, he attended literary clubs, where he met Paul Cadel and Odilon Redon.

His first publication was the translation of Robinson Crusoe. After three years he discontinued his studies due to the financial difficulties of his family after the death of his father. Nevertheless, he managed to finish his studies in 1910 and in the same year he published Eloges.

In 1911 he joined the Foreign Ministry and spent the first few years traveling to Spain, Germany and England. After the First World War he became a press attaché for his government. Between 1916 and 1921 the French ambassador was at the embassy in Beijing. When he attended a conference in Washington in 1921, he attracted the attention of Aristide Briand, the French Prime Minister, who recruited him as an assistant.

Back in Paris he regularly attended the literary circles of André Gide and Paul Valéry, as well as the musical circles in which he met Igor Stravinsky, Nadia Boulanger and Les Six. In 1924 he published “Anabase” under the pseudonym Saint-John Perse.

After the death of his mentor Briand, he held important positions in the Foreign Ministry; between 1933 and 1940, despite the great instability of the government, he was its general secretary. In this office he pursued the position of appeasement tactics against Germany. Thereupon he was removed from his post, his French citizenship was revoked and he lost his considerable fortune. He then emigrated to the USA, where he took up an apprenticeship at Havard University with the help of Lilita Abreu.

He stayed in the US long after the war was over and he regained his citizenship until he was offered a villa in Provence in 1957 and from then on he divided his time between France and the United States. A year later he married Dorothy Milburn Russell, a wealthy American.

In 1960 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature. He died in Provence in 1975 and was buried in Giens.

Some of his works:

  • exile (exile); 1942

    • Poème l'Etrangère (Poem to a Foreign Lady; 1943

    • Pluies (Rains); 1943

    • Neiges (Snows); 1944

    • Vents (Winds); 1946

    • Amers (Seamarks); 1957

    • Chronique (Chronicle); 1960.

Athlete

David Sommeil (born August 10, 1974 in Pointe-á Pitre), football player.

David Sommeil plays for the Guadeloupe national team and also plays for English club Sheffield United.

Jocelyn Angloma (born August 7, 1965 in Les Abymes), football player

Angloma played in his youth in the defensive position for Ètoile Morne-à-l'Eau on his home island. Here he was discovered by the scouts of Stade Rennes, whereupon he signed a professional contract in Rennes in 1985. After three years he moved to Lille OSC, where he became a regular player.

Due to his consistently good performance, the big clubs noticed him. In 1990 he went to Paris SG and became a national player that same year. Since he was not happy in Paris, he moved to Olympique Marseille after one season. With l'OM, Jocelyne Angloma was the French winner in 1992 and the Champions League winner a year later.

In 1994 he moved to the Italian club FC Turin, where he stayed for two years and then played at Inter Milan. A year later, the defender received an offer from Valencia CF, for which he then played a total of 120 games by the end of his career in 2002.

As a national player in various junior teams, he was European champion with the U-21 selection, from 1990 he played in the French national team, for which he played 37 games and scored one goal.

When Angloma decided to play on the national team for his home island, it was possible because Guadeloupe is a member of CONCACAF but not FIFA. With the selection of Guadeloupe, he qualified for the Caribbean Nations Cup 2007, in which his country came fourth behind Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago and Haiti. In Guadeloupe he has been playing again for his hometown club Ètoile Morna-á-l'Eau since 2006.

Guadeloupe: animals

Mammals

One of the few mammals on the islands are the mongooses, which were brought to the islands long ago to fight the snakes.

However, the small predators were not only successful in the desired direction, but also dealt a severe blow to the native bird world, so the parrots were practically exterminated.

The mascot of the national park on Grande Terre is the raccoon.

Reptiles

Lizards and iguanas are found on each of the nine islands, but are mostly found on Petite Terre and The Saints.

Poisonous snakes and other snakes no longer exist on the islands. The mongooses had done a great job.

Poisonous animals

The scolopender, which belongs to the family of arthropods, can become uncomfortable for humans. This ground-dwelling, crepuscular or nocturnal centipede has a flat build and can grow up to 30 cm long and 2.5 cm thick. You can find it under stones, roots and in crevices. Its bite is not fatal, but it can be very painful and sometimes even lead to paralysis.

Also under water there are some species that urge caution, for example the black sea urchin with its hard and pointed spines and the orange-colored fire corals, which can inject a painful poison into the skin with the help of their nettle cells, which in most cases leaves clear scars. These species, which are also dangerous for divers, are particularly common on reef slopes.

Birds

Even though many bird species became extinct due to the importation of mongooses, there are still numerous species that can be admired in the rainforest as well as in the mangrove forests. While grouse are at home in the latter, black woodpeckers and black thrushes are more likely to be found in the treetops of the rainforest. Pelicans, wild ducks, herons, cattle egrets, seagulls, boobies and frigate birds live near the water.

Blackbirds, golden finches, robins and hummingbirds can be found on all islands. The latter are among the smallest warm-blooded animals and not only can they stand in mid-air, but they are the only birds that can fly backwards. Their low weight and the very fast flapping of the wings (approx. 80 beats/sec.) Contribute to these flying skills.

Hummingbirds mainly feed on nectar to provide the energy they need for strenuous flying. What is striking is their very long beak, which is a perfect adaptation to their diet, as the nectar required is usually deep in the calyx of the flower.

Insects, spiders, amphibians

Butterflies and the arachnid crabs are very common on the islands.

Mosquitos and millipedes are particular tormentors.

Flies, wasps and a number of spiders can also be found on the islands.

After dusk, the millions of frogs and toads are unmistakable.

Underwater world

The waters around the nine islands of Guadeloupe are ideal for diving or snorkeling, because there is a lot to see here. Parrot fish, officer fish and coral fish are just a few of the tropical specialties.

Baracudas, moray eels and rare species of jellyfish can be found here, as well as schools of tuna, sailfish and dolphins.

The Lamentin - a freshwater seal - was unfortunately completely destroyed. The place Lamentin was named after the animal.

Numerous species of shark also live in the surrounding waters. And if you are lucky you will see the up to 18 m long and peaceful whale shark.

Guadeloupe: plants

The flora of Goadeloupe partly differs between the individual islands and depends on the respective climate, proximity to the sea and altitude.

Trees

Along the marshy coast there are dense mangrove forests and on the beaches you will find coconut palms every few meters. In contrast, trees with twisted trunks and wild pineapples tend to grow at higher altitudes.

Dense rainforest stands on the slopes of a volcano on one of the largest islands in Guadeloupe, the Basse-Terre, up to 1000 m high. There are around 1000 different tree species, including kapok and rubber trees, as well as hardwoods such as mahogany and chestnut trees.

Crops

In addition to bananas, sugar cane, which is the traditional main crop, is one of the most important crops. The largest plantations are on the island of Grande-Terre. But also other tropical fruits like pineapples, oranges, lemons, passion and star fruits make up an important part of the economy.

Poisonous plants

The 15 m tall manzanillo tree is one of the most poisonous trees in the world. It is widespread in the Caribbean and grows mainly along the beaches, where it is also quite useful for windbreakers and sand stabilizers. It can be recognized by its grayish bark and the bright green leaves. It is particularly dangerous to stand under the tree when it rains. Its strong toxins, which are mainly contained in the milky sap of the tree, lead to the formation of blisters. It is also dangerous to get the smoke that arises when the wood is burned in the eyes, as it is very likely to lead to blindness. In the past, arrowheads were dipped into the juice to ensure greater hunting success through the poisoning.

The golden trumpet is a climber from South America with striking bright yellow and trumpet-shaped flowers. All parts of the plant, which belongs to the dog poison family, are poisonous and are particularly irritating to the mucous membranes and the skin itself.

More plants

The rainforest does not consist exclusively of trees, of course, but is enriched in its diversity by various types of fern and moss. All year round blooming plants such as bougainvilleae, orchids, philodendrons, lilies, hibiscus, poisonous gold trumpets and bird of paradise flowers are also found here in large quantities. The long stalk of the latter can grow up to 1.5 m tall, but what is more impressive is the shape and color of the petals than the size of the plant. Orange-yellow and blue petals grow out of the bract, which can often be varied in color, and are reminiscent of the head of a tropical bird.

Most of the native plants, especially the fruits, were brought to the islands a long time ago. Papaya and coconut once came from India, litchis from China, guavas and avocados from Brazil, star fruits from Indonesia, plums brought by the Polynesians and flamboyant and breadfruit trees were imported from Madagascar.

 

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